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SMILE Mixbook Expectation

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FC: Rocks and Minerals | Dr.Turner

1: References: | http://regentsprep.org/regents/earthsci/rockcycle.htm | http://www.mineraltown.com/infocoleccionar/How_rocks_minerals_are_formed.htm#Sedimentary | http://www.chemcases.com/silicon/sil1cone.htm | http://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/bcarter/physgeol/igrx/cool1.htm | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolomite

2: Sedimentary Rock | Sedimentary rocks are formed from loose fragments of rock, minerals, and organic materials. | Sedimentary rocks can be transformed by heat and pressure.

3: Sedimentary Rock Examples | Sandstone | Coal | Limestone

4: Metamorphic Rock | Metamorphic rocks are formed by a process which heat and pressure or chemical processes change one type of rock to another. | Metamorphic rocks can be transformed by metamorphism, melting, or by weathering and erosion.

5: Metamorphic Rock Examples | Marble | Slate | Quartzite

6: Igneous Rocks | Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and hardens. | Igneous rocks can be transformed by melting, weather and erosion, also heat and pressure.

7: Igneous Rock Examples | Pumice | Basalt | Granite

8: Silicate Minerals | Silicate minerals have fundamental structural unit of all the silicate minerals is a single silicon atom at the center of a tetrahedral array bonded to four oxygen atoms | All silicate minerals contain silicon and oxygen.

9: Silicate Mineral Examples | Topaz | Garnet | Quartz

10: Nonsilicate Minerals | Nonsilicate minerals display a vast variety of crystalline structures. Common crystalline structures: cubes, hexagonal prisms, and irregular masses. | Nonsilicate minerals do NOT contain any compounds of silicon or oxygen

11: Nonsilicate Mineral Examples | Gold | Calcite | Gypsum

12: The melt originally forms as heat energy is added to rocks, causing the atoms in the constituent minerals to break their bonds and begin to move freely. Cooling reflects the removal or dispersion of that heat away from the melt, allowing the atoms to move less freely, to gather closer together, and eventually to reform chemical bonds. | Solidification of a Melt | Normally when a material begins to solidify, multiple crystals begin to grow in the liquid and a polycrystalline (more than one crystal) solid forms. At the solidification temperature, atoms of a liquid, such as melted metal, begin to bond together at the nucleation points and start to form crystals.

13: Solidification of a Melt Examples | Sapphires | Rubies | Rutile

14: Precipitation of a Solid | Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid during a chemical reaction or by diffusion in a solid. When the reaction occurs in a liquid, the solid formed is called the precipitate, or when compacted by a centrifuge, a pellet. The liquid remaining above the solid is in either case called the supernate or supernatant. Powders derived from precipitation have also historically been known as flowers | Precipitation reactions can be used for making pigments, removing salts from water in water treatment, and in classical qualitative inorganic analysis.

15: Precipitation of a Solid Examples | Crystals | Dolomite | Copper

16: Solid State Diffusion | Solid state diffusion takes place because of the presence of defects in solids.

17: Solid State Diffusion Example | Garnets

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  • By: Sherry T.
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  • Title: SMILE Mixbook Expectation
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  • Published: almost 8 years ago