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Africa

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FC: Africa from every direction

2: Bantu Migrations, Oral tradition and religion

3: THe Bantu people were first found in Cameroon, however in about 1000 BC the Bantu people began to migrate across Africa. This migration continued until around the 3rd or 4th century CE. Historical scientists have studied this event and believe there are many reasons for it happening. It may have been due to population growth, which increased the need for more food. Around this time, the banana was introduced to Africa. Another important event in the history of the Bantu is a split that created two major cultures. They are known as the Eastern Bantu and the Western Bantu. The Eastern Bantu migrated to Zimbabwe, Mozambique and down into South Africa. The Western Bantu migrated into Angola, Namibia, and parts of Botswana. Currently the Bantu are known more as a language group than as a distinct ethnic group. Swahili is the most widely spoken Bantu language.

4: GRIOTS Imagine relying on someone's memory to hold your people's history. In many parts of West Africa, this job is carried out by the griot. Over time, the griots' function has changed as society evolved. Once, griots had the job of historians, genealogists, advisers to nobility, entertainers, messengers, praise singers and many others. As performers, griots and were and are still in great demand, not only for ceremonies and parties in West Africa, where they have traditionally appeared, but all around the world. In the United States, they tour universities to give insight into West African culture. ANIMISM The belief of animism is probably one of man's oldest beliefs, with its origin most likely dating to the Paleolithic age. From its earliest beginnings it was a belief that a soul or spirit existed in every object, even if it was inanimate. In a future state this soul or spirit would exist as part of an immaterial soul. The spirit, therefore, was thought to be universal.

5: Eastern Africa: Kush and Axum (Ethiopia) | Picture

6: Kush Kush is a rich and powerful nation that is located in the the southern portion of Nubia. It began in 2000 BCE north of the Nile River and ended in 350 AD. It surrounds Kerma and its capitol is Monroe. In 800 BCE through 350 AD Kush was the center of culture and military strength in Africa. It is known as the land of natural wealth. They worked on iron and bronze and blacksmiths learned how to use iron for knives and spears. They learned iron-smelting from the Assyrians and traded it with other nations. The one god the people of Kush worshiped was known as Amon-Re.

7: Axum Axum is also known as Aksum and is located in Ethiopia. It began in 500 BCE and in the second century of AD Axum took over Northern Ethiopia. They had a single king known as "Negus" who ruled over princesses who gave him credit. They were originally polytheistic and worshiped God. Axum was a strong trading kingdom because the location of it allowed people to gain wealth from trade. The goods they had were passed between Europe, Arabia, Asia, and Eastern Africa. They traded ivory, emeralds, tortoiseshells, and gold mined from earth. They traded all of these things for silk and spices.

8: Kush and Axum Time line 1085 BCE- New kingdom falls 750 BCE- Kush begins to gain more power 200 BCE- Kush moves capitol to Monroe 100- Axumites gain power 320- King Ezana takes over rule in Axum 350- Axum takes over Kush 700- Axumite Empire falls

9: Kush and Axum Compared Kush older Inland Many Gods Rich in natural resources Developed writing and language Axum Younger On the coast Christian Rich in natural resources Traders

10: Southern Africa: Zimbabwe and Swahili states

11: The Great Zimbabwe is located in the present day country of Zimbabwe and the date range for the Great Zimbabwe are from 500 AD-1600 AD. Great Zimbabwe means stone enclosure. | East of the Kalahari desert between Zambezi and the Limpopo River

12: Built religious centers and a place where they worshiped *Mwari. | *Mwari: The creator of all life as well as the sustainer of all things. | Religion ~~~~

13: Religion played a very important role in the development of this society. During the 19th centuries, they started many religious ceremonies including rainmaking ceremonies ,in places like the picture above. It was believed that religion was a powerful force in the state and the rulers were divine people with divine powers.

