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S: The Woodlands

BC: The Woodlands Three grade six students, Talia, Joseph and Miriam worked very hard for three months to write this book. This book is about the Woodland Natives and how they lived. We hope you enjoy this book as much as we had fun writing it. A special thanks to Ms. Shapiro for all the work she helped us with. | A special thanks to Google for all the googling you did

FC: The Woodlands | By: Miriam, Joseph, and Talia

1: Table of Contents Geographic Location.............Page 2 Government .................. Page 4 Special Events ................ Page 6 Origin and Beliefs ............ Page 8 Clothing ...................... Page 10 Role of Women .............. Page 12 Transportation............... Page 14 Weapons ..................... Page 16 Shelter ....................... Page 18 Food Sources ................ Page 20 Role of Men.... .............. Page 22 Theories of Origin........... Page 24 Art ............................ Page 26 Arrival of the Europeans ....... Page 28 Recreation and Games ......... Page 30 Bibliography ..................... Page 32

2: The woodland area had a lot of precipitation. In the B.C. area, they had cold winters and warm summers. In the Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, they had cold winters, and in Ontario, they had a wet winters and short warm summers. For most of the woodland area, they had Black spruce, White spruce, Balsam fir, Jack pine, White Birch, and Trembling Aspen. The woodlands get an annual precipitation of 1000 mm., 200 mm of snow, and an average of 10 thunderstorms a year. In the woodlands, | Geographic Location | 2

3: they have a lot of the minerals. They have: iron ore, copper, nickel, gold, silver, molybdenum, lead, colbalt, platinum, magnesium, potash, sulphur, salt gypsum asbestos, and diamond. In the north east coast of British Colombia, they have some fishing. Some of the fish include: herring, sardine, swordfish, salmon, cod, haddock, paddock, flounder, and sole. | This is a map of the Woodland area. | 3

4: The Woodland Natives had a good, stable government. The chief of the Woodland Natives was very important in their lives. The chief had the power to stop a rule that he felt was unnecessary. His main role in the community was keeping peace and making decisions. When the Europeans came, he was to sign the peace treaties. But, he did not always have control. It was also not usual for the priest or the shaman to take control. The chiefs also provided leadership in the wars against the Europeans. The chief of a tribe could not make a decision alone, all the other families had a chance to have a say. They had a democracy. An Algonquian family usually included: a mother, a father, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. All of those people were called a band. | Government | 4

5: All the members in the clan had special jobs to do, according to their abilities. In the spring, other bands would meet together. They shared news, games and goods. The children learned by watching their grandparents and other elders. When it was the winter, they told legends. This is how the children learned. Each band had a chief. But it was important that they did not do everything by themselves. They would always ask the other people in the band before they make decisions. This is like the government we have today. A democratic government. | These are pictures of people in a woodland household | 5

6: When someone in a Woodlands' tribe died, the tribe would hold a cry ceremony. The chief sang and danced around the fire. The Woodland Natives had a lot of very important events. Some ceremonies lasted for five days. The day before it started, five knots were tied in a piece of milkweed. Every day of the ceremony they untied a knot. Face paint was a big deal to Woodland Natives. They wore it to express feelings each colour meant something: red = life, black = death and purple = royalty and for special occasions. Before going to war, they painted themselves, performed magical rites and took special medicines. | Special Events | 6

7: Several of the tribes performed many songs and rites. They used special equipment that they thought helped them talk to their g-ds. They also wore masks to cure diseases. The scary masks were supposed to scare the evil spirit out of the sick. Right now, we do not celebrate these holidays. These must have meant a lot for the Natives. Some are still celebrated today. | This is a Native man getting ready for war. | 7

8: There were a few different beliefs that the Natives in the woodlands had. It all began with mother Earth and father Sky, grandmother Moon and grandfather Sun. The Natives believed that there always spirits around them. The bad spirits were responsible for death and the good ones made the world. All the spirits had to be treated with respect. The great spirits had four elements: the earth, wind, fire and water. A long time ago after many years the people started to agree and disagree. There was no respect for anything or anyone. Kitichi-Manitou decided to clean the earth with water. The only person that was left was Nanboozhoo. Nanboozhoo stayed alive because he found a big log to float on. He allowed animals to take turn. Later, he told animals to take the dirt to make land. First he went himself but could not reach the bottom. | Origin and Beliefs | 8

