BC: Abby Lam AP Biology
FC: Collected Terms | Abby Lam | AP Biology | 40
1: Abby Lam AP Biology
3: 1. Eukaryote | Eukaryotes are any organisms that are made up of eukaryotic cells, which are cells with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotes include all protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
5: 2. Autotroph | Autotrophs are organisms that use inorganic material to make their own nutrition through photosynthesis (which uses sunlight) or chemosynthesis (which uses chemical reactions). Autotrophs include plants, which take in sunlight and convert it to make their own food through photosynthesis.
7: Hermaphrodites refer to organisms that carry both the female and male reproductive organs. An example of a hermaphrodite organism is the hibiscus flower, which has both stamen (the male part that includes the filaments and anthers) and the pistil (the female part which includes the stigma, the style, the ovary, and ovule). | 3.Hermaphrodite
9: The ovary of flowers is part of the pistil—the female reproductive part of flowers. It is typically found at the bottom of the flower, where the petals and sepals meet. The ovary holds the ovule(s), which is the part that gets fertilized and turns into seeds. Matured flower ovaries usually turn into fruit. | 4. Flower Ovary
11: 5. Anther and Filament of Stamen | The stamen is the male reproductive organ of a flower. It consists of an anther (represented by the top arrow) and the filament (represented by the bottom arrow). The filament is the stalk of the stamen. Attached on top of the filament is the anther, where pollen is produced in pollen sacs.
12: 6. Pollen
13: Pollen is a typically yellowish powder-like material that contains the gametophytes of seed plants. This is the fertilizing element in plant reproduction. Pollen is produced in pollen sacs located where the anther is and is usually carried by pollinators or the wind to other plants, fertilizing them.
15: 7. Herbaceous Stem | Herbaceous plants are those that have no woody stems above the ground. Herbaceous stems die at the end of certain growing seasons, unlike woody stems that stay alive all year. However, when the stems of herbaceous stems die, a part of the plants, such as the roots, stay alive under/ close to the ground. When the next growing season comes, the plants will regrow from the parts that remained alive. An example of herbaceous stem would be the stems of dandelions, which can regenerate from its roots.
17: Woody stems are the primary support of woody plants,which include trees, shrubs, and woody vines. Woody stems provide a vascular system that allows woody plants to transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves as well as move sugar from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Woody stems add a new layer of woody tissue every year, resulting in their thick diameter. Unlike herbaceous stems, they do not die at the end of a certain growing season. | 8. Woody Stem
19: 9. Heartwood | Heartwood is the inner core of a tree trunk. It is darker, denser, and harder than the surrounding sapwood. The heartwood is nonliving and provides support for the tree.
21: 10. Deciduous Leaf | Deciduous trees shed their leaves annually— most of the time during the fall. Deciduous leaves fall off and change colors seasonally and can be found on common trees, such as red oaks (bottom picture) and maple trees (top picture).
23: 11. Angiosperm | Angiosperms are also known as "flowering plants." They are any plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary or fruit. An example would include the orange tree shown in the picture, which has fleshy fruit that bares the seeds of the plant.
25: 12. Fruit (fleshy with seed) | Fruit are the part of flowering plants that contain the seeds, formed from the matured ovaries of plants. Many fruit come in a form in which the seeds are surrounded by a fibrous, fleshy fruit wall that can be eaten as food by animals (such as the citrus fruit shown on the left). These edible fruit offer animals nutrition and in return the animals that eat these fruit assist in seed dispersal.
26: 13. Fruit (dry with seed)
27: Fruit are the means in which plants can spread their seeds out to wide areas of land. But unlike fleshy fruit which rely mainly on animals for seed dispersal, dry fruits usually spread their seeds out by releasing it, allowing the wind to carry the seeds away, or letting their seeds be carried away on animals. Dry fruit do not have a fibrous edible flesh that surrounds the seeds. Instead, the seeds are usually protected inside capsules or pods, and when the fruit is ripe and ready for seed dispersal, the fruit would usually pop open and release the seeds inside. An example of such fruit is the fruit of magnolia trees as shown.
