S: Westward Expansion
FC: Westward Expansion
1: Based on the INSPECT system Ideas Natural/Geographic Social Political Economics Cultural Technological/Scientific For thorough analysis of history
2: John O'Sullivan was the man who popularized the phrase "Manifest Destiny". " | In his words, "The far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness. In its magnificent domain of space and time, the nation of many nations is destined to manifest to mankind the excellence of divine principles; to establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the Most High - The Sacred and the True."
3: Manifest Destiny was the theory that it was America's "Destiny" to cover the entire continent of North America as an empire. This idea was what pushed many Americans west and made Westward Expansion such an enormous event. It was also the cause for the overtaking of areas such as California and Texas.
4: Henry Clay expressed much interest of the West in the House of Representatives | Daniel Webster pushed for interests for New England in Senate | John C. Calhoun supported power for the states | Each of these men supported sectionalism within the United States. With the expansion Westward, more people became loyal only to their region, supporting ideas for their region, rather than the country as a whole.
5: Much of sectionalism spread because of the differences in slavery. With new states entering the country, feuding occurred over the admittance of slave states, until the Missouri Compromise was made, separating free and slave states.
6: Yellow Fever Epidemic 1793 With the increased growth in the cities of America, but no sewage systems to carry away waste, epidemics swept through the cities. In the summer of 1793, Philadelphia experienced an extremely deadly yellow fever epidemic. In three months, 10% of its population died. | Although the epidemic was caused by mosquitoes, citizens blamed it on illness carried from elsewhere through the merchant ships. The area around the docks were quickly evacuated.
7: Dr. Benjamin Rush was an infamous doctor from the time of the yellow fever. Unfortunately, his methods were deadly. He gave his patients liquids to "purge" the infection and "bled" them. | French doctors were also popular during that time. They had experienced the yellow fever almost every summer in their homeland, and knew the best methods to cure the patients. They prescribed rest, fresh air, and lots of fluids. That still is the best method to treat yellow fever. Most unfortunately, Dr. Rush would not listen to the knowledgeable French doctors and ended up killing many of his patients through his methods.
8: Gold Rush In January 1848, gold was discovered in California. People came from everywhere and every profession flocking to California to own their fortune from gold. By the end of 1848, $6 million in gold was taken from the American River, where the gold was discovered.
9: Boomtowns popped up in California rapidly. Like the one below, they filled up with the immense amount of immigrants and seemed to grow overnight. | In the boomtowns, many forty-niners (miners) lost any wealth they gained through gambling. Others did not find enough gold to make money to begin with. | Many of the boomtowns did not have any laws or police, so some citizens took it upon themselves to keep order. These citizens were known as vigilantes, like the ones shown below.
10: In the 1830s, Native Americans in the East were known as the "Five Civilized Tribes." It was believed, however, that they were taking farmland that the American settlers wanted. The five tribes were the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.
11: In 1832, the Sauk and Fox people, led by Black Hawk (below) resisted to the federal troops and were slaughtered. | In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, paying Native Americans to move West. Most tribes accepted it, moving to Oklahoma. | The Seminole group successfully resisted, using guerrilla tactics, led by Osceola (left). | The Cherokee nation refused to comply with the treaties, suing Georgia and eventually took their case to the Supreme Court, where they won. President Jackson ignored this and sent federal troops to remove them from their land. The Cherokee nation was forced out, along the Trail of Tears, where thousands died on the forced journey.
12: The election of 1824 was a controversial one. The main candidates were William Crawford, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams. | When the election came, Jackson received the largest number of votes, although it was not the majority. Because of the Twelfth Amendment under the Constitution, the candidate must receive over 50% of the votes, which Jackson did not. | The House of Representatives had to choose a candidate because of the glitch. Adams spoke with Clay and made sure to use Clay's influence to make Adams president, as long as Clay would be the Secretary of State. That became true, although many Americans were upset about it.
13: Division of Parties | Because of the controversial election of Adams, the Republican party divided itself. | National Republicans supported Adams and his election. They supported a strong federal government rather than state. They also supported road building and the Bank of the United States, projects that would develop a federal economy. They were mostly merchants or farmers. | Democratic-Republicans supported Andrew Jackson. They supported state power rather than federal. They mistrusted federal government projects and were mostly from the frontier, immigrants, or laborers.
14: Election of Jackson With the establishment of two separate parties, the campaign for 1828 was mainly between Jackson and Adams. The two parties battled a hard campaigning, using mudslinging and campaigning techniques for the first time. | New campaigning techniques included using slogans, rallies, buttons, and events such as barbecues.
15: After Jackson was elected, he fired many federal workers and replaced them with his supporters, developing the Spoils System. | With two separate parties, the electoral system also changed. Caucus systems were replaced by nominating conventions, like the Democratic convention in 1832 shown here.
16: Texas's Battle for Independence Much of Texas was occupied by Americans in 1819. Mexico attempted to decrease American influence by taxing goods coming in from the United States and halting immigration. The Texans were unhappy with this and tried to become independent. When a dictator took over Mexico, the Texans retaliated against Mexican control and fought the Battle of the Alamo, which they lost, but not without establishing a Declaration of Independence and basic government. It wasn't until the Battle of San Jacinto when Mexico finally recognized Texan Independence.
