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Westward Expansion

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BC: The End!

FC: Westward Expansion

1: Table of Contents Ideas 2,3,4,5 Natural 6,7,8,9 Social 10,11 Political 12,13,14,15, Economic 16,17 Cultural 18,19 Technology 20,21,22,23 Conclusion 24,25,26 Works Cited 27

2: Ideas | The Indian Removal Act of 1830 payed Native Americans to move further west so settlement could continue. This triggered the Trail of Tears, and many hardships.

3: River travel became common because it had many advantages | over horse and wagon travel. It was far more comfortable than the bumpy roads, and pioneers could use the river to ship their goods on barges.

4: A spokesperson from the West named Henry Clay introduced the American System. The American System was a program of internal improve- | -ments such as the building of roads, canals, to stimulate trade; and a national bank to control inflation and be in control of lending money to developing industries. The plan didn't follow through but some ideas were adopted, just not on the scale clay had hoped for.

5: Because the Panic of 1837 had hit the Mississippi Valley so hard, many people gathered and decided to take the long journey to Oregon. Pioneers traveled in big groups to take on the 6 month, 2,000 mile journey together.

6: The Erie Canal is one of many canals, and goes across New York state connecting | Albany on the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie. It opened on October 26, 1825. Many other canals were built around the nation and tied the eastern and western parts of the country together.

7: Much of the nation needed new reliable roads for the shipment of goods so turnpikes, or toll roads, were built by private companies.

8: The California gold rush brought in people from all over the world in hopes of striking it rich. More than 80,000 people came to California in 1849 alone. By the end of 1848 they had taken $6 million from the American River.

9: Most people who went to California for gold came out with little or no gold at all. The gold rush had lasting affects on California's economy as well as it's population which soared from 20,000 in 1848 to 220,000 only four years later.

10: Years following the war of 1812 the U.S. moved to resolve issues with Great Britain. They made treaties to set limits for the number of vessels each could have on the great lakes, and set a boundary of the Louisiana Territory between the U.S. and Canada on the 49th parallel that was demilitarized.

11: The relations between the Cherokee and the U.S. government was based upon treaties. When settlers started moving west the Cherokee were forced out, and almost all of the Cherokee didn't want to leave. Because a few natives signed a treaty giving up their land, they were forced to take the Trail of Tears to Georgia where they became a sovereign nation.

12: Before Jackson was elected president there was a lot of mudslinging, or attempts to ruin | an opponents reputation with insults. This became common between Jackson and Adams. Other things such as election slogans, rallies, buttons, and even barbecues became common in American political life.

13: Andrew Jackson was favorite in the election, and triumphed winning most votes from the new frontier states and many from the South resulting in a "landslide". Many Americans admired Jackson because he was a patriot, a self-made man, and a war hero. Often referred to as "Old Hickory" because he was tough as a hickory stick.

14: Jackson had to deal with a lot of issues when he introduced the new tariffs. Some southern states believed they had the right to nullify federal laws when they didn'y like them. South Carolina even passed the Nullification Act through their state legislature. Jackson took a stand and passed the Force Bill which gave him the power to use the US military to enforce acts made by congress.

15: The Force Bill let things cool down a little bit between the state and federal government. But also showed Jackson wasn't afraid to stand up for what he believed was right. He quoted "Our federal union must be preserved!"

16: Shortly after Van Buren's election the country entered a sever economic depression. The depression began with the Panic of 1837, a time when land values dropped sharply, banks failed, and investments declined. Thousands of businesses closed and hundreds of thousands of people lost their jobs.

17: Many Americans disagreed on the idea of tariffs. Tariffs are fees paid by merchants who import goods. People from the Northeast were fine with the tariffs because they believed it was better to buy American-made goods. Southerners hated the new tariffs because it meant higher prices on goods they purchased.

18: Therefore, the Americans who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains were called "Mountain Men". They knew the territory better than most other people and looked forward to rendezvousing with friends and fur companies in late summer. | The first Americans to reach Oregon Country were fur traders instead of farmers. There were many trading posts in the area established by the British. American adventurers began taking part in fur trading as the Native Americans had originally started.

19: The manifest destiny was the idea that it was Americas destiny to expand all the way to the pacific. John O'Sullivan proposed the national mission of extending our population to possess the whole continent and use every bit that Providence has given us. This belief influenced a lot of pioneers to move west and see what is out there.

20: The industrial revolution brought many changes to the way people did things. They left their homes and | farms to go work at textile mills and earn wages. The textile mill industry grew quickly because the rivers around New England were a good source of water power. New England's geographic location also served well as a port for coal and iron.

21: Interchangeable parts were identical pieces of machine parts. They could be easily put together and | a lot of them were alike. This made repairing machines easier. Interchangeable parts made it possible to produce many different goods on a mass scale.

22: Eli Whitney of Massachusetts invented the cotton gin, a simple machine that removes the seeds from the cotton fiber doing the work of 50 people at once.

23: The sewing machine posed as an amazing invention for women around the house. They could do more sewing in less time, and it gave them more time for other things. The axe in America became a combination of a normal axe, a wedge, and a sledgehammer. As simple as it is, it was new technology.

24: Change and continuity: Some people who have not benefited completely from the expansion westward would be any Native Americans affected by Indian removal suck as the Cherokee who had to be relocated to present day Georgia. Turning Points: The Trail of Tears and Indian removal in general transformed many Native American lives by changing the way they lived and making them become their own sovereign nation.

25: Through their eyes: People of the past saw their land as a place that was destined to be expanded all the way to the Pacific, according to the Manifest Destiny. Using the past: The past is different from the present because we now have land that not ours at the time. Also, the Cherokee nation has prospered unlike how they were living before, even though they had to go through a lot to get there.

26: Cause and effect: Events such as the gold rush in California affected peoples lives, communities, and the world as well. For some people they went to the gold rush and got rich, for others they found a new life in a new state. Boomtowns came up everywhere and made new communities. Some of these communities prospered for years, and are still around. Others died out and became ghost towns. The gold rush brought people in from all over the world, and stimulated the economy as well.

27: Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic to 1877. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., 2005.

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