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Traveling Through History

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FC: Traveling Through History | By: Amani W. and Kristen A.

1: Table Of Contents | Ancient River Valley Civilization Classical Greece/Rome Post-Classical Africa/Asia Post-Classical (Medieval) Europe Renaissance/Reformation Enlightenment/Revolutions World War l World War ll Cold War | 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19

2: Ancient River Valley Civilization | The Neolithic Revolution let people switch from hunting and gathering for their food to farming and herding. Civilizations started to form because of farming and herding groups in river valleys. The key traits of a civilization are advanced cities, skilled workers, organizations in a community, record keeping, and advanced technology. The Sumerians were the first group of people to create a civilization which was located in Mesopotamia. The Sumerians formed city-states that became successful from the large amounts of food produced on their farms. The growth of population and trade caused cities to start spreading which led to cultural diffusion. Culture diffusion is when new ideas or products spread from one culture to another. The first empire was created under the ruling of Hammurabi. The Hammurabi Code was a set of laws with mean punishments which affected everyone and it was important in the Mesopotamian civilization.

3: What if... | people had not learned how to farm? | If people had not learned how to farm then other ways of getting food would not have evolved. Hunting and gathering would still be popular today. Mass productions of food would not be around either. Could you imagine have to go hunt for your food every night?

4: Classical Greece/Rome | Greece and Rome were large civilizations that grew during the Classical Period. The main traits of these civilizations were large trade networks, growth from military victories, and the beginning of many religions. Sparta and Athens were the strongest city-states in Greece. Sparta was a military state while Athens built a democracy which is when the people ruled. Rome and Greece worked together to win a huge Persian invasion. Classical art became popular in Greece along with two types of drama which were tragedy and comedy. Greek art and culture mixed with other Middle Eastern works of art. Early Romans created a republic which means a form of government that let the citizens have the power to pick their leaders. The Roman Republic grew and brought peace and wealth to many, but slowly fell because of problems and invasions.

5: What if... | Athens had not embraced democracy? | Athens was part of the huge incredible Roman Empire. Because they were so big, they were influential. If Athens has never embraced democracy life today would be very different. If America had never discovered democracy we could possibly be a communist country right now!

6: Post Classical Asia/Africa | Asia was governed by powerful rulers. The first empire was Mauryan Empire and the second was the Gupta Empire. Because of trade, Indian religion, culture, and science spread to other regions. The Silk Road had a big affect of Indian trade because the roads let traders carry silk and other goods along these roads to other places. The Han Dynasty ruled China for more than 400 years, stretched China's borders, and created a centralized government which is when one power controls the state. African people created different societies based on their environments. For example, a nomadic lifestyle is when the people search places to hunt and find their food while another lifestyle is when they grow their own food. Bantu speaking peoples made one of the greatest migrations in history because of the many ethnic groups involved that helped spread their language and culture.

7: What if... | The Mongols had not opened the Silk road to safe travels? | The Silk road increased trade in Asia. It helped spread not only physical objects, but also ideas. If the Silk Road had not been opened up then these ideas would have not had the chance to spread . We would not have some of the technology we use today, because a lot of it began with different ideas and things that were exchanged along the Silk road.

8: Medieval Europe | The Middle Ages, or Medieval Europe, was also known as the “Dark Ages”. These “Dark Ages” lasted from 500 to about 1500. After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476, Europe went into a very dark period. There was very little progression in society, no new technology was created, education was not important and Roman culture was almost completely lost. This was a huge set back in technology. If we had not lost all those years we might have been further along in our technological advancements. Europe was also hit with a fatal disease known as The Bubonic Plague, or The Black Death. This disease killed one-third of Europe’s population.

9: What if... | The Black Plague did not attack Western Europe? | Society would not have fell apart in Western Europe as it did with the effects from the Black Plague. Jews would not have been accused of causing the Black Plague by poisoning the wells. They would not have been driven from their homes and killed. The economy would have continued growing with growth of population and trade. Farmland would not have been deserted. Farms would have continued producing goods. The church would have continued being well respected. People in Western Europe would have kept a happy outlook for the future.

10: Renaissance/ Reformation | Following Medieval Europe was the Renaissance. Renaissance means rebirth which is exactly what this time period was. The Renaissance was Europe’s awakening. Literature and Art resurfaced and people just wanted to enjoy life after coming up out of such a dark time. Humanism, the focus on human potential and achievements, evolved also. Another part of the Renaissance was the Reformation. Members of the Catholic Church began to notice problems in the church. After famous monk, Martin Luther, and other reformers presented their complaints to the Catholic Church the church was later changed, reformed.

11: What if... | Gutenberg hadn't invented the printing press? | The Gutenberg Bible may have not been published for many years if not at all. Books would have been expensive due to the few made because of the slow process without a printer. Ideas involving religion, travel, medicine, etc. would not have been shared throughout Europe without the access to books. Literacy would not have grown because of the lack of books for the people to read. Without the printing press, technology would be as advanced.

