FC: Vietnam Project!
1: Table of contents | Pages 2&3 Buddhist Protests (1962-63) Pages 4&5 Over Throw and Assassination of Diem, 1962 Pages 6&7 Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1963 Pages 8&9 Operation Rolling Thunder 1965 Pages 10&11 March 8,1965 Pages 12&13Tet Offensive Pages 14&15 My Lai Massacre (Phoenix Program) Pages 16&17 Khe Sanh Pages 17&18 Operation Ranch Hand
2: The US had been involved with South Vietnam before the war started by putting a leader into power. This leaders name was Diem he was a Catholic which meant that he was the minority of religion in Vietnam. Diem made laws against people celebrating Buddha birthday in the traditional way. Buddhist were already discriminated against and the fact that they were getting pushed around even more made it that the people were going to be naturally upset. The action they chose was to burn themselves as a form for protest. During the protest crowds would form an people would just watch it happen.After the first burning police violently broke the group of watcher up and killed 9 more people. This then happened seven more times. All this over a group of people asking to be treated as equals and not have laws passed that go directly against them. | The Buddhist Protest 1962-63
3: Buddhist protesting in the streets
4: President of South Vietnam
5: Over Throw and Assassination of Diem, 1962 | Vietnam had a leader that was force upon them by the United States after the decision to have elections for the new leader of Vietnam. The United States did not want these elections to happen because they knew that the most popular man that was going to run was a communist. During this time the US could not let that happen or it might spread throughout the middle east. This meant that they gave the leader they put in was Diem. Now most people when they taste power will continue to pursue it for the rest of their life. That is what they US wanted to happen with Diem, the leader they put into power in the south. Diem was a harsh ruler and was a minority in the terms of his religion. This meant that the people that he was ruling over did not like him at all. The US wanted Diem to be their puppet but he was not willing to be once he got the power hunger. The US then supported a military coup and the only thing they were really worried about the whole time was the public relations of the situation.
6: Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1963 | The United States had many spy missions to gather information during the Vietnam War. They used their navy for this because of the ability to observe from a safe distance or so they thought. The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was a naval skirmish in 1963. The South Vietnamese had just run an attack on the North Vietnamese, but because of a lack of information on the security meant that the attack was a failure. The North Vietnamese could see the US boats on their radar systems and were waiting to see if they would attack. They got to the point that they attacked the US so as not to be attacked first a kind of bring the fight to them choice. This, after looking at the aftermath, was a bad choice on their part. The USS Maddax was the vessel on the radar so when the North Vietnamese attacked the USS Maddax opened fire. The aircraft carrier with the USS Maddax let their planes enter into the battle and do three sweeps of the enemy vessel. The North Vietnamese ships sent to attack the US ships did only mild damage while losing a ship dead in the water and the other two toke heavy damage. The US responded to this attack by organizing attacks that would further damage the North Vietnamese.
7: A battle Ship Firinging it's Guns
8: US Bomber Plane Dropping it's Load Out | With the Vietnam War just starting the United States needed tactics to fight the Vietnamese in the north with. One of the tactics they came up with was to bomb them repetitively. This plan was called "Operation Rolling Thunder." This operation started on February 24th 1965 and ended in October 1968. Many factors went into the choice to commence with "Operation Rolling Thunder" such as the fact that the Southerners need a moral boost because of how the war was proceeding.
9: Operation Rolling Thunder 1965 | One of the concerns of the US was the fear of angering the Chinese into attacking and having a repeat of the Korean War. Where the US almost had taken Korea, in a similar situation as Vietnam, but then China got worried the US would continue and attack them so they attacked first. The commander of the Air Force wanted to use more bombs which would have been hard because the US dropped more bombs on that small country and Laos than had ever been seen before. The US Bombing was originally to take out military targets that would help their troops, but then the operation shifted into an attack on troops too. The American people originally like this idea of bombing the North, because the people thought that bombing the North Vietnamese would make this war end quickly. This liking was not to last just like the rest of the Vietnam War the American people eventually turned against it which also lead to the fact that they did not trust Johnson's administration.
10: March 8, 1965 | The United States was sending "military advisers" to South Vietnam for years before the Vietnam War started. The number of military advisor's was going up in larger numbers the closer the United States got to entering the Vietnam War. This either meant that the South Vietnamese need a lot of advising or that these advisers where actually involved in fighting. Troops fighting would not be a problem, but the United States people were told that none of the advisor's were fighting. The transition was bound to happen On March 8th 1965 were when the first marines landed in Vietnam which means that is when the Vietnam War officially started. This meant that the US armed forces in Vietnam were not "advisor's" they were there to fight. The United States send troops from both the water and the air. The first to arrive were the ones sent by the water. These men landed on a beach 85 miles from the demilitarize zone in Da Nang.
