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All you need to know about Sudan

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1: Sudan, in northeast Africa, is the largest country on the continent, measuring about one-fourth the size of the United States. Its neighbors are Chad and the Central African Republic on the west, Egypt and Libya on the north, Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east, and Kenya, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo on the south. The Red Sea washes about 500 mi of the eastern coast. It is traversed from north to south by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders. The climate in sudan is its tropical in the South, arid desert in the north: rainy seasons varies by region | Geography of Sudan

2: The island is situated 58km south of Port Sudan and was once a major trading centre, particularly in the 19th century, during the boom years of slavery. As far back as the 10th century BC, Suakin was used by Pharaoh Rameses III as a trading port, but declined in importance after the close of the 19th century AD, and in 1905 was superseded in importance by Port Sudan. Its unique architecture is made of coral, but these once-beautiful buildings, although restored by the Mahdi in 1881, are now in the final stages of crumbling away. The island is linked to the mainland by means of a causeway. | d | SUAKIN ISLAND

3: KASSALA | This northern-Sudanese market town has a population of about 15,000. The town itself is of little interest, but there are several ancient sites nearby which are worth a visit. Just 2km south of the town is the 100-metre high Jebel Barkal, a hill which was regarded as sacred by the Egyptians of the 18th Dynasty. From its summit, there is an excellent view of the Nile. At its foot lies the Temple of Amun, second only in length to the famous Temple of Karnak. This was once surrounded by about six smaller temples, and ruins of these, together with statuary and hieroglyphics, make this an interesting Cushite site. Lying west of the temple are the Jebel Barkal Pyramids, similar in style to those at Meroe

4: Historical Events | The Nile river flooded Sudan leaving thousands of people homeless in Sudan since it destroy their houses. | In 1962, a civil war broke out againest the African/Christian Sudans in the southern part of Sudan.killing lots of people | USA launches a missile attack on a chemical plant in Khartoum assumed to be with the Al'Qaeeda network

5: Colonial Ruler | The British colonial rule in Sudan administered the Arab and Muslim North and the South For the British, The North and South were administered separately. The North was ruled in the British colonial policy pattern developed in the Egypt and the Middle East (West Asia). On the other hand, the South was ruled through the indirect rule that was predominate policy in imperial Britain African colonies devised by Lord Henry Lugard in the Northern Emirates of Nigeria in 1898. Thus, to ensure the effectiveness of separate administration, the British colonial administration enacted the Closed District Ordinance Act in 1920. In almost sixty years of British rule in the then Anglo- Egyptian Sudan, South Sudanese were never educated at Gordon College (now University of Khartoum). They were educated in British East Africa and Southern Africa.

6: Independence | Independence from Britain and Egypt: 1956 Northern Sudan was taken by Egypt in 1821 and Southern Sudan by the British in 1877. The British invaded Egypt in 1882. In 1883 a revolt was started by the Muslim leader Muhammad Ahmed, the Mahdi. Conflict continued for fifteen years until the Mahdists were defeated in 1898. An Anglo-Egyptian condominium was created. Since independence from British/Egyptian rule in 1956 the country has experienced little relief from civil war between the Arab, Islamic north and African south.

7: Biography about Omar Al-Bashir | A sudanese political and military leader. He is currently the President of the Sudan. Al-Bashier comes from a rural and working class background. He was born in the town of Hoshe Bannaga, 100 Km North East of Khartoum. He did his high school education in the Ahlia Middle School in Shendi. His family then moved to Khartoum were he did his secondary school education. He supplemented his education and family income by working in a motor garage. After his Secondary education, he was admitted into the the military academy as a pilot. He earned his wings in the Airborne Forces, and then transferred to the Infantry Brigade. He holds two masters degrees in Military Science from the Sudanese College of Commanders and MalaysiaIn 1988, he was put in command of the 8th Brigade in the South of Sudan, fighting the rebellion in the South of the Country. In June of 1989, with a group of middle rank military officers, he staged a coup d'etat against the elected Coalition government of Sadiq Al-Mahdi.is policy of Islamization of the Sudan and implementation of the Islamic Law (Sharia) has enraged and fueled the already ongoing war in the South of the Country. Due to the misguided economic and political policies of his government, the economic downturn and the degradation of the state and social institutions in the Sudan continues.

8: Ethnic Groups | The current population is 41,087,825. Some of the ethnic groups are In Sudan, there are five ethnic groups. 39% of Arabs In the early 1990s, the largest single category among the Muslim peoples consisted of those speaking some form of Arabic. Next came Nubians In the early 1990s, the Nubians were the second most significant Muslim group in Sudan, their homeland being the Nile River valley in far northern Sudan and southern Egypt. Other, much smaller groups speaking a related language and claiming a link with the Nile Nubians have been given local names, such as the Birqid and the Meidab in Darfur State. Almost all Nile Nubians speak Arabic as a second language; some near Dunqulah have been largely arabized and are referred to as Dunqulah.

