BC: Works Cited A United Multi-Ethnic Country (n.d.). A United Multi-Ethnic Country. Retrieved from http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/4/4.1.htm China – Geography. (n.d.). Windows on Asia. Retrieved from http://asia.isp.msu.edu/wbwoa/east_asia/china/geography.htm China Profile. (n.d.). OMF. Retrieved from http://www.omf.org/omf/uk/asia/china/about_china/china_profile China’s Geography. (n.d.). China’s Geography. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/~rz7/work.html Geography of China. (n.d.). Grography of China. Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Geography _of_China.html Library and Archives Canada. (n.d.). Why the Chinese Came to Canada. Retrieved from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/canadiens-chinois /021022-1100-e.html Library of Congress. (2012, November 12). Country Profile: China. Retrieved from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf Lu, Yang. (n.d.). Profile of China. Retrieved from http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/yanglu/CHINA_PROFILE.htm Wertz, Richard. (2011). The Cultural Heritage of China, Food & Drink. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/chineseculture/contents/food /p-food-c01s01.html Yang, Janey. (n.d.). Why Chinese Don’t Need Forks and Knives. Retrieved from http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/105455/cooking _recipes/why_chinese_dont_need_forks_and_knives.html
FC: FAMILY | 2013 | SMINTICH HFN 2O1
2: CHINA China is one of the world’s most populous countries with a rich culture and history. It is located in Eastern Asia with a total area of 9 596 960 km squared (Library of Congress, 2012) with a population of 1 313 973 713. The religions are composed of 49.58% non-religious, 28.5% Chinese religions, 8.38% Buddhist, 7.25% Christian, 4.29% Traditional ethnic and 2% Muslim. (China’s Profile, n.d.) There are more than a dozen major spoken dialects in the Chinese language, with Mandarin being the official language and is required to be taught in schools. (China's Profile, n.d.) The country of China is the third largest country in the world with a dramatic geographical diversity and extreme climates (Geogrphy of China, n.d.). The eastern region of China is covered in fertile lowlands and subtropical areas (Geography of China, n.d.) with monsoon climate (China – Geography, n.d.) while the western half of the country is filled with basins, plateaus and massifs with a dry and arid climate. (Geography of China, n.d.) (China – Geography, n.d.) Mountains, hills and plateaus accounts for two-thirds of China’s total land area, and 36% of its land is covered by the inland river system. (China’s Geography, n.d.) Rivers are an essential part of irrigation, agriculture and navigation and bring water and silt to the East. (China – Geography, n.d.) The area where I was from, Beijing, has four distinct seasons and a long hot summer while other major cities such as Shanghai and Hong Kong have a subtropical climate. (China – Geography, n.d.) The temperature can reach up to 52 in March. (China – Geography, n.d.)
3: There are 56 ethnic groups in China, with Han Chinese accounting for 91.96%. (Lu, n.d.) (“A United”, n.d.) It has a very diverse culinary heritage as well, originating from different regions of China (Wertz, 2011). It usually consists of two major components: a “main” meal of carbohydrate such as rice, noodles or steamed buns, and accompanying dishes of vegetables and meat (Wertz, 2011). Rice is predominant in South China, while wheat-based products including noodles and steamed buns are common in North China. Finally, soup is usually served at the end of each meal. (Wertz, 2011) Chopsticks are commonly used as eating utensils in China, but for soups and other liquids, a ceramic wide, flat-bottomed spoon is used (Wertz, 2011). Forks and knives are regarded as weapons, therefore it seems “barbaric” to use them as eating utensils (Yang, n.d.) (Wertz, 2011). Dishes such as fish are served differently compared to the west. In Chinese cuisine the fish is typically served whole, including the head and tail, so it is served as fresh as possible (Wertz, 2011). Desserts aren’t typically served separately in the end, but introduced during the meal (Wertz, 2011). Cold beverage is traditionally not served at meal-time because it is believed to be harmful to digestion of hot food (Wertz, 2011). Common dishes served in Chinese cuisine includes: fried rice, dumplings, noodles, hot pot, peking duck (the trademark dish of Beijing), steamed buns, dim sum, steamed fish and tofu dishes (Wertz, 2011). There are many different reasons why more and more people are choosing to move out of China because of reasons such as floods, wars, difficult to grow crops for food, no law and order and pollution and these push factors drive them to countries such as Canada (Library and Archives Canada, n.d.) My parents chose to move from China to Canada because of the better work opportunities, better education system and they simply wanted to go somewhere new.