29: 14. Gymnosperm Leaf | Gymnosperms are plants that produce seeds not surrounded by an ovary or fruit. The leaves of gymnosperms are very distinctive. Most are evergreen (meaning they stay green all year) and usually come in forms that are awl-like, scale-like, or needle-like. Most common are the needle- and scale-like leaves of conifers, such as in the pictures shown.
31: 15. Gymnosperm Cone | Gymnosperms are plants that produce exposed seeds/ovule. As opposed to angiosperms— the other type of seed producing plants— the ovules of gymnosperms are not enclosed in an ovary. Instead, the ovules of gymnosperms sit on the surface of the scales of cones, where pollen grains can land directly on them and fertilize them. An example of a gymnosperm cone is the common pine cone, which bares the seeds of conifer trees.
33: The familiar pine cones we recognize on the streets are female pine cones. Female pine cones are woody and produce the seeds on their scales, while male cones are usually herbaceous and produce the pollen that fertilizes the ovules on the female cones. | 16.Pine Cone (Female)
35: LONGTAIL BOATS OFF THE COAST OF MAYA BAY | November 13 | 17. Dicot Plant with Flower & Leaf | Dicot plants are plants with two embryonic leaves in its seed, meaning two leaves sprout from the ground when the plant grows, with the stem growing between the leaves. They differ from monocot flowers in that their flower parts (such as their petals or stamen) come in multiples of four or five. Also, unlike monocots, dicot plants have leaves that display branched leaf veins, with multiple small veins dividing out of the major veins.
37: 18. Monocot Plant with Flower & Leaf | Monocots are flowering plants that have only one cotyledon (leaves inside the seed). Monocots are characterized by flowers with flower parts that come in a multiple of three— such as lilies with six petals as shown in the picture— and leaves that have parallel veins as opposed to branched veins displayed in dicots. Unlike dicots that have their vascular bundles arranged in rings along the stem, the vascular bundles of monocots are scattered throughout the stem.
39: C4 plants refer to plants that perform C4 carbon fixation, which is one of three processes in carbon fixation. C4 plants produce four-carbon compounds as opposed to the more common three-carbon molecule products of C3 plants during carbon fixation. Unlike C3 plants, C4 plants have a higher water use efficiency, making them more adapted for areas of arid climate, as well as allowing them to survive under conditions of drought, limited nitrogen/carbon availability, and high temperatures. An example of a C4 plant is crabgrass, which tends to grow when lawn conditions are poor. | C 4 P L A N T | 19.
41: 20. | Frond | Frond is defined as a large compound/ divided leaf that consists of many leaflets on a single stem. Front usually refers to the leafs of ferns, cycads, and palms, although sometimes the term is limited to only the leafs of ferns.
43: The cuticle is the waxy outer layer that covers the epidermis on the leaves and other exposed organs of plants. This protective layer prevents water loss in plants and is generally thicker on plants in dry environments than plants found in wet environments. The cuticle layer of a plant can be found just on the surface of its leaves. | 21. Cuticle Layer of a Plant
44: 22. Modified Leaf of a Plant
45: In order to adapt to their surroundings, plants often modify or change some of their features, such as the color of their leaves to improve their chances of reproduction and survival. An example of leaf modification is the pink colored bracts depicted on the left. The large brightly colored bracts attract pollinators to the small flower it surrounds.
47: Many plants often would modify their stems to provide more support or protection. An example of a modified stem of a plant would be thorns. Thorns are sharp structures that protrude out of the stems/branches of plants in order to help the plant fend of unwanted guests. | 23.Modified Stem of a Plant
48: Tendril of a plant | 24.
49: THE MOUNTAIN TEMPLE, WAT ARAT | November 8 | Tendrils are modified stems of climbing plants that look like long spirals. They give the plants support, allow them to attach to different surfaces, as well as help fend off invasion from certain parasites.
51: 25. Thorn of a Plant | Thorns are a version of modified branches/ stems of a plant. They are sharp and pointed and act as a form of defense from unwanted parasites.