9: Ethnic Groups | Beja :The Beja probably have lived in the Red Sea Hills since ancient times. Arab influence was not significant until a millennium or so ago, but it has since led the Beja to adopt Islam and genealogies that link them to Arab ancestors, to arabize their names, and to include many Arabic terms in their language. Although some Arabs figure in the ancestry of the Beja, the group is mostly descended from an indigenous population, and they have not become generally arabized. Their language (Bedawiye) links them to Cushitic-speaking peoples farther south.There were also Furs The Fur, ruled until 1916 by an independent sultanate and oriented politically and culturally to peoples in Chad, were a sedentary, cultivating group long settled on and around the Jabal Marrah. Although the ruling dynasty and the peoples of the area had long been Muslims, they have not been arabized. Livestock has played a small part in the subsistence of most Fur. Those who acquired a substantial herd of cattle could maintain it only by living like the neighboring Baqqara Arabs, and those who persisted in this pattern eventually came to be thought of as Baqqara.There all way more but those are the common enthnic groups.

10: Religion | More than half Sudan's population was Muslim in the early 1990s. Most Muslims, perhaps 90 percent, lived in the north, where they constituted 75 percent or more of the population. Data on Christians was less reliable; estimates ranged from 4 to 10 percent of the population. At least one-third of the Sudanese were still attached to the indigenous religions of their forebears. Most Christian Sudanese and adherents of local religious systems lived in southern Sudan. Islam had made inroads into the south, but more through the need to know Arabic than a profound belief in the tenets of the Quran. The SPLM, which in 1991 controlled most of southern Sudan, opposed the imposition of the Shari.

11: Industries | oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

12: Agricultural | gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock | cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat

13: Natural Resources | copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, and hydropower. | The natural resources are petroleum; small reserves of iron ore

14: GDP | The GDP for sudan increse over the years like in 2006 it was 75.06 billion in 2007 its 82.27 now in 2008 its 87.27 billion

15: INCOME | Gross national income per capital is 1,780

16: Government | The current government of National Unity is National Congress Party and Sudan People's Liberation Movement formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 - 2009 timeframe

17: Leaders | President: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir | the president is both the chief of state and head of government | Vice President: Ali Osman Taha | Min. of Finance & National Economy Awad Ahmed al-Jaz | Min. of Foreign Trade James Kok Rew | Min. of Federal Govt.Abdalrahman Said,

18: PROBLEMS | Darfur is burning again. More than four months after the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) was signed in Abuja, Nigeria on 5 May 2006, the people of this region of western Sudan are being displaced, killed, terrorized and violated in their thousands. The prospect of an end to a crisis that has devastated the territory since conflict broke out in February 2003 seems more remote than ever.

19: PROBLEMS | Sudan has the second lowest access to primary education in the world after Afghanistan. There are fewer than twenty active secondary schools in the South Sudan. Universities in South Sudan were relocated to North Sudan-Khartoum during the civil war. Some universities are beginning to return to the south but need support. Teacher education is needed. Many teachers have not completed primary school themselves. Only seven percent of teachers in Southern Sudan are trained. Only ten percent of girls ages 7-14 attend school. Ninety percent of schools are without buildings; classes meet under trees. Most schools have no latrines or toilets. The majority have no safe drinking water. Out of an estimated population of 7.5 million, only five hundred girls in Southern Sudan complete primary school each year.

20: POSITIVE | 1-They are kind people and treat any foreign one kindly | 2-They have a good animal wealth | 3. They are hard workers.

21: NEGATIVE | 1-The high debts prevent any upgrade | 2- The sudanese people can't resist the high effort | 3-The spreading of the terrorism and nation wars | 4-The absences of the health care and healthy culture. | 5-The working of children and use them in the wars. | 6-The low income so that means most people are homless and are starving

22: http://www.who.int/countries/sdn/en/ | Reference page | https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html | http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/sudan/SOCIETY.html | http://www.iss.co.za/AF/profiles/Sudan/Economy.html | http://africanhistory.about.com/library/bl/bl-Independence-EA2.htm#Sudan

23: Reference page | http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107996.html | http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/sudan/sudhist.htm | http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5424.htm | http://www.sudanembassy.org | http://www.worldtravelguide.net/country/266/climate/Africa/Sudan.html | http://david-morse.com/hopeforariang/education/

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