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The Daily Papyrus

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FC: The Daily Papyrus | Luc Mitchell | Xavier High School Copyright 2011 | Osman Mat | Oliver Moe | Jack Mccarthy

1: 'Rosetta Stone' By: Oliver Moe As the troublesome death of the Pharaoh Ptolemy IV plagues all of Egypt, a new Pharaoh emerged to take his place. He is Ptolemy IV’s five year old son, Ptolemy V. Despite being a five year old, the high priests all believe he will rule successfully, along with the temporary help of his mother Arsinoe III, and his father’s two lead advisors, Sosibius and Agathocles. Ptolemy V’s mother Arisnoe III is taking charge of being Ptolemy V’s lead advisor so far. She believes it is only right for the Queen of Egypt to be of the utmost assistance and guidance for her young new Pharaoh. When asked about this however, Sosibius and Agathocles acted rather strangely, saying that the most power in this situation should belong to the pervious Pharaoh’s most trusted advisors. They then dismissed any other questions or comments relating to the matter.

2: Either way, for all Egyptians, this should be a time of rejoice, joy, and celebration celebrating the new human God Ptolemy V. There are festivities all over Egypt going on, and the Pharaoh encourages you to take part in some of them! All these festivities are to be inscribed upon a regular sized stone. The stone is currently being created in the city of Rosetta, and the Pharaoh gathered Egypt’s best scribes to translate the places of the celebrations in Egyptian, Greek, and Demotic. This is so our neighboring empires can know of the great new Pharaoh, and come to learn our plans for the celebrations. Once this stone list of the celebrations is finished, we will happily rejoice the arrival of our new Pharaoh. A great new era in Egypt awaits us, let us come forth to celebrate Ptolemy V!

3: Amazing Find in Egypt by Oliver Moe A few days ago, near an Egyptian town called Rosetta, a discovery was made by Napoleon Bonaparte’s army that could reveal all of the secrets of the Ancient Egyptian Empire! They named it the Rosetta Stone, and on it was a carved ‘thank you note’ to their Pharaoh at the time Ptolemy V in hieroglyphics. However, there were two other forms of writing on the same stone, Demotics (another form of Egyptian writing), and most importantly, Greek. Because there is Greek writing on the stone as well, Napoleon ordered experts to examine the well-known Greek, and compare it to the Egyptian hieroglyphics that were also inscribed on the stone. Comparing the two should hopefully allow us French to decipher what the symbols mean in hieroglyphics. If successful, we could apply what we inferred from the Rosetta Stone to all other examples of hieroglyphics that were ever found! This means that there is a great possibility that we are on the edge of actually deciphering

4: hieroglyphics The actual discovery of the Rosetta Stone is known to be a result of French Army soldiers working on a fort located near Rosetta. They found it, and recognizing its possible importance, immediately shipped it to Alexandria. Napoleon Bonaparte was apparently very fascinated with this discovery, and invited a group of men led by Jean-Francois Champollion to decipher the language. Who knows what this fascinating discovery can lead us to. With it, we may possibly be able to uncover the unknown portion of Egyptian culture.

5: Temples and Pyramids of Egypt By Osman Mat Temples in Egypt were a big part of Egyptian religion. Egyptian Gods and Goddesses had their own. Large temples were made of stone so they would last a very long time almost forever. The walls of temples were carved with pictures that were painted with bright colors. The bright pictures showed the pharaoh performing rituals and fighting in battle with the gods. Two big temples during the New Kingdom are the Luxor and the Karnak temples. The Luxor temple is located along the Nile in the middle of t. A long religious festival called Opet was celebrated there and was only celebrated when the Nile would flood. This was one of the most respected and well known temples and one of the most outstanding features are the 14 pillars that are 52 feet high and carved to look like the buds of papyrus plants. he town of Luxor. The temple was started by the Pharaoh Amenhotep III and he built it for Amun the king of Gods. The temple became what the city of Thebes would develop around.

6: A long religious festival called Opet was celebrated there and was only celebrated when the Nile would flood. This was one of the most respected and well known temples and one of the most outstanding features are the 14 pillars that are 52 feet high and carved to look like the buds of papyrus plants. Now the temple has a 79-foot pylon and an obelisk in the entrance of the temple. There used to be two obelisks but the French took the second and placed it in the Place de la Concorde in Paris.

7: Pyramids were a big part of Egyptian culture they were built as tombs for the God kings, the pharaohs. Many pyramids were built during ancient Egypt but we know approximately 80 of them today. The three largest pyramids are in Giza which is a town near the city of Cairo. These three pyramids were built during the fourth dynasty and the most well known one was the one known as The Great Pyramid. This pyramid made for Khufu the pharaoh of Egypt during the fourth dynasty. The great Pyramid was the largest land structure in the world until the Eiffel tower was built in 1889. The other two Pyramids at Giza were made for the Pharaoh's Khafre and Menkaure.

