S: My ABC Book
BC: The End! Victoria's Abc Book 5th grade 2009
FC: ABC Book of Early America By: Victoria
1: This book is dedicated to Ms. Edmondson and Ms. Novotny who helped me with this project THANK YOU!
2: Crispus Attucks was believed to be born in 1725. No one knows for sure. But, we do know that he died in 1770 from open fire from the British. He took part in the Boston Massacre, one of the worst fights during the American Revolution. On March 5, 1770, a large group of colonists were throwing rocks and snowballs at the redcoats. When the mob moved forward, they knocked down some British soldiers. The soldiers opened fire on the unarmed colonists. Three of the colonists were killed on the spot, while two others died a slow death. One of those colonist were Crispus Attucks, an African - American sailor. The American Revolution relates to Crispus Attucks because Attucks was an African American sailor who was the first person killed in the battle for the colonists’ freedom.
3: A is for Crispus Attucks
4: Anne Bailey was living in western Virginia when the Declaration of Independence was signed. She liked to travel to a lot of different places including – Staunton, Virginia, Lewisburg, Charleston, Point Pleasant, West Virginia, and Ohio. Bailey’s wardrobe usually consisted of buckskin leggings, petticoats, men’s clothing, and a belt that hung her hunting knife. She also carried a rifle that slung over her shoulder. In October of 1774 her first husband, Richard Trotter, was killed as they fought Indians on the western frontier. On learning of his death, she left their young son in the care of their neighbors and rode her horse from one recruiting station to another, rallying up people to join the Virginia Line to fight for their freedom from the Indians, and alter as the British as well. Anne Bailey was an important woman during the late 1700’s because she was known for recruiting the Continental Army, as well as delivering messages to various Army stations.
5: B is for Ann Bailey
6: The community of the Salem Village was surprised to see Martha Corey, as she was known for piety, and dedicated church attendance accused of being a witch. However, she never supported witch trials, though she did not believe witches existed. She was very outspoken about her belief that the accusers were lying, but, several girls promptly accused her of witchcraft. Yet she was not aware of all the pandemonium going throughout the village. When she went to her trial, she simply spoke truthfully about her innocence. As the girls testified, Corey simply said to the judge, not to listen to immature reasoning’s of them. The girls started to mimic Corey’s every move, as if being controlled by her, which was enough evidence to the jury that she was guilty. Martha Corey was hanged on September 22, 1692. Martha Corey was an important person back in history because she was the first woman in the Salem Village accused of being a witch.
7: C is for Martha Corey
8: Thomas Jefferson was asked by Congress to write the Declaration of Independence draft in 1776. Jefferson used his knowledge to explain his ideas, and turned it into a draft of the Declaration. Other members of Congress added ideas and sayings, but Thomas Jefferson was the main author. Every evening, for seventeen days, Jefferson wrote and rewrote the draft of Declaration of Independence. He carefully planned the preamble, or first part of the Declaration, and told why the Declaration of Independence was important or needed. Jefferson also explained why the colonist had the right to break free from Britain and form a new nation. The next part of the draft describes the colonists’ ideas about Britain’s government. But the longest part of the document was the colonists’ complaints against King George III and Parliament. When Thomas Jefferson finished writing, he gave his draft to Congress. On July 4, 1776, Congress voted to accept the Declaration‘s final wording. In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved. The colonists were free. The Declaration of Independence was important to American history because it lead to the colonist’s freedom, and, it also was important because it allowed the Thirteen Colonies to become their own nation.
9: D is for Declaration of Independance
10: Olaudo Equiano was one of the first Africans to write and talk about life as an enslaved person. When he was twelve years old he was sold to an English sea captain who took him on many journeys. Over time, he earned enough money from trading to buy his own freedom. After buying his own freedom, he later attended school in London and became a sailor. In 1789, Equiano published his first autobiography. It became well known in England, and later influenced African Americans writers. His book described life in the harsh deserts of Africa, his time as an enslaved person, and how he gained his freedom. Equiano was an important African American during the war because he gave speeches around the world, trying to convince people to end slavery.