11: Marines Exiting Their Ride to Vietnam
12: The mass attack of cities all throughout Vietnam is referred to the Tet Offensive. The Tet Offensive was a attempt to surprise the US and the South Vietnamese. The attack of Khe Sanh was assumed to be a distraction attack to most historians. Some also say that the North actually attacked some cities too soon but got away with it. This was thought to work because the North was assuming that the South Vietnamese did not want to be ruled by their current leaders and that they would not resist the North when they took their cities. This attack happened in January 1968 and lasted in some cities weeks. The United States and South Korea were completely surprised about this attack for one main reason. The North Vietnamese attacked during a cease fire which was happening because of the new year. The US and South Vietnamese were surprised, but they fought back. The combined forces pushed the US and South Vietnamese pushed the North and the Viet Cong out of most cities quickly. This was not true about all of the cities though, because the Viet Cong were entrenched and supplied to fight. A key battle that toke a long time would have been the taking of the US embassy in Vietnam. This embassy was viewed to be untraceable this was not true as the North Vietnamese held this embassy for two weeks before it was recaptured. This mass attack did not expect to the South Vietnamese people to resist the new rulers so they did not count them into the equation in this attack.
13: Tet Offensive | Man About to Be Killed in the Aftermath Of the Tet Offensive
14: My Lai Massacre (Phoenix Program) | One of the most regrettable things of the war in Vietnam is referred to as the My Lai massacre. This was when an entire village was taken out by US troops. The reason this was such a huge deal was because of the pure brutality of the whole situation in a war that was already unpopular. The marines had been patrolling the surrounding area for months before they attacked the village. During those months the marines had to deal with a third of the company being killed by traps or snipers. The man in charge of the marines was William Calley who gave the order to "search and destroy." The marines did as they were told and killed 300 unarmed men, women, and children including babies. During the attack there is a record of a warren officer tried to save some of the victims. He gave the order to the troops who were in the helicopter with him to shoot any American troops who tried to kill a single person. News of the attack did not get to the public years later, but before that time Calley was treated like a hero in the armed forces. Once the news got out to the public Calley was the only one charged for the attack and was given life for his actions. He only served five years before being released. All in the name of Project Phoenix.With the start of the Vietnam War meant that the Viet Cong, North Vietnamese supporters who took action against the US and the South Vietnamese, will rise into action. That means that the Phoenix Project would also start. The goal of the Phoenix Project was to fish out the Viet Cong in the south. The US mainly recruited Green Beret and Navy Seals to be part of this project. The reason behind getting men who are known and trained to be merciless in combat and do what it takes to get the job done is, because they needed men who could torture thousands of people and kill any North Vietnamese supporters. A third of the people who were arrested on accusations that they supported the North Vietnamese were killed. The Phoenix Project was a brutal and factor of the great dislike of the Vietnam War.
15: Bodies Piled Up in the Aftermath of the Massacre
16: Khe Sanh
17: Khe Sanh | One of the events of Vietnam that got a lot of attention would have been Khe Sanh. Khe Sanh was a base that was surrounded by hills and at the time it was getting attention North Vietnamese and Viet Cong. The US troops at Khe Sanh were not only surrounded, but the enemy was also outnumbering them by a large amount. Khe Sanh lasted for 70 days. During those 70 days the field hospitals were one of the most important things to everyone. The reason for that is the marines there were attacked everyday if they were visible for any amount of time. The United States had to try to fly supplies into the base, but the North Vietnamese were shooting at anything in the sky that moved. This made getting the marines their needs to live was difficult, but the US armed forces figured out that if the plane or helicopter did not stop and just dropped the supplies the plane could make it back. Many of the men there were young, so when they returned they were in high hopes that they would receive glory. This was not true at all. After 70 days of watching their best friends die and suffer they were told they had 20 minutes to pack up and get out of Khe Sanh. Many of them did not get any recognition after their return from that death bed of many good men.
18: Operation Ranch Hand | Vietnam was a losing battle that the United States needed a solution to. One of the ideas was to take away their hiding place the jungle. The way they came up to do this is a chemical called Agent Orange. Agent Orange was a chemical defoliant that was sprayed over the vegetation in Vietnam. The United States sprayed 12 million gallons of Agent Orange over six million acres. This chemical was dangerous to humans and was a reason a lot of people that served in Vietnam later had medical deformities, such as birth defects. Operation Ranch Hand was sprayed over the jungles of Vietnam and over crops also from 1962 to 1971. This was mostly in Vietnam but some was sprayed over Laos. When the American people heard about the use of this chemical and then the effects on the soldiers it became highly controversial.
19: Agent Orange Being Sprayed over Vietnam