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The Reconstruction of the Civil War

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FC: The Reconstruction of the Civil War by: Alexa Cappello Janis Wilson-Bey

1: Terpakistan I highly suggest that your country takes a hard look at the Reconstruction of the U.S. after their civil war. There were three plans that were suggested The first plan was from Lincoln, it was called the 10% plan. This plan stated that the 10 percent of the 1860 voters that lived in the Southern states had voted would take an oath of loyalty then they would rejoin the Union. | The Plans

2: The second plan that was proposed was by the radical republicans. This plan was called the Radical Reconstruction Plan. The Radicals believed that the Confederates should be punished. They also believed that all former slaves should have the same rights as free whites. The radicals thought that Lincoln was being too lenient. They came up with three of their own goal. Their first goal was revenge, some of the radicals wanted to punish the Southerners. | The Radical Reconstruction Plan

3: Their second was that some of the radicals believed that the federal government had a role to play in the transition of freedmen from slavery to freedom. Their last goal was that they, meaning the radicals wanted to keep the Republican Party in power in both the North and the South.

4: The President Reconstruction | Presidential Reconstruction- Both Johnson and Lincoln were for the lenient plan. Lincoln felt no anger and hatred for no one in the South instead Both him and Johnson provided for a generous amnesty to allow Southerners to retain their property and reacquire their political rights. Johnson also supported the 13th Amendment that abolished slavery but didn’t want to support Black suffrage believing this was an issue for states.

5: The 10% Plan | Another plan that was considered in this reconstruction was the 10% plan. The 10% plan (Lincoln’s Plan for reconstruction) said that once ten percent of a southern state's, 1860 voters, had taken an oath of loyalty, the state could rejoin the Union.

6: The Three Main Amendment of Reconstruction | Terpakistan,take a look at the the three main amendments of reconstruction which are, the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. I think they could help your country with your reconstruction. | The 13th Amendment | This amendment was ratified on December 6th, 1865. This amendment abolished and keeps slavery out of America. This also prohibits invoulintary servitude.

7: The 14th Amendment | The 14th amendment however was ratified on July 9th, 1868, three years later than the 13th amendment. This amendment had four parts to it. The first part guarantees equal treatment for all citizens. The second part says if a people are denied the right to vote, then the number of representatives in the House of Representatives will also be reduced. The third part says that if a person engaged in rebellion, then he could not serve in congress. But this no longer applies. The fourth and final part denies federal payment for the costs of the Confederate rebellion. This doesn't apply today either.

8: The 15th Amendment | The 15th amendment was ratified on February 3rd, 1870, it guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race.

9: The Port Royal Experiment | Terpakistan, Take a look at the Port Royal Experiment. This was when former slaves could work on the land of abandoned plantations. The Union liberated the sea islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbor, Port Royal, in 1861. After this happened the whit residents fled leaving behind 10,000 black slaves. Several Northern charity organization stepped in to help the former slaves be sufficient which in the end could have been a model of what reconstruction was.

10: The Military Plan | This Plan was ratified in March of 1867. This abolished all of Johnsons previous programs . This plan divided the former Confederacy, which excludes the state of Tennessee. This plan ratified the 14th amendment into 5 military districts.

11: Ku Klux Klan | Be aware of secret societies that will rebelle against almost everything your country will do. For instance the U.S. has the KKK. Thee KKK were what you could describe as a quiet militia. They chastised any and all republicans they could get to. This society spread quickly through the South with the ambition to get the Union troops out of the south. The members of this society wanted the Democarttic party to take control of the South and they would try to get their way violently. Their behavior infuriated President Grant.

12: Hiram Revels | Hiram Revels was the First African-American to ever serve in the US Senate as well as the U.S. congress. He represented Mississippi in 1870 and 1871 during the Reconstruction.

13: Civil Rights Act of 1866 | This act granted citizenship to everyone born in the U.S. except for Native Americans. This act also allowed African Americans to own property. It stated that all African Americans should also be treated equally in court. If this act was violated you could be punished by the federal government.

14: Panic of 1873 | Teprkistan be cautious of your economy or you could have a "Panic of 1873" as th U.S. The Panic of 1873 was caused by a severe economic crisis. One being a major one was a series of bad railroad investments. The actual panic, known as the wide spread fear of the people for the financial part of the community. The panic advised the scores of smaller banks to close and stock markets ultimately suffered. The economy was spiraling down at this time and it hurt the republicans politically. | Redemption | Terpakistan there are ups and down in the reconstruction procssess. For instance, the U.S. had a "redemption". This was a time when democrats were able to win back the support of white farm owners who had in the pass, supported the Republicans. This was done by appealing to white racism and labeling the elections as a struggle between whites and African American democrats

15: The Colfax Massacre | An example of a down in the reconstruction would be the "Colfax Massacre". This happened onApril 13, 1873, The White League, a paramilitary group intent on securing white rule in Louisiana, clashed with Louisiana's almost all-black state militia. Only three members of the White League died. But some 100 black men were killed in the encounter. Of those, nearly half were murdered in cold blood after they had already surrendered. The incident once again showed President Ulysses S. Grant how hard it would be to guarantee the rights and the safety of blacks in the South.

