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Reconstruction proposal

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BC: This Political cartoon shows the struggle between President Andrew Johnson and Congress over Reconstruction. Johnson and Radical Republican leader Representative Thaddeus Stevens are in this. Johnson says in the caption, "Look here! One of us has got to go back," and Stevens replies, "Well, it ain't me that's going to do itou bet!" This cartoon is trying to show how they are fighting and see who will go first to fight. This cartoon represents a fight. -Alessia Lozzi

FC: Proposal for Jolessiestan | -Alessia Lozzi & Joann Lerro 11-1

1: Joelessiestan has been destroyed, from the result of the Civil War, and we need to rebuild our country. We came up with a well fit plan to be prepared and be able to rebuild our country when it falls. Radical reconstruction changed southern politics by bringing hundreds/thousands of African Americans into political process for the first time. It began to change southern society and it angered many white southerners. Based on this information, this is something we don't want to encounter with. to make peace, no one in the South needs to be angered. However, blacks were brought in to have equal rights and they had the chance to be in a political process. They wanted black voting rights to be equal. The 10% plan was a model for reinstatement of Southern states offered by Abraham Lincoln. It decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of the 1860 vote count from that state had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation. Presidental Reconstruction was Johnsons plan for reconstruction that included amnesty. He felt that the people in the office and rich caused the war so he didnt give them this plan. He made the South have a constitutional convention by issuing a proclamation. They had to reject all war debts. The 13th amendment was also ratified. | -ALessia Lozzi

2: The 13th amendment (1865) outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It basically abolished slavery in the United States. Based on this information, this is something that we want to pass and keep. Abolishing slavery will keep a better country. People wouldn't have power in owning a person anymore. The 14th Amendment basically stated that any person born in the United States were citizens of the Nation and also where they resided. The states were not alloud to change these rights. It also stated that no state could deny a person. All people need to be equal. All people in the United Stated were treated with citizenship. This was good for all people because everyone was treated equal at this time with no questions. No person was rejected to become a citizen. Its good to have all people treated equal. Everyone was granted property and this is a way to keep peace. | The 15th amendment stated that the no one should be denied to vote because of color, race, or any condition of servitude. This brought a lot of African Americans to political process. This amendment also gave equal rights and everyone had the chance to vote no matter what. This is good to keep because it gives more votes on canidates running. This happened in March 1870 | -Alessia Lozzi

3: Freedmen's Bureau, was started by President Abraham Lincoln and was meant to last for one year after the end of the Civil War. It was passed on March 3, 1865, by Congress to help former slaves through legal food and housing, oversight, education, health care, and employment contracts with private landowners. This is a good thing to keep going and will help a lot with reconstruction. We don't want anyone left behind, or being treated low. This helps out slaves who don't have anything to help them survive. Sherman’s General Field order 15 were military orders issued during the American Civil War, by General William Tecumseh Sherman, The orders were given following Sherman's March to the Sea. This is a good thing to keep people in order and to be able to give orders correctly.You can't get any important tasks done without orders. | Sharecroppers are farmers who works on a land for an owner that provides them equipment and the farmer also receives some of the crop. A tenant farmer is a farmer who works on a land thats owned by another person and they have to pay rent in cash or crops. Sharecropping is a horrible way of living because the farmers were basically getting ripped off. They had to share their crops with their landowner, and when the time came that little crops were being made, the farmer had nothing for themselves. The sharecroppers also had to cover the cost of seeds, and tools they needed, so basically they all got ripped off. That wasn't a good life style to live because they were really getting nothing in return. | -Alessia Lozzi

4: Black codes were laws passed in the South right after the Civil War. It basically limited the rights of African Americans in the South.They kept African Americans kept in a state kind of like slavery. African American children were able to get beaten, and set work hours for African Americans. This angered many Northerners. This wasn't a good way to rebuild a country. The Africans weren't getting treated equal and they didn't have the rights whites did. Scalawags were white Southerners who were republicans and supported reconstruction. Many white Southerners didn't like scalawags which is a Scottish term for weak, worthless animals. Some joined the democratic party before the war. Some scalawags owned small farms and others were business people and liked the idea of republicans plan to develop the Souths economy. Although many people disliked them, scalawags weren't a problem for reconstruction. They were just regular people with their own ways and beliefs. Carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South that supported the republican party. They were called carpet baggers because they showed up in the South with suitcases made of carpet fabric. A lot of people in the South saw these people as intruders. They tried making a living of themselves and tried helping the South. Some moved in to help teach whites and African Americans. These people were also no harm to reconstruction. They did stuff to try and help and they were also just regular people. Southerners didn't like these people, but they caused no harm. | -Alessia Lozzi