4: Peking Duck Ingredients 1 (4 pound) whole duck, dressed 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon ground white pepper 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves 3 tablespoons soy sauce 1 tablespoon honey 1 orange, sliced in rounds 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley, for garnish 5 green onions 1/2 cup plum jam 1 1/2 teaspoons sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons distilled white vinegar 1/4 cup finely chopped chutney Directions Rinse the duck inside and out, and pat dry. Cut off tail and discard. In a small bowl, mix together the cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, white pepper and cloves. Sprinkle one teaspoon of the mixture into the cavity of the duck. Stir one tablespoon of the soy sauce into the remaining spice mixture and rub evenly over the entire outside of the bird. Cut one of the green onions in half and tuck inside the cavity. Cover and refrigerate the bird for at least 2 hours, or overnight. Place duck breast side up on a rack in a big enough wok or pot and steam for an hour adding a little more water, if necessary, as it evaporates. Lift duck with two large spoons, and drain juices and green onion. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Place duck breast side up in a roasting pan and prick skin all over using a fork. Roast for 30 minutes in the preheated oven. While the duck is roasting, mix together the remaining 2 tablespoons of soy sauce and honey. After 30 minutes, brush the honey mixture onto the duck and return it to the oven. Turn the heat up to 500 degrees F (260 degrees C). Roast for 5 minutes, or until the skin is richly browned. Do not allow the skin to char.
5: Food plays an essential role in my family’s holiday celebrations as well as everyday life. Our food heritage originated from China due to my great-grandparents on my mother’s side so common dishes in China such as rice, noodles, dumplings, hot pot and steamed buns are very familiar to me. My grandpa uses Indonesian spices occasionally when he cooks due to his upbringing in Indonesia, so we would have dishes such as curried beef. In our family, my grandparents are in charge of dinner because my parents are too busy and dinnertime usually consists of my sister, parents, grandparents and me.We always eat it together as a family unless one of my parents are late from work. It means a lot more than just a meal - it’s a time for us to bond and it gives me an opportunity to talk to my parents about problems at school comfortably. I think food is very important to our family not only in everyday life, but also holidays and celebrations.
6: During Chinese New Year, we would often have a big celebration with friends and family and we often makes dumplings and spring rolls by hand together. During the Mid-Autumn festival, our family would eat mooncakes and go outside to see the moon. My parents often invite guests and friends over for dinner, and my dad would show off his culinary skills. It makes guests feel comfortable because instead of focusing solely on the conversation, they can focus on the food as well. Overall food is a very important part of our daily life as well as celebrations.
