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Robert Brugh-AM

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FC: The French Revolution

1: The French Revolution is a period in the History of France, covering the years 1789-1799, in which the monarchy was overthrown and radical reconstructing was forced upon the Roman Catholic Church.

3: The clergy and the nobles had dominated the Estates-General throughout the Middle Ages and expected to do the same in the 1789 meeting. under the assembly's rules, each of the estates delegates met in a separate hall to vote, each estate had one vote. The king sided with the nobles and ordered the Estates-General to follow the medieval rules. The people of the Third Estate became more and more determined to gain some power. which led to a man named Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes suggesting that the Third Estate change their name to The National Assembly and to pass laws and reforms for the people of France.

5: The King of France, Louis XVI was overthrown in a popular rebellion, caused in part by the rise of a middle class no longer controllable by the old regime, by ideological changes brought about by such authors as Voltaire, the Estates General, The National Assembly, and other theorists of the Enlightenment, and most proximately by the financial disarray of the government resulting in sharply higher taxes. One of the reasons that the French Revolution happened is because of the Third Estate making a stand against the king Louis XVI. This was called The Tennis Court Oath. The Tennis Court Oath was an act made by the French people, when King Louis had told them to disperse they refused and thousands of peasants and people of the Third Estate refused to leave until a new French constitution had been written.

7: Battle of Bastille | The Bastille was a giant fortress that was used as a state prison. the Bastille was despised as a symbol of despotism, and also because of the many stories that circulated about its use for torture and other cruelties. An angry mob received news that there were fire arms at the Bastille, and decided to storm the fortress. The fall of the Bastille was an important event which not only illustrated how brutal the French Revolution was, but also came to represent the triumph of the people over despotism and oppression. This battle was a major turning point in the outlook on the Third Estate; they now had authority by taking by force and will power to want change.

9: The representatives of the French people, formed into a National Assembly, considering ignorance, forgetfulness or contempt of the rights of man to be the only causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of Governments, have resolved to set forth, in a solemn Declaration, the natural, unalienable and sacred rights of man, to the end that this Declaration, constantly present to all members of the body politic, may remind them unceasingly of their rights and their duties; to the end that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power, since they may be continually compared with the aim of every political institution, may thereby be the more respected; to the end that the demands of the citizens, founded henceforth on simple and incontestable principles, may always be directed toward the maintenance of the Constitution and the happiness of all. In consequence whereof, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

11: The new constitution established a constitutional monarchy. It reduced Louis's powers and gave authority over lawmaking and financial matters to the National Assembly. Power had passed from the hands of the monarchy to the representatives of the French people. The constitution also reformed the court system by abolishing the old parliaments which had been dominated by the nobility. It also gave government control over the Roman Catholic Church by requiring both judges and priests to be elected to office, as well as extending religious tolerance to Protestants and Jews. The National Assembly also took ownership of much of the Catholic Church's vast lands and property, which were sold off in order to pay off the nation's debts

13: The most prominent political clubs of the French Revolution were the Jacobin Clubs that sprung up throughout Paris and the provinces in August of 1789. By 1791, there were 900 Jacobin clubs in France associated with the main club in Paris. According to Spielvogel, "Members were usually the elite of their local societies, but they also included artisans and tradesmen". Jacobin clubs served as debating societies where politically minded Frenchmen aired their views and discussed current political issues. Many members of Jacobin clubs were also deputies and used the meetings to organize forces and plan tactics. The most notorious deputy connected with the Jacobin club is Robespierre. Marat was also aligned with the Jacobin club, and this association caused his death. Charlotte Corday, his murderer, targeted Marat because she thought that he represented the worst of the Jacobin movement The club supported and participated in some of the most shocking events of The Revolution. Members of Jacobin clubs were among the mob invaded the Tuileries on August, 10, 1792. They also supported the execution of Louis XVI. During the Terror, local Jacobin clubs turned the provinces into nightmares of fear and destruction as members took it upon themselves to be agents of the Terror, and sent thousands to the guillotine The clubs were also strictly anticlerical, and during the Terror some clubs wages a crusade against the church, imprisoning priests and looting churches.

15: Maximilien Robespierre, known to his contemporaries as "the Incorruptible," is one of the most controversial and perhaps misunderstood figures of the French Revolution. His name has become symbolic for that period of the Revolution known as the Reign of Terror; certainly he was a man who wielded great influence and power over the course of events of the French Republic between 1792 and 1794; yet different people in different eras had differing opinions of the man and his power. Some, especially his English and Austrian contemporaries, saw him as the Devil incarnate, while others have hailed him as the champion of liberty and the protector of democracy. Most agree that, for a time, he was the most important man in the Revolution, and it is clear that the reaction of Robespierre (July 27, 1794), which brought about his downfall and execution, also caused the end of the Terror and brought about a new course for the Revolution itself

17: Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. Born on the island of Corsica, Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution (1789-1799). After seizing political power in France in a 1799 coup d’état, he crowned himself emperor in 1804. Shrewd, ambitious and a skilled military strategist, Napoleon successfully waged war against various coalitions of European nations and expanded his empire. However, after a disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812, Napoleon abdicated the throne two years later and was exiled to the island of Elba. In 1815, he briefly returned to power in his Hundred Days campaign. After a crushing defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, he abdicated once again and was exiled to the remote island of Saint Helena, where he died at 51.

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