5: The Military Reconstruction Act was passes in March, 1867 by congressional republicans. This act divided the confederacy, besides Tennessee. This act also ratified the 14th amendment in 1866. All conferderate state had to hold on to a constitutional convention to create a constitution thats accepted to congress. This made the South military districts so there were more laws and orders. The new state constitutions had to be approved by the congress. The South also accepted the 14th amendment. The Klu Klux Klan started in 1866 by confederate soldiers in Tennessee. This klan spread greatly through the South. They basically wanted control of the South for the democratic party. They tried taking out the union troops and carpetbaggers. They were dressed in white robes that were hooded and they terrorized supporters of the republican party. They also terrorized African Americans by burning homes and tried keeping them from voting alone with white republicans. The African Americans and republicans tried fighting back. there was nothing good about this because people who did no harm got terrorized for their beliefs and color;. The Klanj really destroyed communities and made things fall apart. The port royal experiment was a program that slaves lived on and worked on that were abandoned by white plantation owners. Some northern charaties helped made this plan a success. This was a good thing for reconstruction. It showed how blacks could independently live and work on land on white control. They were able to grow crops and get money to buy land. In 1865, Johnson returned the land to white owners. | -Alessia Lozzi

6: The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, was an event that changed political life of the United States in a huge way during Reconstruction. This also was the first impeachment in history of a sitting United States president.The Impeachment happened over a political battle, between the Andrew Johnson and the "Radical Republican" movement that over powered Congress, for control of Reconstruction policies after the American Civil War.Johnson's main charge was with violation of the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress the year before. He was soon replaced with Ulysses S. Grant. It was bad for reconstruction because no president should get impeached because it shows that their not doing their job correctly. He had little regard for the will of the public. Ulysses S. Grant was a great hero of the American Civil War and President of the United States. He was a great military leader who was intensely modest, unassuming, and a noble man. He was a Union soldier and commander in the Civil War and served two terms as president of the United States. He was a great president after Andrew Johnson was impeached. He was a good role model and had tons of experience war related, and off the battle field. He even is on the $ 50 bill which is truly an amazing achievement during that time. Charles Sumner was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. He worked as an academic lawyer and a powerful orator. He was known for being the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and in charge of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War. In Reconstruction he worked to punish the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the Freedmen or freedmen’s Bureau. I think this was a good thing because he was equal rights to everyone. It was known to have been viewed as one of Southern exploitation and outbreak by Northern politicians and cruel federal accommodations by the Republicans. | -Joann Lerro

7: Hiram Revels was brought into the world a free black. During the Civil War, Revels helped recruit two regiments of African American troops in Maryland and served as the chaplain of a black regiment. In 1870 Revels was elected as the first African American member of the United States Senate. Some senators argued that Revels wasn’t a U.S. citizen for the nine years, which was a requirement for serving in the Senate. But because of this, it kept him off of the Senate role. Revels served as senator from Feb. 25, 1870, to March 4, 1871 and furthered his experience being president of a black college. I think he was good for reconstruction because even though he wasn’t a U.S citizen, he prepared himself to do his job a lot better. The votes for him being senator was 48 to 8 in favor of Revels which showed he was doing his job right. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed by Congress on April 9, 1866 when Andrew Johnson was president. The act stated that all people born in the United States were now citizens, without referring to race and or color. As being citizens they could make and work out contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and purchase, sell, hold, or convey real and personal property. People who didn’t like what was given were guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction was sentenced a fine not exceeding $1,000, or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or probably both. Other activities of organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan undermined the workings of this act and it failed to guarantee the civil rights of African Americans which was a bad thing for reconstruction. Everything should be fair and fully guaranteed The Panic of 1873 set off a serious world wide economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879, and some longer in other countries. This panic was known as the Great Depression until the 1930s. This was caused by the fall in control for silver internationally, which followed Germany's decision to leave the silver standard size in the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war. It was a series of an economic crises in the 19th and 20th centuries. In U.S. history, the global event is known as the Panic of 1873, but in Europe where it was caused by concerns surrounding silver is known as Long Depression. It was a bad event that took place because it hurt the British economic leadership and helped to hurt Reconstruction, along with other policies, in the United States, but the impact was felt world wide. | -Joann Lerro

