S: From Theory to Practice: Infancy
BC: THE END
FC: From Theory to Practice: Infancy
2: Physical Development -Brain accounts for 1/4 of the infants total weight. -Can distinguish smells and prefers the scent of the mother. -Vision is the last of the senses to develop. Between 5 to 6 months infants develop depth perception. Motor Skills: -Elevating with arms (3 weeks-4 months) -Holding head up (approx. 6 weeks) -Rolling over from back to side (2-7 months) -Sitting alone (5-9 months) -Crawling (5-11 months) -Pulling to stand (5-11 months) -Standing alone (approx. 11 months) -Pincer grasp (9 months)
3: -Cephalocodal: head to tail; the development from the head, neck, torso and down. -Proximaldistal: inside out; development from the inside out. From trunk, arms, hands to fingers. Youtube: Cassius Tries to Sit
4: Cognitive Development -An infant, such as Cassius, can recognize faces of different people, with an increasing ability to remember them when they are not present -He will have an increasing ability to imitate the actions of others -Infants are quickly learning new ways to communicate with adults: facial expressions, simple gestures, crying -Their sense of independence grows during infancy, and their desire to master skills as well
6: Social/Emotional Development -Forming close bonds with caregivers. (mutual gaze) -Increased awareness of self -Use of simple words and gestures to convey needs. (me, mine, no) -Playing and interacting with others
8: John Bowlby BIOLOGICAL THEORIST -Perspective that focuses on the child's inherited physiological structures that support survival, growth, and learning -Cassius' developing physical abilities promote age-appropriate exploration. -Cassius recognizes his his aunt and brothers and is excited to see them. He doesn't mind when people other than mom and dad hold him.
9: ATTACHMENT THEORY: 4 Stages of Attachment -Pre-attachment phase: (birth-6wks) infant attracts caregiver through signals and keeps caregiver close and engaged -Beginning attachment: (6wks-8mos) sense of trust is developed between infant and caregiver; responds positively to familiar faces -Clear-cut attachment: (6-24mos) begin to show separation anxiety -Reciprocal relationship: (18-24mos)
10: Erik Erikson | THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT -Erikson believed people to experience 8 “crises” in the form of psychosocial stages. -In infancy, children address the first stage: trust vs. mistrust: infants learn whether or not they can trust their caregivers, and depend on them.
11: -Cassius is learning to trust that his caregivers will respond when he cries. This trust is not yet fully developed; sometimes he will cry when he is put down and nothing is wrong other than he wants to be held. The trust Cassius establishes now will be a building block for future stages of development. -When an infant is neglected, abused or has unmet needs, he learns mistrust. He will carry this mistrust with him throughout his life.
12: Lawrence Kohlberg COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT THEORIST -This theory focuses on the main events that shape the lives of the infant -Children play an active role in their own development -Moral development: infant acts in ways that will benefit him/her – EX: cooing, crying, certain movements such as reaching = attention, hunger -Level one, stage one
13: -They will build on past experiences to increasingly enhance their own understanding of the world. -At 5 months, Cassius is at an age where his mind and perceptions are malleable to learning new information. Youtube: Hungry, Hungry Hippo
14: Howard Gardner | MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY -Belief that everyone possesses 8 intelligences: linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. -An infant primarily develops kinesthetic and spatial intelligences. He will rely on these as he begins to make sense of his surroundings.
15: -Cassius' interpersonal intelligence will develop as his bond grows with his mom. His linguistic development is also beginning.
16: Jean Piaget COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY -Innate desire for infants to make sense of their environment Stages of Cognitive Development: - Children's schemes change over time. - Cognition develops in stages, not gradually. -Each stage builds on the last.
17: Sensorimotor stage Birth-2 years old -Goal–directed behavior: infants behave in ways they know will bring a desired outcome. -Object permanence: realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight. -Symbolic thought: ability to mentally represent and think about external objects and events. -Cassius uses his senses and motor abilities to explore his body and new objects. These schemes are a foundation for later development.
18: Lev Vygotsky | SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY -Development is continuous, no stages. -Culture and society have a great impact on a child’s learning -Knowledge is socially constructed and culturally determined. -Adult instruction and guidance aids development.
19: -Sociocognitive conflict: situation in which one encounters and has to wrestle with ideas and viewpoints different from one’s own. -Zone of proximal development: Cassius benefits most from learning from and playing with a more competent individual.
21: Lauren Allison | Annie Nestor | Stephanie Millsom