FC: The Egyptian Herald Written By: | Copyright Xavier HS 2012 | Jack Palillo, Anthony Gonzalez, Paul Aguilera, and Austin Cottam
1: ROSETTA STONE The Pharaoh Ptolemy V is the Macedonian King of Egypt. He was 5 years old when he became king. He is the son of Ptolemy IV. He was being conspired against. His mother was assisnated by his own court officials and he was bound to be next. Henceforth he killed his mother's killers out of fear. When his father had died, he left behind a war on his hands. So Ptolemy V, had to lead Egypt during war, Ptolemy managed to fix up an alliance with Greece; saving Egypt from peril. | THE FINDING OF THE ROSETTA STONE On this day, a group of French soldiers were on an expedition. The soldiers, proud of their discovery, were eager to show France what they had found. However they were far from home. So they used the stone as a printing block and sent the prints to France. Once there, professors began examining it. They had found three different languages on it. They were Greek, Demotic, and Egyptian Hieroglyphics. No one knew what hieroglyphics meant. But scientists learned that the Demotic and Greek stories said the same exact story. So they used the Greek text as a base for decoding the Hieroglyphics. Later, it was in 1822 that Jean-Francois Champollion deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Which allowed us to understand Egyptian records and get a better sense of their history. | So people began deciphering numerous amounts of different Egyptian artifacts. Such as different stone tablets and more importantly the murals in the pyramids. Hence, Egyptology became a major study during this time period. We were able to decipher the texts that survived from the Library of Alexandria.
2: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramids!! The Egyptian Pyramids are some off the oldest and tallest structures in ancient history. Some famous and huge pyramids that still stand today are; Giza, Temple of Karnak, Luxor, the Temple of Abu Simbel, and the Temple of Dendera. The largest and one of the oldest pyramids is Giza. This pyramid was build as a tomb for the fourth dynasty Pharaoh Khufu. One of the main methods for building this amazing structure was by moving tremendous stones from a quarry and placing them on top of each other. The next structure which is the Temple of Karnak is the largest ancient religious site in the world. It was built during the New Kingdom time period. Instead of stacking stones this temple was built with large tall stones that were shaped and carved in with hieroglyphics. The Temple of Luxor has a different story to it. Originally this building was constructed during the Roman time period and served as a base for its people and command. The interesting part about this temple is that it has many carvings and stones stacked. The old and new building is coming back to make a building. The two temples that stand out from all the others are the Temples of Abu and Simbel. These two temples are special because of how they were built. Unlike normal temples that are stacked stones these two temples were made out of mountain sides. this takes skill and hard work to complete which the Egyptians had. The last temple is Dendera. This temple is very large and is the best preserved.
3: The history of this temple is that it was the start of history and shrines of Egypt. The Pharaoh Pepi I built the temple on his site. This temple has the most complexed interior of all the other temples. Being that is is the largest and best looking makes it very important to keep it in that condition. Resources: 1)http://ancientegypt.co.uk/pyramids/home.html 2)http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort (Library data base) 3)http://www.historylink101.net/egypt_1/pic_temples_1.htm
4: Thutmose III Mummification Thutmose the III ruled from (1504 B.C- 1450 B.C). Thutmose the III died on the 54th year of his rule and his successor would be his son Amenhotep II. Thutmose the III was buried in tomb 34 in the Valley of the Kings. During this time and in the future it was very common for tomb robbers to steal things in these tombs. 500 years after his death tomb robbers broke into the stone sarcophagus or stone coffin and in the process of looting and stealing all the precious gems they broke his body in three. About 200 years after this priests transferred his body to a 12 meter deep shaft in one of the caves at deir el- Bahri which is on the other side of the Valley of the Kings. Thutmose III mummy was one of the 40 royal mummies of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasty that had to be moved and placed for safekeeping in this shaft. Thutmose the III was mummified top to bottom with only his eyes showing. He was mummified with a flail and crook to symbolize power. The ordinary person would just be buried in the floor or burned. People with higher class and
5: had money would be mummified like a pharaoh except with all the jewels and crooks and flails. In mummification the body would be preserved so that way the ka which is the ghost would recognize the ba which is the body for the afterlife. It took about 70 days for the most elaborate type of mummification. The brain is removed through the nose through a hook and the internal organs are removed through a incision made in the left side of the body and they would also preserve the organs and put in a jar. The body would be painted with natron and the body would be stuffed with rags to drain the blood and remaining fluids which would take 40 days. It would then be wrapped in linen cloth 20 times and jewels and more things would be placed in the wrapping.
6: In recent days, throngs of relentless protestors have filled the 200 acres surrounding the monumental Karnak Temple Complex in the great city of Thebes, " Where for over 2,000 years successive kings enlarged the great Karnak temple complex dedicated to Amun."(3) That these uprisings should be simultaneous with the harvest is neither unwarranted nor surprising. The throngs of Egypt's lower classes rightfully raised their voices in a unified chant of outrage against the unjust and corrupt social structure under Pharaoh Thutmose 3 and all previous rulers. The Pharaoh was the pinnacle of the social pyramid, treated like a god, "It was according to what this god himself commanded."(2) Farmers, craftsmen, and even some of the merchant class have chosen the harvest of 1450 B.C.E. to cry out for greater equality with the nobility. It can not be denied that the life style of the pharaohs, priests and nobles far exceeds that of the unskilled farmers and workers in luxury and in comfort. The slaves and farmers are at the bottom of the social structure pyramid. Their exhausting physical labor includes raising crops and animals, keeping canals and reservoirs in good order and working in the stone quarries to harvest the materials needed to build royal monuments. The nobility enjoy the finest clothing, food, and recreation, often with the assistance of numerous servants. For example "The servant helped him to wash and shave."(1) This entitled group spends their days in pursuit of personal pleasures. Their needs and wants are fulfilled by members of the working class. By contrast, those at the bottom of the social pyramid make do with coarse clothing, plain food, and little opportunity for recreation. Moreover, even though their hard work supports the luxurious life styles of the nobility, they can be asked to pay as much as 60% of their yearly harvest. Perhaps even more onerous than the dichotomy of lifestyles is the unfortunate fact that upward mobility from one social stratum to another is virtually impossible. No matter how hard they work, the poor have no opportunity to improve their human condition. It is very understandable, therefore, that the downtrodden multitudes, plagued by centuries of injustice, should at last raise their common voice in a chorus demanding greater equality and increased opportunity. It remains to be seen what the response of the stern and unforgiving pharaoh Thutmose 3 will be. There is little hope that the cries of the crowds will be heard. It is more likely that the wrath of the pharaoh will be inflicted on them, a threatening message to all who would be of like mind.Tribute must be given to these brave pioneers who dream of eradicating social boundaries, but history will probably document that their efforts were in vain.
7: Resources (1)www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/story/main.hmtl (2)http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/40000366.pdf (3)Graig et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations pg 13