8: Some people wonder how they were able to build such magnificent structures because it does not seem plausible with the technology they had during that time. They may not have had the technology but pharaohs used slaves and people who could not pay their taxes had to use the Nile’s floods to get the blocks of stone placed where they wanted. Abu Simbel was another great temple in Ancient Egypt. A matter of fact it was concidered "one of the most magnificent Nubian Temples." Abu Simbel is located in Aswan and is dedicated to four Egyptian Gods. It was under King Ramses II that the temple of Abu Simbel was able to be highly recognized. In the temple there are carvings on the walls of King Ramses praying to himself as if he were a God.This was part of Ramses II plan so he could be seen as a God in his own life time. He had contributed so much to this temple that it was also called "The House of Ramses, beloved of Amun"

9: The temple of Dendera was a temple that was added onto for many years by different dynasty's. It started in the fourth dynasty when the shrine was being rebuild by king Khufu for the Egyptian Goddess Hathor and her son Ihy. During the sixth dynasty king Pepy added a golden statue of Ihy to the temple. As years went on things were added and rebuilt. the temple is filled with art, in the main hall there are carvings of mythological stories, on the ceiling there there are signs relating to astronomy and astrology.The temple was filled with magnificent artifacts that represent Hathor and her son Ihy but they were not the only ones praised in the temple.There were other buildings within the temple and one of them had a shrine for the Goddess Isis. This temple was a place of healing and art and some of that art still stands there today.

10: Breaking News ! Amenhotep IV: Monotheistic? By: Jack McCarthy | Amenhotep’s peaceful reign has come to an end as of now, because he had recently started the Monotheistic rule based on Aton. Recently he had changed his name to Akhenaton IV to honor this god. People now are protesting at the temples of Giza because of the new religious laws. He started this movement when he fought off the power of the Amon priesthood. Citizens also found it suspicious when Amenhotep changed his name. | The protesting is effecting everyone in the land, including craftsmen, farmers, and even some merchants. The craftsmen are disagreeing with the change because many of their sales relate to different gods. Usually craftsmen art or sculptures are relevant to a specific god, symbolizing how powerful he or she is.

11: Farmers are upset because they necessarily don’t want to praise or pray to Aton. The farmers feel like they should be aloud to pray to anyone they desire because they feel like they are important to this economy. Even though they are not the wealthiest class, all the grain that are paid in taxes go to the Pharaoh, which lead to the people of Egypt. The merchants are upset because they sell both the Farmers and the craftsmen’s goods. If the farmers and craftsmen are revolting, that will mean there business is not as good as it should be doing. If farmers and craftsmen are not doing business, the merchants are not doing business. The loss of business led to the merchants harsh feelings towards Ahmenhotep IV. Also, Ahmenhotep IV is forcing people to destroy statues of other gods around the city. Many people are unhappy with the protests because they feel like they will not pass into the next life, if the are disrespecting images and icons of the gods they worship. Not only do the people have to destroy the

12: statues, they are being forced to build a temple right outside the temple of Amun at Karnak. This is leading to the collapse to other religions because they get into conflict with one another, and end up fighting, or get over ruled by the Pharaoh if things in this land keep going the way they are, at this rate Egypt will fall apart before we know it.

13: Egyptian Calendar System By: Jack McCarthy | The Egyptians used both an agricultural calendar that was based off the stars, and used a mathematically designed calendar, neither of which were in sync. Since the two calendars were inaccurate, the main problem that emerged were unexpected floods. Since problems were faced, the Egyptians decided it was time that they made one accurate calendar, and devices used to keep track of time during the day. These devices were called sundials, and obelisks.

14: A sundial is a stick inserted into the ground, and the shadows that come from the stick point to what time it would be on a clock. The time wasn’t always completely accurate because the length of the stick and the position of the sticks shadow could cause the time to be wrong. Obelisks are similar to sundials, but they are large structures in the shape of a needle. Time could be told by looking at the shadow of the obelisk. | Eventually after many years, the Egyptians realized that there is a large gap between the two calendars. Thus, they attempted to rectify the situation with developing a second lunar calendar.

15: Although each calendar had an agreement with the seasons, the Egyptians began to follow three calendars, one agricultural and two lunar. The third and lastly developed calendar was more civil in terms of religious celebrations and duties. The civil year of the third calendar was divided into three seasons. For a better way of development of the calendar, a suggestion would be with the use of sundials or obelisks, base the calendar off the cycles of the moon. From sunrise to sunrise would be one complete day, and one whole cycle of the moon will be one month. After 12 months, 1 year would have been concluded.

