S: The Reformation by Mindy Arrieta
FC: THE REFORMATION
1: CAUSES OF THE REFORMATION | There was a constant struggle with royal or prince authority in the medieval cities. It was likely that the more often the people who felt pushed by the authority were more likely to be an ally to the Protestant movement. The peasants were especially involved in the Reformation, and because they had constantly been deprived of their traditional liberties by their landlords, they became more likely to sought out reform. The "exile" of the medieval church in Avignon, the Great Schism, the Conciliar period, and the Renaissance papacy all contributed to the cause of the Reformation. The church had been controlling every aspect of the population and limited them to what was found to be "moral" by the church. With the Renaissance and humanism, the people began to realize what was morally just and deemed Christian. Since people were educated, they were able to read the bible and find out for themselves that the church had been using the bible against them in a way that benefited the church. There had been attempts to reform before, but they'd been obliterated by the Inquisition. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus were martyrs that spoke out against the papacy. Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses attacking the indulgences, and the church excommunicated Luther and created The Diet of Worms.
2: Created by Martin Luther, Lutheranism emerged in Germany following the posting of the 95 Theses. Those who supported and followed Luther's teachings broke off of the Catholic Church and became Lutherans. The Lutherans believed in salvation by faith alone through Christ. | LUTHERANISM
3: Created by John Calvin, Calvinism emerged in western Europe and was considered most conservative of the Protestant religions. Calvinists believed in divine predestination and the responsibility of an individual to reform society according to God's plan.The Calvinists also wanted to change society so that men and woman lived their lives as if they believed internally and were going to love for eternity. | CALVINISM
4: In England, English reformers had met in Cambridge to talk about Lutheran writings that were brought into England. William Tyndale had translated the New Testament into English, and it began to circulate around the country. Henry VIII and Sir Thomas More guided royal opposition to the near-existing English Reformation. More attacked Martin Luther after he attacked Henry's defense of the seven sacraments. Henry VIII had been married to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of SPain, but was unhappy with their marriage. Catherine constantly had miscarriages and was unable to leave Henry with what he desired: a male heir. He did have Mary Tudor who survived into adulthood, but he did not want the consequences of a female heir. Henry decided that he would leave Catherine for one of her ladies-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn. The only way in the Catholic church to do | this was to annul the marriage. The pope would not annul the marriage, so Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell, advisers of the king, decided to make the king the head of the Church in England. Through this, Henry's marriage to Catherin was invalidated and Parliament ended all payments to the English clergy and laity to Rome, giving Henry the power (also seen through the Act of Supremacy). in 1536, Anne Boleyn was executed for treason and adultery, and her daughter Elizabeth I was declared illegitimate by her father like Mary Tudor had been. | ENGLAND
5: Rulers had been working to make basic reforms, and they made Lutheran preachers allies. The teachings weren't slogans anymore, but became laws that the people had to follow. German Protestant rulers began to see the opportunities presented to them, and pushed the Protestant faith and politics onto neighboring countries. | GERMANY | The Reformation began in Germany when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of Castle Church attacking the celling of indulgences. The 95 Theses were then collected by Nuremberg humanists, who translated them and then circulated them. It made Luther an even more prominent figure. Luther then started writing the famous pamphlets known as the Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and Freedom of a Christian that summarized the teachings of salvation through faith alone. When Luther was in hiding, he began to translate the New Testament into German using Desiderius Erasmus's new Greek text and Latin translation.
6: In Switzerland, there was a growth of national sentiment that was followed by opposition to foreign mercenaries; there was also a desire for church reform that had been building up since the councils of Constance and Basel. Ulrich Zwingli led the Swiss Reformation. Zwingli credited Erasmus for leading him to reform. Zwingli became the Zurich priest and began to reform whatever lacked literal support in the Scripture. If it did not have any support, then it was not to be believed or practiced. | Protestantism spread to France through Besancon Hugues, the lead of Geneva's political revolt. French Protestants, known as Huguenots, derived from Hugues. In 1520, when Lutheran writings and doctrines began to go around Paris, the Huguenots were already being watched. | SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE
7: The Reformation spread to Italy in the 1520's, but did not last very long. It didn't have any lasting effects like it had in Switzerland or Germany, other than strengthening the Roman Catholic Church. Later in 1532, the Waldenshians converted to Calvinist theology. | In Spain, there was religious reform and Protestant groups who were executed for Lutheranism, but a true Protestant Reformation never occurred because of the overruling power of the church and the Inquisition. The Spanish literature stayed relatively medieval. Although, there was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra who wrote the Don Quixote, expressing old-fashioned idealism. | ITALY AND SPAIN
8: ANABAPTISTS The Anabaptists were a radical group that are the 16th century ancestors of the Amish. THey were distinguished by their rejection of infant baptism and their idea that only adults should be baptized, like Jesus. They said that only a thoughtful adult would be able to understand the Scriptures and what th life that followed the bible required could enter the covenant of faith. ANTITRINITARIANS Antritinitarians were a group of radial Protestants who believed in commonsense, ration, and ethical religion. One of the most prominent, Michael Servetus, was executed for "blasphemies against the Holy Trinity." The Antitrinitarians were Calvinists in that they believed in original sin and predestination. They had a reputation as defenders of religious toleration.