11: E is for Olaudo Equiano
12: Benjamin Franklin was a man of many talents; an extraordinary inventor, a writer, a philosopher, statesman, economist, scientist, and a musician. Since Franklin had a very active and electric type of life, he had two titles- Founding Father, and an American citizen. Franklin was best known for his scientific experiments with electricity. Also as a writer, he was known for Poor Richard’s Almanac, a column he wrote that had a calendar, jokes, weather predictions, and wise sayings. Ben Franklin also help founded a fire station, and a volunteer army to protect the city. Franklin was also known for his political involvement with the Sons of Liberty. Ben Franklin was an important man way back when because, he invented many useful things we use today including – the electric stove, electricity and many more. He was also important and known for his political involvement with the Sons of Liberty. | F is for Benjamin Franklin
14: Bernardo De Galvez was a Spanish military leader and the general of the Spanish forces in Spain. He was also the Governor of Louisiana and Cuba and viceroy of New Spain. De Galvez aided the Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led the Spanish Armies against Britain in the Revolutionary War, luckily defeating them at Pensacola and regaining New Spain once again. Galveston, Texas and several other places were named after him. Bernardo De Galvez was an important Revolutionary Figure because he helped the Thirteen Colonies fight for their independence, and also lead the Spanish Army to victory against Britain. | G is for Bernardo De Galvez
16: Nathan Hale was a teacher who served as an American Spy in New York City. In September of 1776, Hale volunteered to cross enemy lines, (British lines actually,) to spy on the Red Coats to gather intelligence. Unfortunately, his plan had gotten revealed, and Hale got captured. He was examined, and was executed on September 22. Word of the execution was brought to Washington headquarters shortly after a British solider was carrying a flag of truce. Hale is important because he was an American spy who brought important information to the soldiers without getting caught.
17: H is for Nathan Hale
18: Jared Ingersoll was an American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress and signed up for the U.S Constitution for Pennsylvania. Ingersoll joined DeWitt Clinton on the Federalist Party and ran for president, but was beaten by James Madison Elbridge Gerry. He served as a Pennsylvania state attorney general and as the United States attorney for Pennsylvania. Jared Ingersoll was an important person during the 1700’s because he was an important lawyer for Pennsylvania, and he was in office during the 1770’s. | I is for Jared Ingersoll
20: John Paul Jones was America’s first well known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. Although he made many enemies among the American class, his action in British waters during the Revolutionary War earned him an international reputation of being – “Father of the American Navy.” During his battle with the Serapis, Jones uttered, according to his First Lieutenant, the legendary reply about a surrender from the British captain – “ I have yet begun to fight!” John Paul Jones was very famous for being the first well known naval captain, and, for his skills in the water. | J is for John Paul Jones
22: Francis Scott Key was an American lawyer and poet. When the British attacked, Key was there, watching. He was unable to do anything, except to watch the bombarding of the American forces at Fort McHenry during the battle of Baltimore on the night of September thirteenth to the fourteenth. As Key saw the smoke clear, he saw our flag, the American Flag, still waving. On the way back to Baltimore, he was inspired to write a poem describing his experience. Later on, his poem, the Star Spangled Banner was set to music and became our first national anthem. Key was an important poet because he wrote our national anthem. | K is for Francis Scott Key
24: On the morning of April 19, 1775, British soldiers approached Lexington in Virginia, about one hundred military men gathered on the village green with their leader, Captain John Parker.Colonists were waiting for the time to fend off the soldiers. The men didn’t intend on firing at the redcoats, but to only hold their ground to keep the British from advancing.A British officer rode towards the men, and ordered them to disband.As they backed away, a shot was fired.The British soldiers were ordered to fire, and a volley of gunshots rang.Eight patriots lay dead. In just minutes, the Battle of Lexington was over.No one knows who fired that first shot, as it’s famous name- “The shot heard round the world.” Lexington was an important landmark to American history because it was the first shot fired in the American Revolution. | L is for Lexington
26: Jane McCrea was born in 1752 in Bedminster (which is now Lamington) New Jersey. In the summer of 1777, while McCrea was visiting Sarah McNeil, a close friend, both women were captured by Native Americans scouts, scouts that the British sent to capture McCrea and McNeil. McNeil went safely into the hands of the British, but McCrea on the other hand was found dead, with several bullet wounds in her body, she was also found scalped. The Indians claimed that she was shot by a stray bullet from a colonist’s gun. But, it was “obvious” that one of the scouts killed her. The horror spread around the colonies, and it even reached England. The House of Commons Edmund Burke denounced the use of Indian allies. Jane McCrea was an important woman in the Revolution because her tragic death was heard all over the world, and when it was heard, the Government denounced the use of Native Allies.
