FC: Robert Brewton | River Valley Civilizations
1: Table Of Contents | Pg.2-3 Mesopotamia Pg.4-5 Indus pg.6-7 China pg.8-9 Egypt
2: Mesopotamia | Mesopotamia is located between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.It is also known as the Fertile Crescent due to its crescent shaped geography and fertile soil.Ancient Mesopotamians were polytheistic mean they worship many gods.One god they worshiped was Enil,god of storms and air.Ancient Mesopotamians where also the first to employ city states.These city states developed their own governments.Sumerian City states included Uruk,Kush,Lagash,Umma,and Ur.Sumerian Governments where also controlled by a priest meaning Sumerians had a theocratic government.In Mesopotamian society,Kings,Landholders,and preist held the highest rank.Wealthy merchants where ranked next.A vast majority of Sumerian people worked with their hands in fields and workshops.To provide water for their cities, Sumerians dug irrigation ditches to provide water for their crops.For defenses they built walls of mud and brick that surrounded each city.Arches,Columns,Ramps and Pyramids shaped the design of the ziggurat.
4: Indus | Indus is located between the Indus and Ganges Rivers.Seasonal winds called Monsoons dominate the Indian subcontinent.October through February is known as the winter Monsoon.The Himalayas are located to the north of the subcontinent.The People of Indu were ruled under a Theocracy.Religious artifacts revealed Modern Hindu culture.One god they worshiped,Shiva,is the motherly god of fertility. In Indus,social divisions were not great.Artifacts such as clay and wooden toys indicate a prosperous society.Indu People built extensive modern plumbing systems.In Mohenjo Daro,almost every house had a private bathroom and toilet.Toilets were made of bricks and a wooden seat.Buildings were constructed of oven baked bricks on raised platforms to protect from flooding.Citadels were located at the center of cities which provided protection for the royal family and also served as a temple.The Harappan language has been impossible to decipher because linguist have not found any inscriptions that are bilingual.400 symbols make up Indus language.
6: China china is located between the yellow river(Huang H e) and the Yangtze river.To the west of china,is the Taklimakin Dessert and Tibet.To the south west are the Himalayas.Also to the north is the Gobi Dessert and the Mongolian Plateau.Only 10% of China Is suitable to farm.In early Chinese religion,spirits of family ancestors had the ability to bring good fortune or disaster to living family members. The Shang worshiped a supreme god ,Shang Di, and then lesser gods.The Shang consulted the gods through the use of Oracle bones. Oracle Bones are Bones or shell one which priest chizzled questions for the gods.The Shang society was sharply divided between peasants and nobles.A ruling class of warrior nobles,governed the Shang , these nobles owned land and governed the scattered villages.Roads and canals were built to stimulate trade and agriculture.Coined money was also introduced.Blast furnaces created cast iron,weapons and farm tools.
8: Egypt Egypt is settled along the Nile on a fertile, thin strip of land.Due to Egypts hot,dry climate, desserts surround Egypt.The Niles is 4100 miles long and is the worlds longest river.The Nile also brings water to Egypt from distant mountains,plateaus,and lakes in present day Burundi,Tanzania,Uganda, and Ethiopia.Early Egyptians were polytheistic.The main gods they worshiped: Re, the sun god, and Osiris, god of the dead.The most important was Isis who represented the ideal mother and wife.In total,Egyptians worshiped more than 2,00 gods and goddesses.Egyptians built huge temples to honor the gods,they also believed in the afterlife.In social classes,The King,Queen, and royal family stood at the top .Below them were wealthy land owners, Government officials, Priest, and army commanders.The middle Class included merchants and artisans.The largest and lowest consisted of peasant farmers and laborers.Women held as many rights as men.Egypt was ruled under a theocracy. The pharoah stood at the center of Egyptian religion as well as government and army.Ancient Egyptians also believed Pharoah bore full responsibility for the kings well being.Ancient Egyptians employed many technolgies such as the heirogyphics and papyrus.For mummification egypriand made pyramids and geometry to build new structures.