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Stem Final Project: Chris Ryan

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S: Chris Ryan

FC: Ralph Photography STEM Expedition: Oregon

1: Table of Contents | Digital Photography- pgs. 2-27 | Geology- pgs. 28-43 | Wildlife Tracking- pgs. 44-57 | Scientific Illustration- pgs. 58-59 | Biography- pg. 60 | Works Cited- pg. 61 | Featured Photos- pgs. 2/5/8/12/24

2: Digital Photography | Oregon Night Chris Ryan Photo 2012

5: Two Tone Tree Chris Ryan Photo 2012

8: White Flower Chris Ryan Photo 2012

12: Black/White Chris Ryan Photo 2012

13: Photo Critique On Black and White This photo was taken at Crater Lake National Park in Oregon. In PhotoShop, I changed it to black and white. I think it gives the photo an older look ,and I think that looks cool. One thing that I like about the photo is the composition. Wizard Island i in the middle of the photo and I like the sky and how it is so prominent. One aspect that I don't like about the photo is that Wizard Island is really small. On the other hand it gives the photo interest on the right because it fades off into the water. Overall, I like the photo however, I would still like to improve on my skills as a photographer.

24: White Out Chris Ryan Photo 2012

26: Panoramic Photo

27: Crater Lake

28: Scientists in the Field | Eirik Moergen: Wildlife Tracker While I was in Oregon, Eirik taught me about how to track animals. He also taught me how to just listen to the wildlife and not be as loud. I also learned that a track does not only have to be a print in the dirt, but can include a piece of scat or bones or the actual animal. Eirik is currently studying to be a doctor specializing in Chinese Medicine. I learned that he is a great tracker and is devoted to teaching other people about his profession. I feel that learned a lot about tracking and just life in general, like to sometimes to slow down and take a look at the world. I thank Eirik for him teaching me.

30: Geology

31: The plate tectonics theory was developed from early observations made that the continents fit together like puzzle pieces and rock, fossil, and climate evidence matches up along coastlines of these same continents. A German scientist named Alfred Wegener first proposed the hypothesis of continental drift in 1912. Wegener’s hypothesis said that the supercontinent Pangea split apart creating sub continents around the world. Long after Wegener died, the plate tectonics theory was proven true when seafloor spreading was discovered in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. This discovery led to the plate tectonics theory. The plate tectonics theory says that the plates are made of Earth’s lithosphere. The lithosphere is a layer of the crust and uppermost mantle that the continents sit on. This layer lies on top of the asthenosphere which is a part of the upper mantle and ia weak solid that moves. | Alfred Wegener

32: The three types of plate boundaries are divergent, convergent, and transform. Along a divergent plate boundary, two tectonic plates move apart from each other. This process is occurring in the middle of the the world’s oceans, forming mid-ocean ridges. Along a convergent plate boundary, two tectonic plates come together. Sometimes the plates push upward, creating mountains. When the two plates that come together have different densities, one plate will subduct under the other plate, creating volcanoes. This process is happening where the Pacific plate and Juan de Fuca plate are separating forcing the Juan de Fuca plate under the North American plate. Transform plate boundaries occur when two tectonic plates slide past each other. This process is happening on the California coast along the San Andreas Fault. Here, the Pacific plate is moving north and west past the North American plate resulting in earthquakes. | Plate Boundaries

34: The Cascade Mountains formed along a subduction zone. Here, the two plates that are coming together are the Juan de Fuca and the the North American plate. The denser Juan de Fuca plate is subducting under the North American plate. As the Juan de Fuca dives under North America, it enters the mantle where heat and pressure are extreme Some of the mantle rock begins to melt above the subducting plate. Molten rock beneath Earth's surface is called magma. Magma is buoyant and can travel up through cracks in the crust, erupting to form volcanoes. | Cascade Mountains

35: The reason for so many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the Cascades is because the mountains are located where three tectonic plates come together. The three plates responsible for earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are the Juan de Fuca plate, the Pacific plate, and the North American plate. The Pacific and the Juan de Fuca are spreading apart forcing the Juan de Fuca plate to subduct under the North American plate to form volcanoes, like Mt. Saint Helens in Washington and Mount Mazama (now Crater Lake) in Oregon. The movement of tectonic plates also creates friction that results in earthquakes. The Cascade Mountains are located in the Ring of Fire. | Earthquakes/ Volcanoes

36: Mt. Saint Helens (1980) and Mt. Mazama (7,700 years ago) had similar eruption styles despite occurring at different times in history. There is one huge difference though in that the eruption of Mt. Mazama was 420 times larger than Mt. Saint Helens. Also, the eruption of Mt. Mazama emptied out the magma chamber, which caused the top of the volcano to collapse in on itself, forming a caldera which is 5 by 6 miles across. A caldera is a large volcanic depression. Neither Mt. Saint Helens, nor Mount Mazama produced lava flows. Both erupted mostly ash and pyroclastic flows. Mt. Mazama created Wizard Island which was a cinder cone. Both Mt. Mazama and Mt. Saint Helens are classified as stratovolcanoes and they are both still considered potentially active. | Mt. Saint Helens/ Mt. Mazama

37: Mt. Mazama | Mt. Saint Helens

38: The eruption of Mt. Mazama happened 7,700 years ago. At the time, Mt. Mazama was 12,000 feet tall. It initially erupted an ash column and eventually created pyroclastic flows that traveled down all sides of the volcano. The volcano erupted so much volcanic material that the magma chamber emptied out under it. After the eruption, the Earth weakened and the top of the volcano collapsed. About 2,700 years after the eruption and collapse, a small cinder cone volcano erupted, which is now called Wizard Island. The volcano produced small lava formations and other landslide deposits below the lake level today. After the eruption and collapse of Mt. Mazama, rain and the snow melt started to enter the caldera forming Crater lake. The current depth of the lake is 1,949 ft. Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the US ,and the 9th deepest in the world. | After the Eruption