17: Davy Crockett was a man who influenced Texan Independence very much. He helped to settle Texas and set up its government until he was killed at the Battle of Alamo, with every other defender besides women and children | Soon after Texas gained independence they asked the United States to annex them. Their wishes were denied for fear of having another slave state. It wasn't until 9 years later when James K. Polk was President that Texas was admitted. Manifest Destiny was the main cause of this.
18: With the idea of Manifest Destiny growing, the want for California and New Mexico as part of the United States grew also. President James K. Polk agreed with these many Americans. He offered to buy the area from Mexico several times, but led to no avail. He came up with a plan to take over the area. He set up a fort near the disputed Texas boundaries, where Mexicans attacked. He reported this to Congress, and the war was declared. Polk also had a three-part for the war itself. He planned on taking the disputed land for Texas, then New Mexico and California, and finally take Mexico City.
19: Polk's plan succeeded and Mexico gave up Texas, New Mexico, and California. Treaties later on established the Texas-Mexico border and gave the US their last piece of land.
20: With the economic boom from the Industrial Revolution, economic independence was needed. In the 1830s, corporations were on the rise and stock was sold rapidly. | The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816. It gave more power to make large loans, although somewhat controversial in its making.
21: Although the Supreme Court had ruled the Bank constitutional, President Jackson in 1832 still believed it should not exist. He vetoed the re-charter of it, which led to his re-election. | In 1837, there was an economic depression which led many Americans to disagree with Jackson and his rulings. Although his friend Martin Van Buren was then President, the next election led to the election of William Henry Harrison, the first Whig to become President.
22: With joint occupation of Oregon along with Britain, the first Americans in the territory were known as Mountain Men. They were fur traders who spent most of their time trapping beaver in the Rocky Mountains. In the late summer they would | meet for a rendezvous. They exchanged their furs for guns, traps, and other supplies. They would share stories with friends, have races, and relax. The mountain men were very strong and skillful with their survival skills.
23: The movement into Oregon mostly consisted of settlers moving along the Oregon Trail. They would fill their covered wagons with supplies and move along the trail westward, usually starting in Missouri. The journey usually lasted 5-6 months. | 1 in 10 pioneers died along the way. There were problems with disease, heat, hunger, overwork, animals, and accidents. The trail was the most practical way westward until the development of transcontinental railroads.
24: Industrial Revolution | Workers in the colonial era were in short supply, which led to the development of new tools to cut time and work in jobs. These new tools became an industrial revolution. | In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine that allowed easier separation of cotton fiber. Other simple machines like it also helped speed up the cotton process. | In 1785, a steam engine powered a cotton mill. This would eliminate the need to have cotton mills near rivers, and saved time.
25: In 1814, the first factory system was used in the United States. It brought all steps of manufacturing under one roof and saved both time and money. It was a large component to the Industrial Revolution. | Eli Whitney also invented the use of interchangeable parts. He first used it on guns, but it also revolutionized the creation of goods. It made for less-skilled labor needed and easier machine repair. It also reduced the price on goods.
26: Transportation Systems | With the expansion westward, transportation systems changed with it to accommodate the travelers. | With the need for good inland roads, private companies opened turnpikes, where the travelers pay for the construction. | In 1806 Congress allowed the funds for building a National Road to the West. It did not open until 1818, but then continued onto Vandalia, Illinois.
27: In 1807 Robert Fulton finished his steamboat to travel along the Hudson River carrying passengers and cargo at great speeds. Steamboats made shipping and traveling faster and easier. | On October 26, 1825, the Erie Canal opened. It connected Buffalo to Albany, creating a water route to the Atlantic ocean from the Great Lakes. Locks were also used in the process to help boats along.
28: Thinking Like a Historian | Cause and Effect In the War with Mexico, President Polk received his intended effect when he built a fort near the disputed Texas-Mexico border. Mexicans retaliated the against the fort, so Polk reported to Congress that they had attacked American soil. Unintended effects were the number of men dead to battle and disease and the $100million in losses. Also unintended was the discovery of gold in the new territory that would lead to great immigration westward. Change and Continuity With transportation systems, there are still turnpikes, but not as many. The use of national highways are also still popular, although for cross-country travels airplanes are more popular.
29: Using the Past With campaigning for elections, we can see that the present is similar to the present. In the elections in the studied time, a lot of what convinced voters were issues that they felt were important. Candidates also started using a lot of campaigning techniques. In the present, the same techniques that swayed voters then, sway voters now. Turning Points John O'Sullivan's speech on Manifest Destiny, as well as people's reaction to it brought many immigrants to the West. It also convinced people to accept Texas as a state. Because of it, many people live in the West and Texans are part of the United States.
30: Through their Eyes Americans in this time period viewed their country as bound to overcome the continent. They wanted land and would do anything to gain more of it. This caused them to use more extreme actions to gain land.
31: Works Cited Anderson, Laurie Halse. Fever 1793. 1st Scholastic ed. New York: Scholastic, 2000. 244-251. Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic to 1877. New York: Glencoe, 2005. O'Sullivan, John. "Manifest Destiny." 1839. Civics Online. Apr. 21, 2010.