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AP Biology Summer Assignment

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AP Biology Summer Assignment - Page Text Content


1: Stem The main trunk of a plant. The trunk of this tree is the stem that supports the leaves, transport water, stores nutrients, and produces new tissue. | Frond A large leaf with many divisions. This fern leaf has many divisions into smaller leaves. | Pine cone (female) An organ on plants in the conifers division that produces the seeds

2: Fruit (Fleshy with seed) Fruits that have a fleshy part between the fruit's covering and the seeds. Strawberries are fleshy fruit with seeds on the outside. | Conifer Leaf A type of gymnosperm leaf that does not have flowers. Its' spores are naked on the surface and has "naked" seeds. | Basidiomycrete A group of fungi constituting the phylum Basidiomycota of the kingdom Fungi. These mushrooms are common fungi. | Insect Organisms within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton. Caterpillars have an exoskeleton that they shed in which they eventually become a butterfly.

3: R-Strategists Species that have a small, short lifespan. They produce many offspring, although many do not survive. R-strategist increase the possibility of survival by having a large population of offspring. These weed have many offspring, but don't live for very long. | Xylem One of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants. It is the tissue that functions to transport water and nutrients from the soil to the plant.

5: Scale from animal with two chambered heart Some species have a two-chambered heart that supports single circulation. It can be found in fishes because they have gills instead of lungs. | Fruit (Dry with seed) Fruits with a dry seed that have a "seedpod" and can be opened to expose seeds and vice versa. This cashew is a nut which is a form of a fruit with a dry seed.

6: Radial Symmetry A structure of an organism that has a top and bottom, but no left or right sides. If one were to cut this flower in half, it would have mirror images. | Abscisic acid A lipid hormone that inhibits cell growth in plants. This hormone helps plants deal with water loss, helps grow roots, induces seeds, and more.

7: Xerophytes A plant that has adapted to survive in an dry habitat. This cactus has adapted to by having leaves that reduce evaporation of water and also stores water.

8: Epithelial tissue The skin of tightly packed cells that cover the body and line internal organs and cavities. One side of an epithelium is underlying the tissues and the other side faces the outside of the organ like the skin.

9: Modified stem of a plant A stem of a plant that has been modified over time through evolution. The stem of the banana allows bunches of the fruit to develop. | Lipid used for energy storage Considered fatty acids that store energy, hormones, and vitamins that form the membranes around our cells. Olive oil, above is a lipid that stores fat.

10: Flower ovary A female reproductive organ of the flower. When pollen is found in the ovary, it fertilizes the endosperm and ovule. | Long Day Plant A plant that requires a minimum amount of hours of sunlight to flower. Clovers are long-day plants that flower only during specific times of the photoperiod. | Endotherm Organism that produces heat through internal means such as shivering. Birds use their feathers as insulation. | Mutualism A symbiotic relationship between two organisms for survival. This flower has a bee transport pollen from flower to flower. The plant benefits because its' gymnosperm spreads and the bee finds pollen for its' hive.

11: Gymnosperm Leaf A vascular plant that has seeds not enclosed in an ovary. This pine leaf is an evergreen that has needle like leaves.

12: Thorn of a plant Thorns are modified stems. The thorns on the cactus are adaptations that help it absorb water and protect it from predators.

13: K-strategists Species of organisms that use reproductive "strategies" and live a long life. Their population reaches the capacity of the environment, but remains table. Humans are an example because they grow slowly, live long, and produce few offspring.

14: Muscle Fiber (Striated) A form of fibers that are combined into parallel fibers in the muscle tissue. In order for Ann to throw the ball in the air, her wrist must voluntarily move with the help of the straited muscle.

15: Adaption of a plant A change in the plant to its' genes and/or physical appearance to aid in survival. The cactus changed its' leaf for thrones to hold more water due to hot weather | Stem (Herbaceous) Plants with stems that are pliant and covered by a thin epidermis instead of bark like woody plants | Carbohydrate (Fibrous) Complex carbohydrates that usually come from green vegetables, needed for digestion process. Full of fiber, they are the indigestible portion of plant material. | Amylase An enzyme that helps break down sugars, carbs, and starches in the digestive system. My friend's dog is showing saliva that contains amylase on its' tongue.

16: Glycogen A polysaccharide used for energy storage in multicellular animals. The cat stores energy in their liver using glycogen. Glycogen is formed through glyocgensis, which occurs in the stomach and brain. When energy is needed, the liver breaks down the glycogen into glucose through hydrolysis.

17: C4 Plant A plant in which C02 is first fixed into a compound containing four carbon atoms before entering the Calvin cycle. It has special adaptations that prevent photorespiration when the weather is hot and dry. This cactus absorbs water and stores it for later. | Gymnosperm Cone Gymnosperms are plants in which the seeds are produced in open organs known as cones. Male cones are found lower down in the branches and female cones are found higher up in the tree.

18: Pholem A food-conducting tissue found in vascular plants. Inside the stem of this plant, the phloem conducts the sugar and glucose from the leaves during photosynthesis to other parts of the plant. | Auxin producing area of a plant Auxin is a Indoleacetic acid that regulates the growth and development of a plant. The Auxin producing area of the plant is the new buds/leaves. The tip of the buds contain the Auxin that is needed for the flower to bloom.

19: Protein (Fibrous) Proteins that are strong,insoluble, and provide structure for organisms. There are three subgroups: keratin, collagen, and elastin. Keratin can be found in hair like my friend Sarah above.

20: Anther & Filament of stamen The stamen of a flower is the male reproductive organ. Each stamen has a filament. The top of the filament is the anther and the pollen sacs. The anther is a pollen-bearing portion of the stamen. You can see the anther inside the flower containing pollen. | Vascular tissue of a plant The conductive system of the plant consisting of xylem and pholem. The xylem conducts water while pholem conducts food | Ethylene A hydrocarbon plant hormone, gas form. It controls the ripening of fruit, opening of flowers, and falling leaves. The apple above is ripped due to the effects of ethylene. | Calvin Cycle A series of biochemical, light reactions that appear in the chloroplast during photosynthesis. The leaf shows carbon fixation, sugar and starches being produced

21: Enzymes Enzymes can be found in detergents. The enzymes break down the proteins that make up stains causing substances like food or grass.

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