FC: All about cells | By: Jacob Vance and Alec Lunney
1: Cell History -The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 -He discovered cells by looking at a piece of oak cork and seen tiny, hollow, roomlike structures. - The first man to witness a live cell under a microscope was Anton Van Leeuwenhoek in 1674.
2: Mitochondria | Mitochondria provides the energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products.
3: Nucleus | The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. It helps control eating, movement, and reproduction.
4: DNA | DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and function of all known living organelles. ( with the exception of some viruses ). It carries on hereditary information.
5: Chromosomes | Threadlike structures made of protein which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.
6: Cell Membrane | A cell membrane separates the interior of the cells from the outside environment. It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
7: Cell Wall (Plant) | The cell wall provides the cell with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel. The cell wall is only found in plant cells.
8: Flagellum (plural of flagella). | A flagellum is a tail like structure that is used for propelling the organism and moving liquid past the surface of the cell. There are 2 types of flagellum like prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
9: cilium | A cilium is similar to the flagella. For single celled organisms, this allows them to swim. For cells in tissue- it moves liquid over the surface of the cell.
10: Chloroplast | Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of Adenosine triphosphat. They conduct photosynthesis in a cell.
11: Centrioles | Centrioles are found in animal cells and help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division.
12: Endoplasmic reticulum (2 Types) | Endoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for the production of protein and lipid components of most of the cell's organelles. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum- Used to synthesize proteins. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Synthesizes lipids and steroids.
13: vacuoles | Vacuoles plays a roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products. It is easily described as a drainage system.
14: cytoskeleton | Cytoskeleton helps to maintain cell shape. But the primary importance of the cytoskeleton is in cell motility. The internal movement of cell organelles, as well as cell locomotion and muscle fiber contraction could not take place without the cytoskeleton.
15: cytoplasm | Cytoplasm is the substance of life that serves as a molecular soup in which all of the cell's organelles are suspended and held together by a fatty membrane.
16: lysosomes | Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion.
17: golgi apparatus | Golgi Apparatus It is actually a stack of membrane-bound vesicles that are important in packaging macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell.
18: ribosomes | Ribosomes the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell.
19: Plant Cell | These cells make up plants. Plant cells are unique because they are surrounded by a thick barrier for protection, which is known as the cell wall.
20: Animal Cell | Animal cells are a typical Eukaryotic cell. It ranges in size from about 1 to 100 micrometers, and is surrounded by plasma membrane.
21: Bacterial Cell | These are the cells that make up bacteria. They have a very simple internal structure and no membrane bound organelles.
22: Plant vs Animal Cells (differences) | Plant cells have a cell wall as their outer layer, as for animal cells, they have cell membrane. A plate is formed during cell division, in a plant cell, and in an animal cell, the cell pinches in the center to form 2 cells.
23: Plant and animal cells (similarities) | Plant and animal cells are both eukaryotic. Both have a nucleus. Also both contain cytoplasm. They both have a cell membrane. Also they both have Lysosomes.
24: Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic (differences) | Eukaryotic cells are found in animal cells, plant, and fungi. Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus with a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells have a lot of complex organelles. Prokaryotic cells are very simple.
25: Cell Organelles Working Together | All of the organelles perform a certain task. Each organele has an important roll in the life process of the cell