9: Then he sent the loon the, loon could not reach the bottom. He sent other animals; they all failed, except for the muskrat. After he sent the muskrat he got made fun of, but the muskrat still got to the bottom. Finally, muskrat came up with soil. So, Nanaboozhoo put soil on the turtle’s back and the back of the turtle became the land for people. The legend says that right now that the back of the turtle is the continent of North America. Some legends are very different from each other. | This is an example picture of the earth on the turtles back. | 9

10: The Woodland Natives wore lots of different things for different kinds of weather. Men usually wore light clothes like breech-clout, leggings, belts, kilts, and caps with feathers. For colder weather, men would add a hide shirt, a robe, mittens, and fur caps. Women wore long dresses and lots of different jewelery. Their jewelery was made from bone, hair, copper, colourful stones, feathers, and shells. Everyone wore soft-soled, deer skin moccasins. Their clothing was mostly made from deer or beaver skin. They used beads to make flower designs on clothes for special occasions. The clothing was made from buckskin and leather. The clothing was decorated with dyes, beads, quills, and moose hair. | Clothing | 10

11: When the Europeans brought more materials (such as, cloth, silk, thread, and beads) the Natives’ outfits began to change. First, they continued making the same clothes, but with cloth instead of animal skin. Then they started using silk instead of moose hair. Later they started using cloth from the European traders. The clothes that the Woodland Natives wore sound very different to what we wear today. | These are moccasins which were the most popular shoes they would wear. | 11

12: There were many different roles that the Native Woodlands' women could have done. The first example of a job they could have was as a “planter”. Planters planted trees up and down the river creek. There were designated areas for each group. In the fall, they harvested the food that they grew. Another example of a job women did was being a mother. A mother would have to strap the baby to the cradleboard so she could work. | Role of Women | 12

13: When the kid became too big she would have to take them around with her when she did work. They last kind of job was a “weaver”. Weavers take care of family. They also weaved different things like: baskets, clothing and much more. That is similar to now; women have many jobs to choose from. | This is an example picture of a weaver weaving a basket. | 13

14: Transportation | The Natives in the woodlands used many types of transportation that we still use today. Their transportation also depended on the weather. Some forms of transportation can include: horses, oxen and birch bark canoes. A lot of the time, people walked from place to place. They also followed animal tracks on dry land. Heavy loads were carried by women or a strap called a tumpline. They also used snow shoes and a toboggan to take heavy loads with them when the snow was thick. | 14

15: Although, now we use snow shoes and toboggans just purely for fun, the Natives used them for transportation! Birch bark canoes were very good to use in the summer, when the ground was hot. Sometimes they got the canoes by trading. They made them from elm bark. Back then, they did not have cars or buses, so most of the time, they were walking. I think they got a lot of exercise over the years. | This is a Native using a canoe in water. | 15

16: There are lots of different kinds of weapons that the Woodland Natives used. One example of a weapon is a spear. Spears are very hard to work with because when you hunt you have to be close to the animal and the animal would run away. Another example of a weapon was war clubs. War clubs are were made with metal at the top so it would most likely hit the enemy's skull. The last example of the weapons that the Natives used is a bow and arrow. | Weapons | 16

17: Bow and arrows are much easier to work with than spears, because you don't need to be so close to the animal. The Natives used some feathers from certain birds to get better control. Out of all the weapons the bow and arrow and war clubs were the best. | This is a bow and arrow that was used for hunting. | 17

18: The Woodland Natives either made shelters in a dome-shape, or shelters called “Long Houses”. The dome-shaped shelters were used during the summer and fall. To make the dome-shaped shelters they put a circle of poles into the ground and then bend the poles to make a dome shape. They would then cover the poles with strips of birch, elm, ash or spruce bark. Sometimes skins or mats made of rushes were used instead of bark as a covering. The bark was held down with thin branches. Some groups also built cone-shaped shelters. The bark could be sewn together to make longer strips (six metres long, 1 metre wide) for Natives who stayed in the village for a big part of the year. The long houses were still round on top but they were longer. Inside the shelters there were platforms of poles that were used as seats and beds. | Shelter | 18

