FC: Elaine and Lauren's Baby Book
1: Content | Date of birth (3/13/13) Germination Plant Structures Journal
3: INDIAN CORN | BLUE CORN | RADISH
4: Today in class, the seeds were chosen and then planted. For monocots, Indian corn and blue corn were picked and for dicots we went for radish. For germination purposes the seeds were placed in small, empty, glass baby food jars half-way filled with Miracle-Gro soil. In one jar were two Indian corn seeds and in another rested two blue corn seeds. Around five radish seeds were placed in the third jar. After planting the seeds in the soil, we watered the seeds with around 5 mL of tap water. The three jars were then placed next to each other in a black, plastic box that was situated on the sill of a window where there is plenty of sunlight.
5: EMBRYO The embryo is a part of the seed that consists of precursor tissues for leaves, the stem, the roots, and the cotyledon(s) | COTYLEDON The cotyledon is one or two leafs that are on a sporophyte embryo. In dicots, they're photosynthetic. In monocots, they absorb food from the endosperm. | ENDOSPERM The endosperm is a solid in the cell that stores nutrients. It also gives food reserves to the cotyledons.
7: IMBIBITION Imbibition is the uptake of water due to the low water potential of the dry seed. It causes the seed to expand and rupture its coat, which then triggers metabolic changes in the embryo.
8: After imbibition, the seeds begin the process of germination.In this process, the first thing to occur is the root (radical) emerging from the seed coat.Then the shoot tip will break through the soil surface and the hypocotyl will straighten. Next, the cotyledons separate and the epicotyl spreads its leaves. | Germination
9: After all of this happens, the leaves begin making food through photosynthesis and the cotyledons shrivel away. The last step is wen the coleoptile penetrates the soil and the shoot tip then grows upwards and breaks through the coleoptile's tip. | Germination
10: Factors Affecting Germination | 1) Moisture-the dry seed must absorb water to become active 2) Oxygen-During germination, oxygen is required in large quantities, because the rate of respiration has increased. 3)Temperature-Different plants need different temperatures to germinate 4) light-Most seeds are not affected by light, but some require light to come out of dormancy
12: Plant Structures
13: Terminal Bud | The terminal bud is the bud that is located at the tip of the stem. It has apical meristem, which are cells that divide and produce all the differentiated tissues. It is also the main area of growth and is composed of nodes and internodes.
14: Node and Internode | A node is the point where leaves, bud, shoots or flowers come from. The internodes are the segments between the nodes
15: Bud | A bud is where leafs and/or flowers develop. Axillary buds is a single bud on the leaf axils (the upper angle between the stem and leaves).
16: Cotyledon | The cotyledons is the first leaf(s) of the seedling. In a monocot, there is one cotyledon and in dicots, there are two. They contain storage food and in dicots, are photosynthetic.
17: The adventitious roots are roots emerging from the stem in monocots. Each root forms its own lateral roots and creates a fibrous root system. These roots do better in shallow soil, because they don't go in deeply. | Adventitious Roots
18: Lateral roots emerge from the primary root of a plant, which then creates a taproot system with these lateral roots. The roots penetrate deeply and do well in deep soils. | Primary Roots/Lateral Roots
19: Root Hairs | Root hairs increase the surface area of the root and thus help increase the absorption of water and minerals.
20: Leaf | The leaf is the main photosynthetic organ. They're usually made up of a blade, a stalk, and a petiole. Some leafs are built to be able to perform functions such as support, protection, storage, or reproduction.
21: Cuticle and Dermal Tissue | The dermal tissue is the plant's outer coating. It is the first line of defense for the plant. On leaves and most stems, the cuticle is a waxy coat on the epidermal surface, which helps prevent water loss.
22: The plant life cycle
23: Days 1-4 | Every weekday the seeds were given 5 mL of tap water. During this time period no seeds germinated.
24: Today the two radish seeds germinated in the baby food jar. Both of their seed coats ruptured and the hypocotyl and the cotyledons emerged. | Day 5 | RADISH | RADISH
25: Day 6 | Today two of the radish germinated! Both of their seed coats came off, but only one could be seen with its hypocotyl and cotyledons emerged.
27: The radicles have all emerged first and developed into roots. The stems have broken the surface of the soil and most of the radish plants are about 2 cm tall. | Day 8 | RADISH | INDIAN CORN
28: Today, we were surprised to find out that all the seedlings were radish. We are still mystified how this happened as we planted solely Indian corn and blue corn in their respective jars. So today we had to replant the corn and we planted onions in case the corn don't germinate. | Day 9 | All the same thing!
29: Day 9 cont. | Today we also transplanted all the radishes into one, large container. We also put Indian and blue corn seeds in a wet paper towel to germinate and then planted onion seeds in a baby food jar. | ONIONS | RADISH | CORN
30: During this time period the sprouts grew and they displayed phototropism. | Days 11-13
32: Four onion seeds and two radish seeds have germinated. The larger radish seedlings have grown about 1-1.5 inches. | Days 12-14
33: Days 13-17 | During this time, more onion seeds have germinated. Also, an onion seedling was found in the container with all the radish, which have continued to grow for the past few days.
34: Day 20 | Today we transplanted the onions and grass into larger containers. They are all still in the same spot and are all still growing quite rapidly.
35: Days 20-38 | Over the past couple of weeks the plants have grown a lot. Most of the radish seedlings have lost their cotyledons and their true leaves have appeared.
38: Plant Growth
40: The meristem is the part of the tip of the root that is held responsible for the division of new cells.
42: Primary Growth | The lengthening of stems, leaves, and roots
43: Secondary Growth | The thickening of root diameter by addition of vascular tissue
44: Vascular Cambium: produces secondary vascular tissues such as xylem and phloem
45: Cork Cambium: layer of bark which replaces epidermis in roots and stems
46: Auxin: Stimulates cell elongation, differentiation of xylem and phloem, mediates tropism, and delays fruit ripening. | Hormones
47: Gibberellin: Regulate growth, stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, and leaf and fruit senescence.
48: Growth movement determined by a stimulus such as toward the sun. | Tropism
49: This plant is using phototropism because it was not directly under the light, so the cells on the shaded side elongated toward the light.
50: water, food, & nutrient delivery & transport
51: Phloem: is the living tissue in the plant that carries nutrients, mainly sugar, to all parts of the plant. | Xylem: is a plant tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
52: Stomata/Guard cells: are openings on the leaf epidermis for gas exchange of CO2 and O2.
53: Transpiration: is the evaporation of water from the leaves and stems. | Vascular Tissue: is the tissue that water and nutrients run through such as the xylem and phloem.
54: How does soil contribute to plant growth? | Soils are composed of: - Inorganic particles - Organic matter - Living organisms - Pore spaces
55: Role of Casparian Strip: a band of the cell wall which blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into a plant. | Translocation: the movement of materials from leaves to other tissues throughout the plant.
56: Plant Life Cycle | Alternation of Generations: the plant cycle of diploid and haploid generations
57: Sporophyte: The multicellular diploid plant structure which produces spores through meiotic (asexual) division. | Gametophyte: The multicellular haploid plant structure which is formed from the spore and give rise to the haploid gametes.
60: RADISH DICOTS | ONIONS MONOCOTS
61: Monocots and Dicots | Monocots will have once cotyledon in their seeds while dicots will have two. Dicot leaves have branched veins and monocots have parallel veined leaves. Flowers have petals in multiples of three if they are monocots while dicot flowers have petals in muliples of four or five.