53: 2. Adaptation of a Plant | 26.Adaptation of a Plant | When climates are dry and unfavorable, plants have to learn to adapt in order to survive. An example of an adaptation of a plant to dry climate is the thick, water-retaining structure of the succulent plant shown in the picture. This plant has a thick, fleshy appearance due to the amount of water that is stored in its leaves, stem, and roots to make sure that it has a supply of water when the surrounding soil is devoid of it.
55: There are various examples of animal adaptations, one of them being the bills of ducks. Duck bills are usually flat and rounded, much like a spoon. This specialized structure allows them to efficiently scoop up fish and other food in the water. In addition, the tips of duck bills are typically nail-hard so they can use their bills to root up food on ground too. | Adaptation of an Animal
56: 28. Endotherm
57: Endotherm refer to warm-blooded animals such as birds and mammals. Endotherms are able to maintain a constant body temperature by generating heat internally, independent of the environment. This allows them to survive in environments of relatively low temperatures, unlike ectotherms.
58: 29. Ectotherm
59: Ectotherms are cold-blooded animals such as reptiles, insects, amphibians, and many types of fish. Ectotherms, unlike endotherms, rely on external sources, such as sunlight or heated surfaces, to regulate their body temperatures.
60: 30. K-strategist
61: K-strategists refer to large size organisms, such as humans, elephants, whales, and cats, that usually live in a stable environment. K-strategists live in populations constantly close to the carrying capacity of their environment, controlled by density dependent factors such as competition. Species of K-strategists are characterized by low mortality, long life expectancy, late maturity, long periods of parental care, and individuals that usually produce few offspring.
63: 31. R- Strategist | R-strategists refer to organisms that live in unstable environments and survives relying on their ability to reproduce quickly with numerous offspring. Traits tied to r-strategist include small bodies, early maturity, short generation time, little or no parental care, and the ability to widely disperse their offspring. R-strategist populations are large, but fluctuate frequently, growing exponentially then suddenly crashing. R-strategists include various weeds, insects (such as the beetle shown), and small rodents.
65: 32. Exoskeleton | Exoskeletons are external skeletons. They give support and protection just as internal skeletons do. Animals that have exoskeletons include arthropods such as insects and spiders.
66: 33. Arthropod
67: Arthropods are invertebrate animals that have a segmented body, jointed legs, and an exoskeleton made of chitin. Examples of arthropods include insects, crustaceans, and arachnids such as spiders.
69: Insect | 34. | Insects are a class of arthropods, meaning they are a type of invertebrate that have an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. The body of insets come in three sections: the head, the abdomen, and the thorax (where the wings are usually found). In addition, insects are also characterized by three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and antennas.
70: 35. Chitin
71: Chitin is the fibrous, polysaccharide substance that is the main component that makes up the exoskeletons of arthropods, the cell walls of fungi, the beaks of cepholapods, and the radula of mollusks. Chitin is similar to keratin, as they both provide a protective covering and/or structural support in certain organisms. Chitin can be found in the exoskeletons of insects such as the beetle in the picture.
73: Keratin | Keratin is a fibrous protein that is the main component in forming hair, feathers, hoofs, claws, horns, the outer layer of our skin, as well as many other aspects of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. This special protein is known for its toughness and insolubility.
75: 37. Animal that has a Segmented Body | Some organisms have bodies that consists of a series of repeated segments. This includes insects, which typically have three segments: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen.
77: Annelids are worms/ worm-like creatures that belong to the Annelida phylum, consisting of various segmented worms that include many earthworms and leeches. Annelids are characterized by long, cylindrical bodies that have numerous, practically identical segments that contain the same set of internal organs and same external structure. | 38.Annelid
79: In nature, the body of most organisms are symmetrical. Radial symmetry refers to a distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes arranged around a central axis. Radial symmetry is displayed in many plants and flowers, where identical petals and stamen meet at the center of the flower. | 39. Radial Symmetry
81: 40. Phloem | Phloem is the vascular tissue in plants that transports food materials, such as sucrose and other sugars, to other parts of the plant. Phloem cells are one of the major components of plant stems.