9: The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was first introduced to Congress by Charles Sumner and Benjamin Butler in 1870 but did not pass law until March 1, 1875. This law stated that all persons, regardless of race, color, or previous condition, was allowed full and equal employment of accommodation in "inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement." Where in 1883, the Supreme Court stated that the act was unconstitutional and Congress did not have the power or authority to regulate the conduct and transactions of individuals and their rights. United States v. Cruikshank in 1876 was an important event where the United States Supreme Court made a decision in the United States constitutional law, which had to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the acceptance of the Fourteenth Amendment. I think this decision was very important and had a good impact on reconstruction because mostly all decisions are hard to pass and if this passed it was a good thought out rule. When this passed, this is how the fourteenth Amendment came into play. | -Joann Lerro

10: Slaughterhouse Cases were cases that were decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1873. A slaughterhouse concern in New Orleans stated the purpose of protecting people's health. Other slaughterhouses include trade being brought suit, on ground that are not allowed their property without due process of law in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The U.S. Supreme Court, decided against the slaughterhouse operators, stating that the Fourteenth Amendment had to be considered of the original purpose of its framers to promise the freedom of black slaves. A point was drawn between United States and the state citizenship, and was said that the amendment did not mean to deprive the state of legal jurisdiction over the civil rights of their citizenship. The restraint which was placed by the Louisiana legislators on the slaughterhouse operators was declared not to deprive them of their property without further order. This was a good outcome because slavery was getting taken care of and former slaves could have a fair chance at life | -Joann Lerro

11: Redemption: I think this word means a lot throughout the Civil War and Reconstruction. This word helped reconstruction because it’s a way of saving and rescuing what you really want. In other words, Fight for what you believe in and you will be heard because laws are passed based on what is right for the population at that time. This time era is filled with drastic, numbers of acts being passed whether they were fair or unequal. People were for peace and others were ready to fight if something wasn’t passed. This word symbolizes bravery, patience and courage because people are different and to redeem for what you love is what it’s all about. The Compromise of 1877 refers to an unwritten agreement that settled the situation “1876 U.S. Presidential election”, and ended Congressional or radical Reconstruction. Rutherford B. Hayes who was a Republican was awarded the White House over Democrat, Samuel J. Tilden understanding that Hayes would have to be removed by the federal troops whose support was essential for the survival of Republican state governments located in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. The compromise took effect before Hayes was elected as president, where Republican Ulysses S. Grant, sent home the soldiers in Florida. As president, Hayes sent home the rest of the troops in South Carolina and Louisiana. As the troops left, the Republican party also left where the Democrats or the “Redeemers” took control | -Joann Lerro

12: The Colfax Massacre happened on April 13, 1873 in Colfax Louisiana. A lot of violence was happening during this.A paramilitary white group was intented on securing a white rule in Louisiana. This fought with Louisiana's all-black state militia. The result was extreme death. Not many of the members of the White League died. Some 100 black men were killed in this fight. Nearly half were murdered even after they had already surrendered. This fight really showed President Ulysses S. Grant that giving the rights and the safety of blacks he wanted to give in the South was a bad idea. This is something we should not allow. | - Alessia Lozzi

13: Conclusion Our country was under reconstruction and there were a lot of failures that could of happened that we needed to prevent. A lot of things that were a success too. For example, the amendments were something we didnt want to prevent. Things like the Ku Klux Klan and the colfax massacre were things any country should prevent. They led on to other problems. Nothing will be a success unless everyone has the same rights, fights and wars are over, and groups are not terrorizing. Reconstruction takes time, but only with the rights things that turn out to be a good cause.

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  • Title: Reconstruction proposal
  • Alessia Lozzi and Joann Lerro
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  • Published: over 4 years ago

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