BC: Sources: "The MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustrations" The MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustrations. n.d., n.p. Web. 14 February 2012. http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/mackinney&CISOPTR=3580&CISOBOX=1&REC=20 "Health and Medicine in Medieval England" Chris Trueman. 2000 - 2012. historylearningsite.co.uk. Web. 12 February 2012, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/health_and_medicine_in_medieval_.htm "The drawings of Leonardo da Vinci" reuteler. 2009-11-2. n.p. Web. 13 February 2012. http://www.drawingsofleonardo.org/ "UCLA Library | Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library History and Special Collections" UCLA Library. January 12, 2012. n.p. Web. 22 February 2012. http://www.library.ucla.edu/specialcollections/biomedicallibrary/12193.cfm "Steel and brass bullet extractor, Europe, 1500-1600" sciencemuseum. n.p., n.d. Web. 27 February 2012. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=11155 "The cow-pock - or - the wonderful effects of the new inoculation" Library of Congress. n.p., n.d. Web. 27 February 2012. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/94509853/ "Details - Public Health Image Library (PHIL) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. n.p. March 18, 2005. Web. 27 February 2012. http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp?pid=3265 "Louis Pasteur Comic" Exploratorium. n.p., n.d. Web. 27 February 2012. http://store.exploratorium.edu/browse.cfm/louis-pasteur-and-pasteurization/4,3536.html "Larynx Cancer" Wikipedia Commons. 26 December 2006. Web. 27 February 2012. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Larynx_cancer_01.jpg "Model 3831 cardiac pacemaker, England, 1970-1976" sciencemuseum. n.p., n.d. Web. February 28 2012. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=92832 "Stem Cells and A.J. Atchison" The Washington Post. April 12, 2011. Web. 28 February 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/stem-cells-and-t-j-atchison/2011/04/15/AFoSkRjD_gallery.html#photo=1
FC: Tom MacDonald ART-1030 Instructor: Amee Patel The Human Body | Mission Statement: To show the progress of human medicine, for all of its beauty and imperfections, through the various mediums of art throughout history - and to educate those who view them. | Leonardo da Vinci. "The Principal Organs and Vascular and Urino-Genital Systems of a Woman" (c. 1507) Pen and ink.
1: London, British Library, Add. 17987, folio 100r. "Woman holds staff; physician bleeds her in left arm into a bowl; a second bowl of blood on a tray rests in her lap " (c. 1446) | In regards to medieval times, most medicine was strongly rooted in rituals and superstition. Astrology and bleeding were especially popular, the latter being prescribed for symptoms ranging from fever to - ironically - hemorraging (Bleeding), overwhelmingly with results harmful to the patient. Bloodletting fluctuated in popularity for centuries, but continued even through the 20th century. Shown is a common form of bloodletting at the time - the woman is squeezing a pole in order to dilate the veins. The emphasis, or the focus of the viewer's attention, is done by featuring directional lines towards the blood being drawn. This is representational art, or art that presents natural objects in recognizable, though not realistic, form.
2: Leonardo da Vinci "Proportion of the Human Figure (after Vitruvius)" (c.1485 - 1490) Pen and Ink. | Some artists were forced to study human anatomy as a part of their apprenticeship - including Leonardo da Vinci. Artists of his time were allowed to dissect human bodies, and as a result, da Vinci had a great number of drawings using a fluid medium (Wet material used to draw, usually ink) on human anatomy. However, because his work was never published, his work didn't have a direct effect upon medicine. Shown here is a popular figure denoting anatomical position - an excellent example of bilateral symmetry, or of everything in a composition to either side of an actual or imaginary line being the same.
3: Unknown "Brass and Steel Bullet Extractor" (c. 1500 - 1600) Steel and Brass (Credited to the Science Museum, London) Brass and steel. | While many advancements were made in the Renaissance, medicine was slow to catch up - however, there were many tools created to serve the needs of the time. This included the bullet extractor, which was designed to enter deep wounds, screw into the soft lead of a bullet, and pull it free. This, however functional it was at the time, could be considered art; the smooth texture (the surface character of the material) paired with its almost organic shape (Shapes that have a natural appearance) bring about a design or composition (The act of organizing the visual elements to affect a desired aesthetic in a work of art) that emphasizes an ease of retrieval without causing more damage to a patient.