19: In the winter, they would sleep under the poles for warmth. Long houses were much larger than any of the other shelters. To make the long houses they bent the poles into the shape of a long barrel. Long houses could be more than 20 metres long and almost six metres high! The inside of a “long house” was arranged so lots of families could all live there together. Down the middle of the long houses was a row of fires for the families to all share. There was a gap in the roof for the smoke from the fire to get out. Corn and herbs were hung from the roof of their houses. They had space to store other foods next to the doorway. Those sound like nice homes even though houses today are probably bigger and much nicer. | This is a long house which you would build if you had a big family or shared your home with other families. | 19

20: Food Sources | The Natives did have a lot of different foods! The Natives had 17 different kinds of corn all planted on small hills.They also had 60 different kinds of beans, at least 7 different kinds of squash and wild rice. They used plants for food and medicine and maple trees for candies and drinks. The animals they had to hunt were: beavers, otters, muskrat and deer. They went ice fishing in the northern lakes. The spring was the fishing season. | 20

21: This is a kind of clay dish that the Natives used. | They believed that food should be shared. The Natives had to cook their food over a fire. They cooked all there food in clay pots. The main meal of the day was dinner. The Natives likely cooked their food in different ways. Did you know corn was used to make soup, bread and pudding? The Natives had a big variety of food. | 21

22: There are plenty of things that men would do to take care of their family, other people, and themselves. They hunted and went fishing for food their family. Men would build shelters for their family and other families. They would cut down trees to make space for the women to plant. The men built canoes for traveling. | Role of Men | 22

23: For privacy, the men would build pole fences to surround their village. Men made traps, nets, weapons, and other tools. They would fix broken moccasins for everyone. Men would protect their families. Those are some things men would do; some of which sound similar to what men do today. | This is a shelter which the men would build for their family. | 23

24: Theories of Origin | The Woodland Natives had many beliefs for many different things. One of them is how the world was made. This is about Kitchi-Manitou having vision about the universe. Before he had the vision, there was nothing. In his vision, he saw all the suns and the moons. He decided to make the visions come true. To the sun, he gave the power to heat and lights the earth. To earth, he gave the power of growth and healing. To the water, he gave the twin powers of purity and renewal. To the wind, he gave the power of the breath of life itself. Then he created the seasons. | 24

25: He made life and death and gave animals different abilities: some would fly, some would walk, and some would swim. Other stories include the answer to questions such as why owls look like owls, why there are people, and so on. A lot of these stories include a person named, “the everything maker,” who created everything. There are a lot of other people in those stories, but the list would go on for ever. Not every story is still passed on today. Some of them discontinued. But there is probably enough to explain most of their beliefs. | This is Kitchi-Manitou having a dream. | 25

26: Art | The Natives did lots of art; most of which was done by women. They made dream catchers to hang from cradles to protect their babies. They made moccasins called “Mi’kmaq Moccasins”. They decorated their clothing and artwork with beads and quills. The quills could be dyed and braided together. Coloured quills were used to make mosaics. Women decorated their clothing, bags, baskets, and other things with porcupine quills. They also made boxes out of quills called a “Mi’kmaq Quill Box”. Birch bark could be used for a decoration on the top of the boxes. They would weave baskets. The baskets would be made from maple, poplar, and ash trees. | 26

27: Birch bark was sometimes used to make seat covers. The Mi’kmaq women made beaded purses and vests. They made dolls to look like themselves. The dolls wore homemade traditional clothes of men and women. They made miniature canoes for their dolls. The Woodland Natives used some materials (like porcupine quills or birch bark) that we would never have used today. | This is a basket that the Woodland Natives would make to carry their things. | 27

28: Europeans did take advantage of the Native Peoples. The Europeans came in the 16th century. The Natives traded many different goods with the Europeans. The tribes got furs with the new goods more easily, so then they got a lot more weapons. Lots of tribes fought for land. The Natives got the same diseases. Some villages died even before meeting the Europeans. After they came they regularly got fish they learned quickly how to use the weapons easily. The Native never lived the same way after the Europeans came. | Arrival of the Europeans | 28

29: This is an example picture of the Native and Europeans trading goods | The government made ideas to help the Natives. The Natives still have reserved land today. Did you know that the European even gave schools for the Natives? But, some social structure was bad for the Natives. It was often hard to tell the boundaries between the Natives and Europeans. That’s why the Europeans took advantage of the Natives. | 29