16: Compromise of 1877 | Be prepared to make some compromises for instance, The "Compromise of 1877". The compromise said that Southern Democrats would acknowledge Hayes as President, but only on the understanding that Republicans would meet certain demands. Their were four points o know about this compromise. The first being, the removal of all federal troops from the former Confederate States. Troops remained in only Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process. The second was that the appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes's cabinet. David M. Key of Tennessee became Postmaster General. The third part was that the construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South. The fourth and the last said that Legislation had to help industrialize the South.

18: Black Codes | Terpakstan, the US passed different types of laws such as the Black Codes. The Black Codes were laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers. The black codes varied from state to state, they all seemed intended to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery. African Americans were suppose to enter into annual labor contracts. Alexa Cappello

20: Freedom Bureau | The Bureau was given the task of feeding and clothing war refuges in the South, using army supplies. September 1865, Bureau issued nearly 30,000 rations day for the next year. This helped prevent mass starvation in the South. The Bureau helped formed slaved people find work on plantations. It comprised labor contracts with planters, and the amount of pay workers got and the number of hours they worked till. Alexa Cappello

22: The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson | The house of representatives voted to impeach Johnson meaning they charged him with high crimes and misdemeanors in office. The main charge was that he broke laws by refusing to uphold the Tenure four commanders in the southern military, who supported the Republicans. Alexa Cappello

24: Civil Rights Act of 1875 | The civil rights act was introduced to Congress by Charles Sumner in 1870 but did not become law until March 1, 1875. It said that all people, regardless of race, color, was able to have equal rights. In 1833, Supreme Court declared the act. Congress did not have the power to regulate the conduct and transactions of individuals. It was an act to end discrimination that eventually passed. The law was over turned by Supreme Court. Alexa Cappello

26: Carpetbaggers | Name given to many northerners who moved to the south after the Civil War and supported the Republicans. Southerns made fun of people particularly in the Democratic Party because some people arrived with suitcases made out of carpet fabric. Some carpetbaggers didn’t take the advantage of war-torn region. Alexa Cappello

28: Shermans General Feild 15 | On January 16, 1865, William Tecumseh Sherman had military orders issued during the American Civil War. They provided 400,000 acres of land. They freed slave families and other blacks living in this area. The orders were followed by Sherman’s March to the Sea. Special Feild number 15 is a federal property strip of coastal land extending 30 miles inland from Atlantic and stretching from Charleston, South Carolina 245 miles south to Jacksonville Florida. Alexa Cappello

30: Ulysses S. Grant | Grant was born April 27, 1822. Grant was a U.S. general and commander of the Union armies during the late years of the American Civil War, and was the 18th president of United States. During Reconstruction, Grant pursued the Ku Klux Klan in South Carolina and effectively disabled the organization until the 1920s, but racism still abounded in the South. With the conviction that business supported the national interest, he signed legislation that protected entrenched business interests. This set the stage for more monopoly, public unrest over the accumulation of wealth, and increased corruption. Grant was unanimously renominated in 1872 and won reelection, but more scandal plagued his close associates, such as his Secretary of War, William W. Belknap, and his private secretary, Orville E. Babcock, who were both involved in graft schemes. He left office in disgrace and struggled to complete his memoirs while dying of cancer, so that his family would have some means of support after his death. Grant finished his two volume work, one of the finest presidential memoirs ever, four days before he died. Alexa Cappello

32: This was very important to theUnited States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment. Alexa Cappello | US v. Cruikshank (1876)

34: Scalawags | Name given to Southerners who believe in Radical Reconstruction of the South. Alexa Cappello

36: Share Cropping v. Tenant Farming | Sharecropping is a system of living in which a tenant is allowed to live and farm on the land as long as the owner has a share of the crop. Tenant farming is when somebody who lives on land owned by a landlord. When growing cotton, sharecropping was more efficient and made the most money and resented the gang labor idea that related to slavery. Alexa Cappello

38: Charles Sumner | Charles Sumner was born January 6, 1811. He was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. Charles Sumner is the leader of Radical Republicans. Alexa Cappello

40: The Slaughterhouse Cases

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