4: James Gillray "The Cow Pock - or the Wonderful Effects of the New Inoculation!" (1756 - 1815) Print, color. | When initially proposing to use the less dangerous cowpox virus to protect against smallpox, there were vehement protesters of inoculation despite how similar methods were used for over a thousand years in the East. Shown is a print from a British satirist. A focal point (Specific part of the work that seize and hold the viewer's attention) is Dr. Jenner applying an inoculation to a frightened young woman. The rhythm (the regular repetition of sensory impressions) is the exaggerated effect of the inoculation: cows erupting from the bodies of the inoculated, and the golden calf above them.
5: CDC/James Hicks "Child with Smallpox, Bangladesh" (1975) Photo. | Thankfully, the protesters found it hard to argue with results. Smallpox was a deadly virus that had a 30 - 35% mortality rate and left survivors with horrific scarring; inoculation with the smallpox vaccine left a mortality rate of .1%, and inoculation using the cowpox vaccine had almost no mortality rate. Since then, vaccination has been used worldwide to prevent viral diseases and, as a result, smallpox had been eradicated worldwide by 1980 (With the exception of inside laboratories and countries that have considered it for bio-weapons research). This photo is an example of art and social consciousness, or how artists take on struggles against the injustices of their time and use art as a method of persuasion; in this case, the photo shows the dangers of the virus, and the dangers of choosing not to be immune to smallpox. Even today, there is protest against vaccination due to a possibly criminal study that implicates its potential for causing autism (Which has since been disproven).
6: British College of Health "Schism in the Medical Profession" (c.1800 - 1850) Print. | Medical advancement went forward quickly in the 1800's; bacteria were discovered to be the cause of many diseases rather than spontaneously appearing, leading to advancement in sanitation techniques. However, even during this time there was conflict between medicine based upon careful experimentation (Allopathy) and alternative medicines - in the case of this picture, homeopathy.
7: Keith Wilson, Rodney Ramos, Charles Barnet III "Louis Pasteur and Pasteurization" (2007) Print, Color. | Along with an understanding of germ theory came methods of controlling bacteria - in the case of Louis Pasteur, the process of pasteurization discovered in 1862 controlled the growth of bacteria in milk and wine, which greatly reduced the mortality rates of tuberculosis and salmonella from milk - especially in younger children. This magazine cover - made a century and a half later - is representational art (Art that presents natural objects in recognizable, though not realistic, form) that shows the scientist developing the method.
8: Devices Limited Implant Division "Model 3831 Cardiac Pacemaker" (1970 - 1976) Plastic, titanium, copper wiring and 4 lithium batteries. | As technology advanced, so did our understanding of the human body. Displayed is an invention that had its roots 1899, but did not receive serious scrutiny until the 1950's. The artificial cardiac pacemaker (Or simply 'pacemaker' for short) was made to send electrical impulses that made the heart beat when one's own natural, nerve-based pacemaker was weakened or failing entirely. The material that a pacemaker is made from is inert within the body, which means there is no chance of rejection. Modern day pacemakers last over five years, and the patient is mostly free to live a normal life. As alien as this device looks, it and its predecessors have saved and maintained the health of countless people.
9: Pawel Kuzinar "Larynx Cancer" (2006) Color photograph. | Despite advances in modern medicine, there are still some illnesses that cannot be cured without drastic measures taken - in regards to cancer, when damaged cells mutate and grow out of control, the only ways of treating a patient is through chemotherapy, radiation, surgical removal, or a mixture of two or all three methods. This photograph's local color (hue of an object as created by the colors its surface reflects under normal lighting conditions) is bright red and grisly, showing how grisly cancer treatment can be. Larynx cancer is often caused by frequent, long-term smoking and alcohol use.
10: David Bundy "Stem cells and T.J. Atchison" (2011) Color photograph | As far as the advancement of medicine, the future remains unclear; in this photograph T.J., a 21-year-old man who is paralyzed from the waist-down by a 2010 car crash, uses a physical therapy machine to stand. He's been treated with embryonic stem cells, in the hope that they will repair his damaged spinal cord. Note how the shirt and the machine have low value contrast (Degrees of difference between shades of gray). Given time and a deeper understanding of the medicine, one day we hope to give T.J. and the many others like him the chance to walk again.