12: Enlightenment/ Revolutions | The Enlightenment was an essential time in world history. During the Enlightenment people began to question religion and God. People began to view values and ways of living differently. Beside religion people also started questioning politics. Different Enlightenment thinkers, such as John Locke, spread their ideas to other countries and they began to latch on. Countries like American, France, and Mexico used these ideas as the base of their revolutions. They were influenced by these Enlightenment ideas and decided they wanted to be independent. The ideas of the Enlightenment helped complete successful revolutions. Besides country revolutions the Enlightenment also began the Scientific Revolution. Issac Newton was a scientist part of the Scientific Revolution that came up with the laws of motion.

13: What if... | The Enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists? | Countries would not have the freedoms and types of government if not for Enlightenment thinking. People would not have many individual rights such as freedom of thought, religious freedom, ending torture, and women's rights. Natural rights such as life, liberty, and property may not have been recognized and followed as a given right in the U.S. Declaration of Independence. New discoveries by scientists, ending of slavery, and a better society may not have taken place for many years. Without the Enlightenment period, people would not have questioned their religious beliefs and teachings of the church. Lack of individuality would have continued with people by them not being able to make their own decisions.

14: World War I | World War I lasted from 1914-1918. The causes of World War I were militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism. The spark of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo by a Serbian man. The Allies were France, Great Britain, Russia, U.S., and Italy. The Central Powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire. In trench warfare, soldiers fought other soldiers from trenches that were dug in the ground. Life in the trench warfare was highly unsanitary, harsh, harmful, and rough. Mustard gas and trench foot were common in the trenches. The U.S. entered the war because of the Bolshevik Revolution, unrestricted submarine warfare, Lusitania, and the Zimmerman Note. The Allies defeated the Central powers and won the war.

15: The Austrian heir to the throne was not assassinated? | What If... | The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand was the spark of WWl. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated my a Serbian man after a failed bomb attempt. There were other things that led up to WWl, but this is what really set it off. If the assassination never occured then it is possible that WWl might not have happened at all.

16: World War II | After WWI, the Treaty of Versailles was created which led to World War II. In the Treaty of Versailles, it stated that Germany was to take full blame for the War. They had to pay back reparations, they could not have a military, and they lost land. The Treaty of Versailles led to Wilson’s Fourteen Points which was a plan to keep the peace in Europe. Because the Treaty of Versailles accepted Wilson’s Fourteenth point, they created a League of Nations which was a group of nations that wanted peace among them. The Allied Powers were the U.K., U.S., Soviet Union, China, Australia, and Canada. The Axis Powers were Germany, Japan, and Italy. The U.S. got involved because of a failed attempt from Japan to bomb us, known as Pearl Harbour. Germany surrendered in May 1945. After the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, Japan surrendered in August 1945. In order to restore Germany, German leader, Adolf Hitler, decided his Final Solution which was to kill all of the Jews and Gypsies. The Allies ended up winning World War II.

17: What If... | The U.S. had never dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan? | After Japan's bombing at Pearl Harbour, the U.S. dropped two Atomic Bombs on Japan. One was dropped at Hiroshima and the other was dropped at Nagasaki. If the U.S. had not dropped these bombs then Japan could have remained in the war. Japan was a very brave country who was willing to fight! The U.S. had to drop two bombs because Japan refused to surrender after the first one.

18: Cold War | The Cold War lasted from 1945-1991 and was a non-violent conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The U.S. was a part of the NATO which was consisted of Capitalist countries including France, Great Britain, and West Germany. Soviet Union was part of the Warsaw Pact which consisted of Communist countries including China, Cuba, North Vietnam, and North Korea. The Truman Doctrine was a promise made by the U.S. stating that they would help anyone resisting communism. This promise was the U.S.’s first act of containment which was a policy of keeping communism where it is. The Truman Doctrine led to the Marshall Plan which helped out countries by the U.S. sending out food, blankets, and fuel to Europe. While the U.S. tried to stop the spread of communism, countries such as China, Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba fell into this communism Domino Theory. The Berlin Wall was a wall in Germany that separated the free side from the communist side. It was torn down in 1989.

19: What if... | the U.S. had not adopted the theory of containment? | Communism would have spread throughout countries by the Soviet Union influences. Without containment, President Truman would not have been able to show support with the Truman Doctrine against communism. Without the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. wouldn't have promised to help whoever asked for it. The Marshall Plan would not have been approved by Congress to help European countries with the aid of food, machines, materials, and to keep them from turning communist. Without containment, the Berlin Airlift would not have formed because it was in response to the U.S. containment policy. The Berlin Wall might have not been built because it was built to keep communists from escaping to the American side.

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