16: Akhenaton Obituary Akhenaton / Amenhotep IV passed away as of 1336 B.C.E., and was believed to rule from 1352-1336. He only ruled for a short time of 16 years. The citizens of Ancient Egypt were unhappy with his reign. Akhenaton forced all the people of Egypt to follow his monotheistic religion, Aten. In addition he changed the religious capital from Thebes to Amarna. The people did not so much follow this religion as much as his own royal family. After his death Akhenaton’s name was scratched out of temples and other written records. The citizens of Egypt had not enjoyed the reign of Akhenaton because he forced them to change everything, which he solely believed. Fortunately for the people when his son, Tutankhamen, took over he changed the religion back, and everything was back to how it used to be.

17: Akhenaton's Mummy There is great speculation about where Akhenaton was buried. There is an unmarked tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. The remains in the tomb have been CT scanned and it is believed that KV55 is his tomb. The skeleton in KV55 is believed to be Akhenaton, but it is completely un-intact. Another theory is that he was put in his mother’s coffin instead because his name is written on the side many times. His body was never found, so we still don’t know how he was mummified.

18: Average Mummification The average person was embalmed and mummified. To embalm someone the Egyptians washed his body with palm wine, and rinse it with water from the Nile. Then one of the embalmers would make a cut on the left side of the body to remove the internal organs, they removed them because they were the first part of the body to decompose. They do not take the heart however, because it is an essential part to surviving the afterlife. After the organs are removed they use a long hook to pull the brain out of the nose. Next the body is stuffed and covered with Natron, which dries it out. All the rags are kept and buried with the body. Forty days later the body is washed again, and covered with oils to keep the skin elastic. The dehydrated internal organs are returned to the body wrapped in linen. The body is also stuffed with dry materials to make it look life-like. Finally the body is painted and is finally ready to be wrapped in linen and put in the ground. The organs were only returned to the body in the later years, before they were kept in jars and buried next to the body representing the safety of the organs. | By Luc Mitchell

19: Works Cited "Akhenaton's Mummy." Ancient Egypt - Guardian's Egypt - Explore Ancient Egypt from the Comfort of Your Own Computer! Travel Tours To Egypt. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. . "Mummification Story." Introduction. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. . "PBS - Secrets of the Pharaohs: Timeline of the Pharaohs." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. . 'The Rosetta Stone Is Discovered by Napoleonic Soldiers.' Gale World History in Context. Science and it's Times. 2001. Xavier High School Library. Thursday, November 3, 2011. http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=true&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2643450409&mode=view 'Rosetta Stone' Ancient Egypt.co.uk - Tuesday, November 8, 2011.http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/writing/rosetta.html

20: http://www.2facts.com/article/xro072600a?DBType=WND'Rosetta Stone.' Encyclopedia. www.2facts.com Wednesday, November 9, 2011. 'Ptolemy' - Encyclopaedia Judaica , 2007. 2007. Xavier High School Library. Friday, November 9, 2011 http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2587516168&mode=view 'Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180 B.C. Ptolemaic Dynasty' touregypt.net Friday, November 9, 2011. http://www.touregypt.net/32dyn05.htm Smith, Mahlon H. 'Ptolemy V Epiphanes [210 - 180 BCE]' Virtualreligion.net Friday, November 9, 2011 http://virtualreligion.net/iho/ptolemy_5.html

21: "Pyramids." Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students. Ed. John Middleton. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. 196-197. Gale World History In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. "The columned court of the temple of Luxor. ©." Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. Ed. Edward I. Bleiberg, et al. Vol. 1: Ancient Egypt 2675-332 B.C.E. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Gale World History In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. "The Pyramids at Giza in Egypt are one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Photograph by." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 1: The Ancient World. Detroit: UXL, 2004. Gale World History In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. "Luxor." The Ancient Near East: An Encyclopedia for Students. Ed. Ronald Wallenfels and Jack M. Sasson. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2000. 63. Gale World History In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

22: Clark, Liesl and Tyson, Peter. "Explore Ancient Egypt." Nova. n.p. , 23 June 2011. Web. 5 Nov. 2011. | Ancient Egypt Calandar/pictures http://www.fi.edu/time/Journey/Sundials/aboutsd.htm http://www.webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-ancient.html#anchor-egyptian | Ahmenaton/Ahmenhotep revolts http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=xeg018150a&term=Amenhotep+IV#xeg018100a_8 Snape, Steven. "Grandeur at Abu Simbel." Calliope. n.pag. n.p

23: "Dendera (Denderah; Dendara; Iunet; Tantere; Tentyris)." Ancient Egypt. Patricia D. Netzley. Ed. Michael Berger. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. 101-102. The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of. Gale World History In Context. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

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