9: Leaders such as Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin saw themselves and their followers to define civic responsibilities and obligations. The result of the Protestant reformation is the political conservatism that had made these men and their ideals to be considered as "magisterial reformers." The goal of the reformation was to reform the laws and institutions. After the reformation, the rich still got more rich and the poor became more poor. The numbers of clergy fell by 2/3 and religious holidays, that would make up 1/3 of the year, shrank by 1/3; churches also shrunk by 1/3. Indulgences were no longer sold, and local shrines were shut down. Copies of Luther's New Testament were accessible and encouraged for meditation. | CONSEQUENCES
10: CONSEQUENCES CONTINUED | * Women praised in her own right as mother and housewife * High value placed on marriage and family life * Divorce (women had equal right with men to divorce and remarry) * Both Protestant and Catholics required parental consent and public vows in church before a marriage is legitimate
11: CATHOLIC REFORMATION | Many new religious orders had begun to appear in the sixteenth century to conduct a revival of piety within the church. The first order was the Theatines, to groom the reform-minded leaders at the highest parts of the church hierarchy. The Capuchins tried to return to the original ideas of Saint Francis. The Somaschi and Barnabites worked to heal the moral, spiritual, and physical damage that was brought upon the people of Italy. The Ursulines created concents in Italy and France for the religious education of girls that came from any social class. The Jesuits and the idea of the Spiritual Exercises won back some Protestants to the Catholics. The Council of Trent tried to reform the church through internal church discipline. This lead to a better trained clergy.
12: In France, the Huguenots (French Calvinists) were being carefully watched and cracked down upon. The government drove John Calvin and others of the French reform party into exile. In the Edict FOntainebleau, French protestants were subjected to the Inquisition. The Habsburg-Valois wars had ended, but French began to have internal conflict when the European balance of power shifted to Spain. WHen Henry II was killed and his sick son died after a year on the throne, three families (the Protestant Bourbons, south and west; the Protestant Montmorency-Chatillons, center of France; and the Catholic Guises, eastern France) tried to control France. | THE RELIGIOUS WARS
13: In England, Edward VI had died and placed Lady Jane Grey in Catholic Mary Tudor's place. Uprisings led Jane Grey out of the throne, and allowed Mary I in her place. Mary married Phillip II of Spain to symbolize Catholicism and English Protestants. Mary repealed Protestant statues of Edward and went back to Catholic practice. She begun to execute Protestant leaders for heresy. Elizabeth I ruled after Mary, and the Catholics wanted to replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. Elizabeth executed Mary, and the Catholics were aware that the reconversion of Protestant England without bloodshed was impossible. The Spanish Armada tried to attack the English, but the ENglish had one. The defeat of the Armada gave Protestants hope.
14: The Thirty Years' War was the last war of religion. The conflict between Catholics against Protestants and Calvinists and Lutherans had been ongoing. The war was most devastating because each side was willing to sacrifice everything for their religious beliefs. The war was caused by the Peace of Augsburg. Catholics and Lutherans were recognized was religions, but the Calvinists still had to demand recognition for their rights. The direct cause of the war was the Hapsburg-ruled kingdom of Bohemia and their revolt. The war had four periods: the Bohemian, the Danish, The Swedish, and the Swedish-French. The result of the longest religious war was the Treaty of Westphalia that gave the ruler of the region the power to determine its religion, and gave the Calvinist their legal recognition.
15: Works Cited | Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print. "Library." Lutheran Origins, Lutheran History, Lutheran Beliefs. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Sept. 2012.