30: 30 | Recreation and Games | The native children (and sometimes adults) played many different games; some of them are similar to games we play today. Boys like to run lots of races. The fathers would sometimes wrestle each other. Some girls would play a game called “Shinny” which is a game like field hockey. “High jumping” was a very popular activity. Another popular activity is “Lacrosse”. There was a game called “Jackstraws” which is a quiet game that requires a lot of patience. “Jackstraws” is the same as the game played today called “Pick-up-sticks”. Some people liked to dance in their free time. While some danced, others played drums or sang. The Algonkians had rattles and flutes, and sang along to many songs. There was a game called “Ring and Pin Game” in which they would catch a target on the end of a stick. They would play “Juggling Football” which is mostly played by Winnebago girls. To play “Juggling Football” they would kick a ball up in the air and try to keep it from hitting the ground.

31: 31 | Another game they played was “Corn Cob Darts”, to play it they would take a light-weight dart which they would throw. When they throw the dart it would spin, they had to try to hit a target while the dart was spinning. They would do “archery” using a wooden, long bow to shoot an arrow at a target. “Hand Ball” was played by trying to bring a ball across the goal lines while keeping the ball in play and never letting the ball touch the ground. A game played mostly by men and boys is “Hoop and Pole Game” in which you try to hit a hoop target with a special pole as it rolls. Mostly women would play a game called “Doubleball” which is like “Lacrosse” where you would catch the doubleball using playing sticks. If it was snowy outside they could go snowshoeing. Some of those games sound like a lot of fun! | Here are the Natives playing a game of “Lacrosse”.

32: Goller, Claudine. Algonkian Hunters Of The Eastern Woodlands. Toronto, Ontario: Dr. Levi Jacober library. Archilless, Allen W. "American Indians - Woodland Tribes & California Indians." Kidzworld. 2012. Web. 04 Mar. 2012. . Lomberg, Michelle. Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture Ojibwa. Calgary: Wegil Educational publishers limited, 2008. Ansary, Mir. Eastern Woodlands Indians. Chicago: He inemann library, 2000. Ansory, Mir Tanim. Eastern Woodlands Indians. Chicago, Illinois. Heinermann Library, 2002 ."Eastern Woodland Indians." Untitled Page. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. Cass, James. Ekahotan, the Corn Grower. Canada: Heath Canada Limited, 1983 Goller, Claudine. "Families and Government." Algonkian Hunters of the Eastern Woodlands. Toronto: Grolier, 1984. 23. "Indian Summer | Dance Types & Regalia." Indian Summer. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. . "Free Blank Outline Maps of Canada." Geography Home Page - Geography at About.com. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. . "Leadership and Government." - Indian Country Wisconsin. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-47.html Gay Miller`s 5th and 6th grade students. “Native Americans”. 2000-2001. 10 Feb. 2012. http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/crafts/easterncrafts.htm . Wishart, David J. “Native American Gender Roles”. 2011. 30 March 2012. http://jetson.unl.edu/cocoon/encyclopedia/doc/egp.gen.026 | Bibliography | 32

33: Martin, Philip. "Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids - Northern Algonquians & Woodland Cree." MrDonn.org - Native American Lesson Plans, Games, Interactives, Powerpoints. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. . “ Native Love Comments/Glitter Graphics." Medicine Man Creations Offer Original Free Comments and Glitter Graphics. Images Can Be Used on My Space or Any Sites That Allow HTML Codes. 2012. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. . Cass, James.Ekahotan, The Corn grower. Canada: Health Canada limited, 1983. Productions Ltd, Goldi. “The Eastern Woodland Hunters – Religion/Ceremonies/Art/Clothing”. First Peoples of Canada Before Contact Menu. 2007. 15 February 2012. http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/ Webster, Christine. The Mi’kmaq. Calgary: Weigl Education Publishers Limited, 2008. "The Ojibwa Creation Story." The Creation Story of the Ojibwa. Web. 02 Mar. 2012. . “Roles of Men and Women” 30 March 2012. http://nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/southeast/cherokee/roles.html “Woodland Indian Educational Programs” 22 February 2012. http://www.woodlandindianedu.com/games.html Mr. Donn. 15 Aug. 1995. Web. 1 Mar. 2012. . Museum link Illinois, 2000, Illinois state Museum, March 3, 2012.www.museum state il.us Http://www.ehow.com/list_618615 kickapooo_native_american_tools_weapons. Http://wwww.museum.state.il.us/muslink nat_amer/pre/htmls march 3 2012 | 33

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