S: AP BIO SUMMER ASSIGNMENT 2012 BY ALLAN LAM
BC: Special thanks James Uchem
FC: AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT BY ALLAN LAM
1: Modified Stem of A Plant A modified stem is a specialized or transformed stem. It is a plant organ that is usually a portion of the aboveground parts of the plant collectively called shoot, but in some species they are underground. They are modified, or specialized, in that they perform special functions and are usually transformed into non-stem forms. | Rhizome A continuously growing horizontal underground stem that puts out lateral shoots and adventitious roots at intervals.
2: Autotroph An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. | Adaptation Of A Plant: Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.
3: Herbaceous Plant a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests. | R-Strategists Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.
4: Radial Symmetry Symmetry around a central axis, as in a starfish or a tulip flower. | Xerophytes A plant that needs very little water and had altered its form to adapt to dry environment.
5: Amylase An enzyme, found chiefly in saliva and pancreatic fluid, that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars | Animal With A Segmented Body: Truly segmented animals would be considered to have organs that were repeated, or having a body composed of self-similar units, but talking of a "segmented organism" is vague: rather, one should refer to which parts of the organism are segmented. Organisms that usually exhibit this feature are arthropods.
6: Arthropod An invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitin. | Lignin A complex organic polymer deposited in the cell walls of many plants, making them rigid and woody.
7: Deciduous Leaves All leaves drop in the autumn and are not evergreen. | Exoskeleton A rigid external covering for the body in some invertebrate animals, esp. arthropods.
8: Plant Cuticle Plant cuticles are a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells  of leaves, young shoots and all other aerial plant organs without periderm. The cuticle tends to be thicker on the top of the leaf, but is not always thicker in xerophytic plants living in dry climates than in mesophytic plants from wetter climates, despite a persistent myth to that effect. | Niche This species has to live in my backyard of typical Alief conditions. Each species is thought to have a separate, unique niche. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors.
9: Glycogen A substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates; a polysaccharide that yields glucose on hydrolysis. | Pollen A fine powdery substance, typically yellow, consisting of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of a flower or from a male cone. Each grain contains a male gamete that can fertilize the female ovule, to which pollen is transported by the wind, insects, or other animals.
10: Amniotic Eggs The amniotes are a group of tetrapods (four-limbed animals with backbones or spinal columns) that have a terrestrially adapted egg equipped with an amnios. They include synapsids (mammals along with their extinct kin) and sauropsids (reptiles and birds), as well as their fossil ancestors. | Bryophyte Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refer to all embryophytes (land plants) that do not have true vascular tissue and are therefore called 'non-vascular plants. Some bryophytes do have specialized tissues for the transport of water; however since these do not contain lignin, they are not considered to be true vascular tissue.
11: Basidiomycete A fungus whose spores develop in basidia. Basidiomycetes include the majority of familiar mushrooms and toadstools | Cellulose An insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton. It is a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers
12: Fermentation The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat. The process of this kind involved in the making of beer, wine, and liquor, in which sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol. | Woody Stem A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. These are typically perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced adjacent to the vascular tissues. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of thickened bark.
13: Ectotherm An animal that is dependent on external sources of body heat. | Thorn Of A Plant A stiff, sharp-pointed, straight or curved woody projection on the stem or other part of a plant Typically assumed to be used as a defense mechanism.
14: Abscisic Acid (ABA) A plant hormone that promotes leaf detachment, induces seed and bud dormancy, and inhibits germination. | Modified Leaf On A Plant When a leaf is performing some functions other than photosynthesis or transpiration, then it needs to have some structural changes in itself. The leaves which are performing these additional functions having changed their looks are called as modified leaves.
15: Ethylene The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress, aging, deterioration, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening (flowering). The banana is example result. | A Long-Day Plant A plant that flowers (usually in late spring or early summer) only when the light period is longer than a critical length in order to induce flowering.
16: Chitin A fibrous substance consisting of polysaccharides and forming the major constituent in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi/ In terms of structure, chitin may be compared to the polysaccharide cellulose and, in terms of function, to the protein keratin. | Insect Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods typically identified to have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and one pair of antennae.
17: Angiosperm A plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. The angiosperms are a large group and include herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees | Actin Actin is multi-functional protein found in most eukaryotic cells where it may be present at concentrations of over 100 M. Thus, actin participates in many cellular processes, such as muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division and cytokinesis, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape.
18: Eubacteria A bacterium of a large group typically having simple cells with rigid cell walls and often flagella for movement. The group comprises the “true” bacteria and cyanobacteria, as distinct from archaebacteria. | Gastropod Gastropods are more commonly known as snails and slugs, are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca. The class Gastropoda includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to quite large. There are huge numbers of sea snails and sea slugs, as well as freshwater snails and freshwater limpets, and land snails and land slugs.
19: Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation. | Dried Fruit With Seed In its strict botanical sense, the fleshy or dry ripened ovary (enlarged portion of the pistil) of a flowering plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Dry fruits include the legumes, cereal grains, capsules, and nuts
20: Keratin Keratin refers to a family of fibrous structural proteins. Keratin is the key of structural material making up the outer layer of human skin. It is also the key structural component of hair and nails. Keratin monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments, which are tough and insoluble and form strong unmineralized tissues found in reptiles, birds, amphibians, and mammals.
21: Woody Stem A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. These are typically perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced adjacent to the vascular tissues. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of thickened bark. Woody plants are usually either trees, shrubs, or lianas.