27: M is for Jane McCrea
28: Thomas Nelson was a delegate from Virginia who was born in Yorktown. He attended private schools, and graduated from Trinity College. Nelson was also a member of the House of Burgess in 1774. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775-1777. Nelson was also one of the many signers who signed the Declaration. He was appointed commander of the Virginia state forces in 1777 and served this capacity until he resigned due to illness. In 1779, he again became a member of the Continental Congress in 1779. Nelson became governor of Virginia in 1781. He died on January 4, 1789. We recognize Nelson’s great efforts today because he signed the Declaration, he took charge of the Virginia state forces, and, he was governor of Virginia. | N is for Thomas Nelson
29: Thomas Nelson's Signature
30: England, France, and Spain all claimed the southern area of South Carolina for themselves. By 1727, England’s new ruler, George II, knew that he had to gain control of the area so he had to send colonists there. A wealthy English leader named James Oglethorpe had an idea. Why not send English debaters to settle a new colony? The settlers would have to defend the land against other countries. Oglethorpe wanted to give the prisoners a new life. King George II gave a charter for the last of the thirteen English colonies. It was called Georgia, in honor of the king. Later, the settlers founded a new settlement and named it Savannah. James was an important leader during the settling of Georgia because he helped found it and also named it. | O is for James Ogelthorpe
32: Pitcher was a nickname given to the women who brought pitchers of water to artillery soldiers during the Revolutionary War. At Fort Washington, New York, in November of 1776, John Corbin, a cannon swabber, was killed by British fire. Molly, a pitcher carrier and trained gunman, grabbed the pole and sponged in his place. The British were victories after the war but found Molly lying, with a mangled arm and wounded chest. She was released by the British when she recovered having no value in a prisoner of war exchange. Molly Pitcher died in 1789 and was buried near West Point in New York. Pitcher was an important revolutionary figure because she was the first woman ever to fire cannons at war.
33: P is for Molly Pitcher
34: Betsy Ross was said to have sown the first American flag for the United States. The flag was supposedly sketched out by General George Washington. A committee from the Continental Congress approached her in June of 1776 and asked her to sow the flag. She agreed after persuading him to use a five pointed star instead of six. Although this story is notorious, with the American Revolution, historians have nothing to prove that this story is true or false. Ross made over several flags for the American Revolution but her making the first American flag made her very famous. Betsy Ross was an important sewer during the American Revolution because she sowed the first American flag.
35: R is for Betsy Ross
36: Salem Witch Trials started in 1682 when a group of girls started to display bizarre activity in the Salem Village in Massachusetts. After those public displays, weird things started to happen. Conclusive seizures, screaming out of proportion and trance like states that effected youngsters (including those two girls.) Physicians were called in to examine those girls. After examination, no natural explanation was said to cause the disturbing behavior. The community reasoned that it must be the work of Satan. Witches had invaded Salem. In February, the towns’ people started to pray and fastening in order to execute the Devils influence. The girls were pressured into revealing who or what in the community was controlling their actions. One (Tibuta) a slave, said that the Devil appeared to her in many forms. “Sometimes like a hog and sometimes like a great dog." To be more troubling, Tituba confessed that a conspiracy of witches permeated Salem Village. In March, the two girls accused Martha Corey for their bizarre and unruly behavior. Mrs. Martha Corey was examined for any witchcraft. After her examination, Martha Corey was tried and convicted of witchcraft. She was hanged on September 22, 1692. This was an important time affiliated with History because nearly 24 people died from hysteria of the witch trials. | S is for Salem Witch Trials
38: St. George Tucker bought a lot from Edmund Randolph in 1788. This lot is known as the St. George Tucker House. This lot had a view of the William Levingstone's theater, the first in America. Since St. George Tucker had over seven kids, his house had to be enlarged over seven times to fit his family’s size. His home was known for many reasons. His first recognition was to have the first bathroom in Williamsburg. Well, it wasn’t really a bathroom in his house; he reconstructed it to his backyard dairy house and installed a copper bathtub which heated water was piped. The tub had a drain, a very fashionable item back during those times. William & Mary Professor Charles F.E. Minnigerode, a political refugee put up Williamsburg's first recorded Christmas tree at the house in 1842. He was a friend of Tucker's son Nathanial. Minnigerode enjoyed Nathanial's children and put up a tree for them in the Tucker’s parlor. A small tree, emblematic of the occasion, was left each Christmas. The Tucker House was important during the period of Williamsburg, Pennsylvania times because the house the first home to have a bathroom instead of an outhouse, and, it was the first home to put up a Christmas tree. | T is for Tucker House
