BC: Resources: Bain, Brian. "The NLRB: The Wagner Act of 1935." http://www.stfrancis.edu. N.p.. Web. 12 Feb 2013.
FC: The Great Depression | By: Sarah Cook and Daphne Bradshaw
1: Table of Contents | Politics -Election of 1932 -The New Deal Economics -Unemployment -Bank Failures Labor -Social Security Act -Fair Labor Act -Wagner Act Farming -Farming in the 1920's -Dust Bowl Minorities -African Americans -Women
2: Basic History | In the Great Depression the American dream had become a nightmare. What was once the land of opportunity was now the land of desperation. What was once the land of hope and optimism had become the land of despair.The American people were questioning all the maxims on which they had based their lives - democracy, capitalism, individualism. The best hope for a better life was California. Many Dust Bowl farmers packed their families into cars, tied their few possessions on the back, and sought work in the agricultural fields or cities of the West - their role as independent land owners gone forever. Between 1929 and 1932 the income of the average American family was reduced by 40%, from $2,300 to $1,500. Instead of advancement, survival became the keyword. Institutions, attitudes, lifestyles changed in this decade but democracy prevailed. Democracies such as Germany and Italy fell to dictatorships, but the United States and its constitution survived.
3: Time line: | -1929: Stock market crashed, Black Tuesday -1930: Severe drought and Dust Bowl conditions began to ruin farmers’ land, a condition that lasted until 1935 -1931: Food riots broke out, workers marched on Detroit, and “foreign workers” were deported -1931: Food riots broke out, workers marched on Detroit, and “foreign workers” were deported -1936: FDR was elected to a second term as president -1940: FDR was elected to a third term as president -1941: Preparations for World War II stimulated the American economy and effectively brought an end to the Great Depression | -1930: Severe drought and Dust Bowl conditions began to ruin farmers’ land, a condition that lasted until 1935 -1938: FDR asked Congress for an additional $3.75 billion to stimulate the still floundering economy
6: The New Deal | Election of 1932 | The United States presidential election of 1932 took place as the effects of the 1929 Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression were being felt intensely across the country. President Herbert Hoover's popularity was falling as voters felt he was unable to reverse the economic collapse, or deal with prohibition. Franklin D. Roosevelt used what he called Hoover's failure to deal with these problems as a platform for his own election, promising reform in his policy called the New Deal. Roosevelt won by a landslide, and this "critical election" marked the collapse of the Fourth Party System or Progressive Era. The voters soon were realigned into the Fifth Party System, dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition. | The New Deal was a series of economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
7: Politics | Red - Against FDR Blue - For FDR
8: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself" | President FDR
10: Unemployment | Bank Failures | Unemployment during the Great Depression worsened with the non-availability of alternate job sources and a total dependency on primary sector industries, which were also hit by associated prices. People turned to farming and mining as sources of livelihood, alongside the Wall Street crash. The Great Depression did end at different times, across the globe, but the unemployment ratio skyrocketed into figures that the world would not forget in a hurry for generations to come. | As the economic depression deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in town, banks began to fail at alarming rates. During the 20s, there was an average of 70 banks failing each year nationally. After the crash during the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed – 10 times as many. In all, 9,000 banks failed during the decade of the 30s. It's estimated that 4,000 banks failed during the one year of 1933 alone. By 1933, depositors saw $140 billion disappear through bank failures. | Trigger Factors: 1. Complete collapse of the stock market, worldwide 2. Drought conditions that ravaged agricultural regions worldwide 3. Low credit availability that added to debt by borrowing 4. Deflation in prices of consumer goods made worse by a drop in wages
12: Do something. If it works, do more of it. If it doesn't, do something else FDR
13: "We must be aware of the small groups of selfish men who would clip the wings of Americans in order the feather their own nests" | President FDR
14: Social Security Act | Fair Labor Standards Act | An act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate provision for aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children, maternal and child welfare, public health, and the administration of their unemployment compensation laws. This was the first national unemployment system the was government financed. | The Wagner Act makes it illegal for employers and labor unions to interfere with these rights and establishes the NLRB to hear cases involving unfair labor practices (Anderson, 1979). "The National Labor Relations Board is an independent agency created by the Wagner Act of 1935 to oversee the laws, investigate and hold hearings on unfair labor practice complaints, take action against employers found guilty of unfair labor practices, and to determine the make-up of individual employee bargaining units, as well as to oversee union certifications" | FLSA set minimum wage, overtime pay, equal pay, record keeping and child labor standards. The provisions originally applied to private sector employees only, but now generally apply to public sector as well. | Wagner Act
15: Labor | Wagner Act
17: If I went to work in a factory the first thing I'd do is join a union FDR
18: Dust Bowl | Farming in the 1930s | The Dust Bowl is one of the most devastating events to affect the United States. It was a period where severe dust storms kept hitting the same area, causing immense agricultural and ecological damage over that period. The Dust Bowl began in 1930 and went until 1936 (although it lasted until 1940 in some of the areas more affected by the drought). It resulted directly from human abuse of the land in the American and Canadian prairie lands. For years, farmers had been heavily using the land for farming without rotating crops. Instead they used fallow fields and cover crops along with many other techniques designed to turn out the maximum profit, but ended up damaging the land severely. When the drought hit, these lands dried up so badly that it turned to dust, blowing eastward in huge clouds. | Farming in the 1930s on the Great Plains was perhaps the most difficult occupation in the world. Farmers not only faced a global economic slow down of historic proportions, but they also faced one of the worst and longest droughts in America's history. People around the world had no money to buy the crops and animals that farmers produced, and the droughts made it almost impossible to plant and harvest the crops in the first place. As a result, many farmers lost their farms. Many moved west out of the Great Plains of the United States, looking for any kind of work they could find. Many became migrant farm laborers on the West Coast.
22: The main source of suffering for a woman during the times of the Great Depression would have to come from managing stressful emotions from an entire household of frustrated individuals. She would have to work long hours just to make sure her family got by. Sometimes women even worked outside the home to help make ends meet which made for persecution because some people thought that women were taking jobs away from men. Women had long hours away from and at home. They had to keep an upbeat attitude despite their circumstances so that it wouldn't affect their whole family, especially their children. Women also a lot of times had to keep things up while the men in their family went looking for work. This was a long arduous process back then when there would be lines a few blocks long just for a couple of jobs. The Great Depression was hard on everyone but families a lot of times moved in with each other and banded together to help things run more smoothly. Women depended on other women to help take care of their children and trade things they had grown in their gardens. Women also had the fun task of mending and making clothing for their growing children, other adults and themselves. Their children had to help out with a lot of work and learn to do more at an earlier age compared to children of recent generations. Women's roles changed a lot during that time and helped advance their equality in society. | African Americans suffered more than whites, since their jobs were often taken away from them and given to whites. In 1930, 50 percent of blacks were unemployed. However, Eleanor Roosevelt championed black rights, and New Deal programs prohibited discrimination. Discrimination continued in the South, however, as a result a large number of black voters switched from the Republican to the Democrat party during the Depression. | Women | African Americans
25: No democracy can long survive which does not accept as fundamental to its very existence the recognition of the rights of minorities. FDR