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The Horus Headlines

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FC: The Horus Headlines | VOL. CLXII . . No. 55,952 2012 The Horus Headlines Cairo, Sunday, November 13, 2012 $5.00 | By: Zachary Cilmi, Matthew Baker, Aidan Farrel, John Velez Published by: Xavier High School Copyright: 2012

1: Sunday Styles | “ Rosetta Stone” The Rosetta Stone was written during the years 203-180 B.C.E. because the Egyptian people needed to know how to speak the different languages spoken in Egypt. In Ancient Egypt, the main language written was Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics. Ptolemy V was a pharaoh who spoke and wrote Greek along with all of his ancestors. Since the pharaoh spoke Greek, the people of the land of Egypt needed to learn how to speak Greek. So the Rosetta Stone began to be written. The languages on the Rosetta Stone were Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Greek, and Demotic. For the people who wrote Hieroglyphics, they translated the passage that was written in Hieroglyphics to the one that was written in Greek. The same thing goes for the people who spoke and wrote Demotic, they would also have to learn how to read and write in Greek. Everything revolved around the Pharaoh so his people needed to learn the language that he spoke. The Rosetta Stone was eventually found by a French solider and eventually sold thought all of Europe. A man named Jean Francois Champollion got a copy. Jean Francois wanted to translate it, so he tried to decipher the code. He eventually found the code and translated the entire Rosetta Stone. The passage written on the Rosetta Stone was actually a thank you note written by a group of priests to Ptolemy V. | Jean Francois Champollion (left) Rosetta Stone (right)

2: Travel | On your next trip to Egypt try to venture from the Hotel or the beach and see some of the local attractions. One of the biggest attractions are the great pyramids. These monuments have been around for thousands of years and are constantly luring in tourists to see them. The biggest and most fascinating of all the pyramids in my opinion is the great pyramid of Giza. There are 3 pyramids of Giza and the great pyramid is the biggest. The great pyramid at Giza is about 40 stories high and each of its four sides span the length of about two and a half football fields. (Wow!). This pyramid was the largest structure on earth until the Eiffel Tower was built in the year 1889. This is it shown to the left. Some other attractions are the temples at Karnak and Luxor, the Temple of Bau Simbel, and the Temple of Dendera.

3: One might wonder as to why the pyramids were built. The answer to this is they were built as a burial ground. These pyramids served as a burial place for the pharaohs of Egypt. The pharaoh was worshipped as a god-king which means that people look up to him and praise him. This is primarily the reason for these super structures. The method that the Egyptians used to build these monstrosities is to roll them blocks on logs onto the Nile River and have it flow to where they wanted it. Pretty advanced process for and ancient civilization!

4: Maps: Ancient Egypt | Rosetta | Karnak

5: RAMSES II DEAD AT 93 -- RULED FOR 66 YEARS 1213 BCE -- Ramses II (also known as Ramses the Great) died at the age of 93. Ramses II was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. He was a great King who came from a military family. He ascended the throne at age 15 and his heroism and military skills were immediately tested in a battle with the Hittites. King Ramses “won the battle single handed” (pbs.org) and his deeds are celebrated on temple walls across Egypt. Not only was Ramses II a great warrior, he was a leader who negotiated peace with Egypt’s enemies and reigned in peaceful times. Ramses was a prolific builder who built temples and monuments all over Egypt. Perhaps his most famous is the Ramesseum which has “at its heart the House of Life, a massive library which contained some 10,000 papyrus scrolls” (pbs.org) telling of his great accomplishments. Another significant building is the “Temple of Abu Simel inaugurated in 1256 BCE [which] has four sixty foot scuoptures carved directly out of a rock mountainside in Nubia.” (ehistory) Ramses II will be entombed in the tomb he had built for himself in the Valley of the Kings. The tomb is a “sprawling set of at least 67 chambers” which has space “for many of his 52 sons.” (Bower) Ramses was a devoted father who had over 100 children. | Obituary: Ramses II

6: Op-Ed Why would rulers keep ruining the lives of those who are the bottom of the social structure? They are getting killed day by day because of one ruler. These rulers, better known as pharaohs, could do whatever they want; issue laws, collect grain, and train an army. They are basically considered God, so people would revere him until they lose faith. They are also supposed to keep peace, yet peace will be the last thing that would be improving. While the pharaoh might argue and put harsh demands to the merchants, farmers, and craftsmen from him and his ruling family, these people shouldn’t be getting this treatment because they already face so many hardships, which is mostly why they are revolting. The farmers, mostly considered peasants in the social structure pyramid, were full of hardships. For instance, they would not get the right amount of portions to eat and they barely had clothing to cover themselves with. One historian included that they were “only a notch above nudity and starvation.” Imagine 80% of Egypt’s population were peasants. In addition, since they were also farmers, they had to deal with the harsh climates. They would usually work when it was hot, hard work was done under a relentless sun in very high temperatures. What made it worse was the fact that it barely rained, so everything was dry, unless it was the time when the Nile was supposed to flood. Mainly the peasant or farmer is the pharaoh’s tool. They plant crops and harvest, and then the pharaoh comes and takes all the grain and distributes to everyone in Egypt. The peasants were even used for war and were led by noble men during the Old Kingdom. They are protesting for their rights. So they can live a better life, have more food. The crafts men also protested because of the pharaohs and they had their own reason to do so. For instance, they protested because they can never get recognition for their work. They couldn’t sing their own work at all making every work anonymous. In addition, they had no rarely had a permanent place to work near the village where they lived. They were often forced in tiring and long journeys. Their works also were never sold publicly, because they worked only for nobles or government officials. Merchants complained, however all of them didn’t revolt against the pharaoh. The reason that this happened was because the fact of being a merchant had a lot of risks. For instance, merchants had to deal with shipwrecks, pirates, or the cargo going bad. In addition, they also had to work hard labor to get the things they want to procure and bring back. They have to leave their families and maybe travel to other countries. It was also hard for them to sell or trade at least one thing. Yet, most merchants are fond of have this occupation because they make a lot of money from this. | Editorials

7: Bibliography Page | Part 1: "Egypt." Ancient Civilizations Reference Library. Ed. Judson Knight and Stacy A. McConnell. Vol. 1: Almanac Volume 1: Egypt-India. Detroit: UXL, 2000. 1-48. Gale World History In Context. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. Part 2: Source is from Class Notes and Past Homeworks. Part 3: "NOVA | Explore Ancient Egypt." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 June 2011. . Part 4:

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