40: Uniforms in the American Revolutionary War could be brown, red or blue, or look like patchwork quilt. Some men wore tattered uniforms, while others were equipped with the best. A proper American uniform was scarce at the beginning of the war, but gradually decided on the uniforms we know today. Uniforms also told you what kind of solider a man was. One way to decide is to look at the shoulder patches. They use color, for example a Corporal wore a green patch, and a Sergeant wore red. Officers had stars on their patches. Another way to tell is by their hats. Many different uniforms distinguished America from England and other countries. Uniforms were an important clothing item, and still are today because it symbolizes our Patriotism towards our country. | U is for Uniforms
42: Vimeur was a professional solider and served in the French Army at the age of seventeen. He also served in the Austrian Succession and the Seven Year’s war. In 1780, he was in command of 5,000 men. His expedition led him to Rhode Island which was risky because the Americans were not certain about the welcome. The expedition was fortunately a success. In addition, Vimeur would be subordinate to the less experienced General Washington. The expedition was a success both military related and diplomatically related. In no small part, it was of course, thanks to Vimeur’s patience, composure, and the French troops helped bring out the success at the Yorktown campaign. In 1782, he retired from the army. Jean Baptiste Vimeur was an important French soldier because he led successful expeditions, and, he served in the Austrian Successions and Seven Year’s War. | V is for Jean Baptiste Vimeur
43: French Uniform
44: Roger Williams was a colonist who disagreed with the Puritan leaders. He often stated them in his sermons. He and his followers believed that church should be separate from the colonial government. They believed that they should live in peace with the Native Americans, and that they should also not be hanged for believing a different religion. Winthrop and they other puritan leaders decided to punish Williams for his dissent*. He was expelled from the colony. Williams and his family moved the western part Boston what is now Narragansett Bay. In 1636 Roger Williams bought land from Narragansett and founded Providence. Williams’s organization was based on agreement of the people and cooperation with the Native Americans. They settlers could choose almost any religion they want. Roger Williams was an important puritan colonist because he spoke out against the puritan leaders, and founded Providence. | W is for Roger Williams
46: By the summer of 1781, British General Charles Cornwallis had set up his headquarters in Yorktown, Virginia. Yorktown was on Chesapeake Bay. This bay made it easy for British ships to bring in important supplies. However, Yorktown was also easy to circle around. Knowing this, French and American soldiers made a plan to surround Cornwallis at Yorktown. Both French and American soldiers marched south to encircle Yorktown. At the same time, the French navy took control of Chesapeake Bay. Cornwallis was surrounded and trapped. He was under attack form both land and sea. After being surrounded for weeks, Cornwallis finally surrendered on October 19, 1781. Battle of Yorktown was an important battle during 1781 because it was the last major battle in the war. | Y is for Yorktown
48: Elizabeth “Betty” Zane was a heroine of the Revolutionary War on the American frontier. Betty Zane, near Wheeling, West Virginia, was named after her. When the family was under siege in Fort Henry by American allies of the British in 1782, her father got wounded .The captain said, “We have lost two men, one Mr. Zane, and another gentleman. We need more gunpowder.” Betty’s father had a box filled of gunpowder buried in refused to let her go. But she had two reasons why she should go- she’s a woman and the enemy would let her pass, and the last reason was that she was the only person who knew where the gunpowder was hidden. The opposing forces, confused of seeing a woman passing by, let her go. People say that when she got to the cabin, she either filled her apron or a table cloth up with ammunition and gunpowder. Unaware of what she was carrying, enemy lines again let her pass. She had gotten the supplies back safely. Elizabeth Zane was an important heroine because she saved us from losing to Native allies at Fort Henry.
49: Z is for Elizabeth " Betty " Zane
50: Credits Page | Thank you to: www.wikipedia.org www.eyewitnesstohistory.org www.kidskonnect.com www.americanrevolution.com AND... For all the great websites posted on Ms. Novotny's webpage