14: Cause | * Islam tolerated traditional values, allowing a man to have more than one wife. * Islam in Africa had a dynamic history, with reforming movements and dynasties clashing and succeeding each other *Islam was a making a modern influence, imposing a consistent order among different societies

15: Effect | to conversion to Islam | * this made conversion to Islam easier and less upsetting than conversion to Christianity. *Gaining power depended on securing trade routes into gold-producing areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. * strengthening powers of government and breaking down loyalties

16: They traded along the Limpopo River | Traded: Gold, iron, copper, tin, cattle and salt | Imported: Glassware from Syria Minted coin from Kilwa and Tanzania Persian and Chinese Ceramics from between the 13th and 14th centuries

17: Surrounded by huge plains to support their agriculture and herding, by farming and raising cattle, so that the people of Great Zimbabwe could support themselves and other countries. | In an area of several rivers but Great Zimbabwe is not actually on a shore of rivers. This helps them to trade with other countries. | Economy ~~~

18: The Swahili City States were trading cities located on the Eastern Coast of Africa stretching from Kenya to Mozambique.

19: People who live in the Swahili states speak mainly Swahili. | Swahili is mainly a Bantu language with some Arabic elements.The Swahili people live in long areas of the Indian Ocean coastlines from southern Somalia as far south as Mozambique and, like the language, the Swahili culture is a mixture of the Bantu and Arabic cultures. The civilizations of the African east coast are referred to as "Swahili" to reflect this fusion. This area is know as the Swahili Coast.

20: Many Swahili people adopted Islam as their religion. *Mosques were constructed, and people prayed in Arabic. Men wore long Arab robes, and women covered their hair in Muslim style. | *Mosques: Muslim temple or place of public worship

21: The Swahili people used the ocean for trading in distant lands.The Swahili provided the Asian and Mediterranean world with gold, ivory, furs, slaves, tortoise shell, and rhinoceros horns for Persian rugs, Chinese Porcelain and other luxurious items. They manufactured cotton cloth, glass and shell beads, for trade with the east African interior. Their trade network included the Red Sea to Egypt, Oman on the Arabian Peninsula, Shiraz in Persia, Goa and Cambay in India, and China.

22: West Africa: Ghana, Mali & Songhai

23: Ghana (800-1050) -"Land of Gold" - Located in modern-day Mali -Monarchy: King ruled over the kingdom from Kumbi Saleh -Muslim merchants brought their faith to the kingdom -They introduced their written language, coinage, and business methods -GOLD & SALT -Kumbi Saleh was a bustling center of trade -King collected tolls on ALL goods entering or leaving his land | Mali

24: West Africa:Mali Mali began as one of the districts in the kingdom of Ghana. around 1230C.E Ghana collapsed and Mali took over. in, time Mali grew to be greater and lager than Mali. Sundiata was the new king of this new and approved country and he was young and clever. when he became king after Ghana collapsed he still restore trade with neighbors. to keep peace and Mali relied on them for important stuff. He expanded Mali so that Mali could control some gold mines and some salt mines ( isn't that cool). His son Wail would later expand the rest. His grandson Mansa Musa became the greatest king of Mali. Mansa Musa loved poetry and knowledge. and because of that he built a university where even today people learn at because of its great education opportunity.

26: Songhai (1460-1600) -Capitol was Gao -located in present-day Mali & Niger -Did not adopt Islam but followed traditional religious beliefs until Akia Muhammad set up a Muslim Dynasty - Emperor: set up a bureaucracy with separate departments for farming , the military, and the treasury -Wealth came from GOLD and SALT mines

27: By: Kevin C. Kyndall H. Jalyn L. Cameron W. Tiara S.

28: Citations | *cameroon.setac.eu *lg-studio.deviantart.com *http://mapoftheunitedstates.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/map-of-south-africa-large.png *http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=138520 *http://library.thinkquest.org/16645/the_people/ethnic_bantu.shtml *http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/a/animism.htm *http://www.rps.psu.edu/0205/keepers.html *http://www.state.gov/cms_images/zimbabwe_map.jpg *http://www.victoriafalls-guide.net/ancient-zimbabwe.html *http://www.articlegarden.com/Article/Swahili-Language-and-Culture/77625 *http://www.vhinkle.com/africa/kilwa.html *https://sites.google.com/site/afropedia/swahili-city-states *http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_section7.shtml

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