7: ingredients: 1 tablespoon soy sauce 1 teaspoon rice wine (or white wine) freshly ground black pepper 1 teaspoon cornstarch 1 pound ground chicken 2 tablespoons cooking oil, divided 2 cloves garlic, finely minced 1 teaspoon grated fresh ginger 1 stalk green onion, chopped 1/2 head of small cabbage (about 8 ounces), shredded 2 carrots, thin julienne cut 2 tablespoons oyster sauce 1 tablespoon cornstarch 1/4 cup water 50 spring roll wrappers, defrosted oil, for deep frying (about 1/2 liter to 1 liter) directions: 1. In a large bowl, combine the soy sauce, wine, pepper and cornstarch. Add in the chicken and mix well. Let marinate for 10 minutes (or up to overnight in the refrigerator). 2. Heat a wok or large saute pan over high heat. When hot, swirl in just 1 tablespoon of the cooking oil. Stir fry the ground chicken until browned. Remove browned ground chicken from wok to a bowl and set aside. 3. Wipe the wok clean and turn heat to medium. When just starting to get hot, swirl in the remaining cooking oil. Add in the green onion, garlic and ginger and cook for 30 seconds. Take care not to burn these aromatics. Add in the carrots and cabbage. Stir well and turn the heat to medium-high. Stir fry the vegetables for 2 minutes, or until the carrots have softened. Add the cooked chicken back into the wok, stir well. Add in the oyster sauce and toss again. Spread the mixture out on a baking sheet to let cool. Prop up the baking sheet on one end so that any liquid collects on the other side. When the mixture is cool, discard the liquid. 4. In a small bowl, whisk together the cornstarch and water. This is your slurry. Open the egg roll wrapper package, cover with barely damp towel to prevent drying out. 5. Add 1 tablespoon of filling to egg roll (see photos for instructions) and roll up. Secure with cornstarch slurry. Keep rolled egg rolls covered with plastic wrap to prevent drying. 6. When ready to fry, heat 1 1/2" of oil in a wok or deep, heavy skillet to 350F (see tip in photos if you don't have thermometer). Carefully slide in the egg rolls, a few at a time, to the oil to fry. Turn the egg rolls occassionally to brown evenly and fry for about 3 minutes. Let cool on rack. Repeat with remaining. | This recipe means a lot to my family because every since I was very young, our family would make spring rolls together every time it's Chinese New Year or some sort of celebration. My parents and grandparents will prepare the filling first, then the whole family would gather around the table to wrap it. It was a great way for our family to spend time together.
8: Ingredients 1 pound dry ziti pasta 1 onion, chopped 1 pound lean ground beef 2 (26 ounce) jars spaghetti sauce 6 ounces provolone cheese, sliced 1 1/2 cups sour cream 6 ounces mozzarella cheese, shredded 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese Directions 1. Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Add ziti pasta, and cook until al dente, about 8 minutes; drain. 2. In a large skillet, brown onion and ground beef over medium heat. Add spaghetti sauce, and simmer 15 minutes. 3. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Butter a 9x13 inch baking dish. Layer as follows: 1/2 of the ziti, Provolone cheese, sour cream, 1/2 sauce mixture, remaining ziti, mozzarella cheese and remaining sauce mixture. Top with grated Parmesan cheese. 4. Bake for 30 minutes in the preheated oven, or until cheeses are melted. | My family loved this recipe ever since I tried making it with my mom. It quickly became a family favourite and even now, we'd make it every time a guest comes over or just for us to enjoy. My sister loves this soup especially and she is able to help out by peeling potatoes.
9: Ingredients 1 pound dry ziti pasta 1 onion, chopped 1 pound lean ground beef 2 (26 ounce) jars spaghetti sauce 6 ounces provolone cheese, sliced 1 1/2 cups sour cream 6 ounces mozzarella cheese, shredded 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese Directions 1. Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Add ziti pasta, and cook until al dente, about 8 minutes; drain. 2. In a large skillet, brown onion and ground beef over medium heat. Add spaghetti sauce, and simmer 15 minutes. 3. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Butter a 9x13 inch baking dish. Layer as follows: 1/2 of the ziti, Provolone cheese, sour cream, 1/2 sauce mixture, remaining ziti, mozzarella cheese and remaining sauce mixture. Top with grated Parmesan cheese. 4. Bake for 30 minutes in the preheated oven, or until cheeses are melted. | Before, why my mom wasn't so busy with work, we would often find recipes online to try and experiment on the weekends. Chicken cordon bleu was the first recipe that we tried, and even though the end result didn't look like the pictures our family still loved it. Even though she's too busy on the weekends to cook with me now, I still try new recipes by myself every now and then.