40: Geology Photos

44: Animal Tracking | Inaturalist http://www.inaturalist.org/observations/christopher2

45: I learned about radio tracking from wildlife biologist Dave Clayton. Dave is currently tracking fishers (a mammal in the weasel family) in Ashland Oregon. Dave is tracking fishers to determine their home range. He has discovered that they are living in areas they typically are not found. To track, Dave puts a radio collar on the fishers and locates their position on a GPS map. Through this technique he is able to determine where the home ranges are for the males and females. To get the radio collar on the fishers, Dave catches them in a cage and tranquilizes them. There were a couple of fishers that kept getting caught because of the bait, which was chicken. One fisher in particular named Chloe was caught 27 times and she even taught her kittens to do the same. The biggest thing that I learned from this kind of tracking is that you don't always have to be out in the field actually tracking footprints, you can use technology to help you find the actual animal and study their habitat, diet, and behaviors.

46: Oregon Tracking | This Shows how to correctly document a track in the field.

47: -Chris Ryan -June 18, 2012 -Soda Mountain Wilderness -Dirt road with tire tracks all over it -This was a small animal because of the size of the print. the print had 3 toes with a large pad.

48: -Chris Ryan -June 17, 2012 -Crater Lake Pumice Desert -This was a big fly -It had brown wings and a black body. | -It was siting on a large piece of rock in the desert I took a close and quick photo of the fly.

49: -Joe Kruezman -June 18, 2012 -Soda Mountain Wilderness -This was a carnivores scat because of the fur covering the bones inside the bones | -The fur protects the animals intestines so they don't get destroyed by the bones.

50: -Chris Ryan -June 18, 2012 - Soda Mountain Wilderness -This was a large trail that looked like it was traveled by two animals -There were two different sized compressions in the grass -After doing some further research I discovered it was a female brown bear and her cub.

51: -Chris Ryan -June 20, 2012 -Soda Mountain Wilderness -We got out of the bus and this track was in the middle of the road. -I looked at and knew it was an elk or deer from the size of the print.

52: -Chris Ryan -June 20, 2012 -Soda Mountain Wilderness -I sketched this track and it was one of many on a trail -I think that this track is a deer or an elk. It was very deep and looked like it had been there for awhile

53: Ohio Tracking | -Chris Ryan -June 25, 2012 -New Albany Duck Avery -This was a small bird and has 3 toes -It was not there too long because of the wetness of the mud. | -While we were there I saw 2 killdeer and I am thinking it might be one of the killdeer that made this track.

54: -Chris Ryan -June 25, 2012 -New Albany Duck Avery -I saw these two birds and I told Mrs. Willmore and she said they were Killdeer | -This was a male and a female -The female was sitting on a nest (foreground).

55: -Chris Ryan -June 25, 2012 -New Albany Duck Avery -There were 4 eggs that had black spots all over them. | -The nest was made of small sicks and rocks. -We scared both of the Killdeer away to get this picture and one of the birds responded with the broken wing trick

56: -Chris Ryan -June 25, 2012 - New Albany Duck Avery -This is the front and hind prints of a raccoon -The front paw is very visible but the back paw is not that visible

57: -Sandy Willmore -June 25, 2012 -Swickard Woods -This as a kill site for a deer that was killed by another animal. | -There were many bones laying there like the spine, ribs and hip bones. -They were very clean so I am thinking that it has been there for a while

58: Scientific Illustration | Renie Brady is a published professor and scientific illustrator. She taught me many things about drawing in the field. These two drawings from my field notebook are examples of the drawings that we did in the field. The one on the left was a piece of grass that we drew in the field in the Soda Mountain Wilderness. The drawing on the right was of the fossil fumaroles near Crater Lake. I really liked learning from Renie because she explained how illustrations can be used to make scientific observations.

60: Biography | CHRIS RYAN "RALPH"

61: My name is Chris Ryan and I am a junior at New Albany High School. I run varsity cross country and track. Before STEM I had 2 years of high school science and only 1 year of digital photography. While we were in Oregon I learned about tracking, geology, and digital photography. Something that I learned about tracking is that a track does not only have to be a print, it can be scat, the animal itself, or bones. Something that I learned about geology is that when Mt. Mazama erupted it set out tons of ash and that settled into a giant desert of pumice and ash deposits. Throughout the whole trip I improved on my digital photography skills by focusing on composition and macro photography. In the future I hope to go on the STEM Expedition trip to South Africa. I plan to do digital photography for my senior seminar project. I am hoping to build a robot to take pictures of animals up close. I hope to continue my skills as a photographer and also become a pilot in the Air Force.

62: Works Cited | http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_IWFzAAP8sQ/TYF9621TvGI/AAAAAAAAGCQ/pzMSL3QiipQ/s1600/Ring%2Bof%2BFire%2Band%2BVolcanoes.png | http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs092-02/images/rockwood.jpg | http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/MSH80_st_helens_eruption_plume_07-22-80.jpg/220px-MSH80_st_helens_eruption_plume_07-22-80.jpg | http://seecing.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/fisher2.jpg?w=590

63: Thank You To: | Mrs. Shea Mrs. Willmore Mr. Moore Mr. Hood Mr. Samanich Mr. Kruezman Mr. Moergen Mr. Letsche | Renie Brady Dave Clayton Henri Sanville Mike Kessler

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