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Specialized Cells

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BC: Covered TEKS: Section 5. B Examine specialized cells, including roots, stems, and leaves of plants; and animal cells such as blood, muscle, and epithelium.

FC: Specialized Cells

1: Table of Contents Reproduction Circulatory Leaves Roots

2: The Sperm and Egg

3: Reproduction involves two major cells: Sperm: - A cell which utilizes a flagellum for motility - A haploid cell, or a cell with half the chromosomal information for genetic development - Carries either x(female) or y(male) chromosome Egg: - Only allows for one sperm to penetrate the vitelline membrane - A haploid cell, or a cell with half the chromosomal information for genetic development - Only carries the x(female) chromosome Following conception, or unification of the gametes(sex cells) Meiosis begins Question: When can you tell an egg has achieved diploidy level? Answer: The second the egg begins meiosis

4: Red Blood Cells

5: Purpose is to carry oxygen to the various organs throughout the body! Each RBC contains approximately 250 million hemoglobin, and for each hemoglobin there are 4 oxygen to be carried! Question: How much oxygen can a single RBC carry? Answer: 1Billion

6: The Chloroplast

7: The purpose of the chloroplast is to provide energy to the plant Structures important to this are: -Palisade mesophyll: these are stacked cells which contain bundles of chloroplasts -Chloroplast: the powerhouse cell of the plant. Found wherever the plant is green. They utilize light for ATP production -Granum: Stacks of thylakoids -Thylakoid: Disc like shapes where chlorophyll, the green pigment, is found By capturing light and undergoing respiration, the chloroplast mimics the human mitochondria by producing ATP. As the plant continues to grow, so does the quantity of chloroplasts. Question: Does chlorophyll appear as another pigment in nature? Answer: Chlorophyll always appears in green

8: Roots

9: Roots carry out multiple functions for the growing plant: -Structure support -Mineral exchange -Gaseous exchange -Water movement -Reproduction The root tip is a mucosal structure that digs down using more specialized cells known as stonelithes. These cells are essential for providing the root sensory information(where to dig). Underneath the hard tip is the apical meristem, the "heart" of the root. From there cells will begin to specialize into various forms that will ultimately ensure growth and survival for the plant. Root hairs extend out all along the root. They are the major sites of diffusion/osmosis for the plants. Question: Can a root drown during a flood? Answer: Absolutely! No air!

10: Recap: What is a specialized cell? What might be a specialized cell not discussed? Do all cells specialize in a function? What is heavier, a ton of cells or a ton of bricks?

11: References: Google Images

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  • By: Addison T.
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  • Title: Specialized Cells
  • This lesson will cover variations of specialized cells, or cells that have differentiated into cells whos anatomy and physiology demonstrate a specific function, which in turn supports the survival and growth of the organism.
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  • Published: about 6 years ago