S: AP Bio Summer Assignment
FC: Maithy Tran's awesome AP BIO Summer Assignment
1: Let's begin this journey and get down to some explosively, mind-blowing, rainbow-shattering, biology
2: Hermaphrodite An organism that has both female and male sex organs, capable of producing either sex gametes. Most Flowering plants are Hermaphrodite | Herbaceous Stem An herbaceous stem ( shown above) contains little to no bark covering. Instead, they are cover by a thin epidermis. Due to pith, apical meristem, and inactive cambium, an herbaceous stem greatly increases in height but not diameter. They also die down at the end of the season.
3: Frond Fronds are the leaves of ferns, palms ( this is a leaf from my palm tree), and nonvascular plants. Some of their characteristics involve being large and distinctly divided. | Autotroph An primary producer with the ability to provide themselves with self nourishment. They commonly use inorganic materials and photosynthesis as their nutrients and energy. Most plants and certain bacterias are Autrotrophs.
4: Radial Symmetry The arrangement of an organism's body parts around a central axis. This flower demonstrate radial symmetry because if one were to cut this flower in halves, the products would be equal no matter what side it is cut from. | Woody Stem The stem of woody plants ( trees, shrubs, etc.) The one shown was a shrub. The stem is covered by wood and composed of elements like lignin and cellulose. This stem provides structure and transport the water and nutrients from the root to the leaves of this plant.
5: Heartwood Here is a picture of a chopped down tree. As you can see the inner middle part is darker than the rest. This is the heartwood. The heartwood is made of dead cells and is harder than the outer wood. This makes it a crucial support for the plant's structure. | Keratin a fibrous structural protein found in the outer layer of human skin, hair, and nails.
6: Genetically modified organism AN organism that has been genetically engineered. Their DNA is tampered with to create a new set of modified genes. Some tomatoes sold in markets ( like these in my refrigerator) were genetically modified to soften after harvesting. | Connective tissue a kind of tissue that supports other tissues such as the epithelial tissue. This type of tissue is found in adipose, bone, and cartilage. This is a picture of my brother's ears which contain cartilage.
7: K-strategist To overcome unpredictable environmental conditions, some species has developed strategies. Those who chose k-selection, who are k-strategists, live in stable environments and produced a few off-springs. These carefree kids are K-strategists. They have K-strategist's characteristics such as being large,maturing late, and having a longer life expectancy than R-strategists.
8: Lipids used for energy storage Lipids are molecules that are grouped together because of their insoluble properties in water but remain soluble in nonpolar solvents. The most well-known lipids are fats, phospholipids, monoglycerides, diglycerides, steroids, etc. This cooking oil contains fatty acids that function to store energy in animals. It also make my mom's cooking taste better. | Ectotherm An organism that regulates its body's heat by exchanging heat with its environment. They are also known as cold-blooded animals ( turtles, frogs,lizards, etc.) These shrimps were once ectothermic but now they're a delicious dinner. :)
9: Glycogen A branched polysaccharide that provides the primary carbohydrate storage in animals and is the secondary long term energy storage. It can be readily converted to glucose and is found mainly in the human liver and kidneys. And, as my mom demonstrated, glycogen is also found in muscles. | Fermentation An anaerobic cellular process that converts organic carbohydrates into simpler compounds, while producing ATP ( a chemical energy). This process is used in making wine. They convert sugar into alcohol with the use of yeast.
10: Endotherm Organisms that maintain a constant body temperature despite the temperature they live in. Species such as birds, mammals, fish are all endothermic. My brother is no exception. He pants, perspires, shivers to make up heat loss. He also require a lot of food (fuel) to produce heat. | Eukaryote A cell with organized compartments called organelles, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, golgi, and flagella. The nucleus, especially, is encased within membranes. Plants, fungi, and animals ( us, humans) all have eukaryotes surging through us.
11: Long-day plant Plants that flower only after being exposed to light for long periods of time ( well, a longer period than other plant). This lettuce found in my fridge is a long day plant. | Epithelial tissue A type of tissue that covers the entire body ( including my arm here) lining the internal and external body surfaces. It is made up of cells packed close together and are usually one or more layers thick. They also provide us protection from the outer world or inner spaces of our body.
12: Amniotic eggs a type of egg where embryo develops inside a amnion. These type of eggs usually have a yolk that provides nourishment to their youth. The shell is calcium-based. Reptiles, birds ( the chicken egg depicted), and other egg laying mammals typically lay these amniotic eggs. | Basidiomycete Fungi bearing sexually producing spores on their basidium. These freshly picked mushrooms are examples of basidiomycetes.
13: Female pine cone a pine cone contains the reproductive structures of Pine tress. Female cones are usually hard, woody, and scaled.They are usually one to twenty-four inches long. And, they are the most common seen because they are located lower on the tree than males.
14: Gymnosperms cone The gymnosperms cone ( pictured here) are gametophytes. They come from trees that don't produce flowers. These trees or shrubs borne their seeds into these cones. They are open seed carriers until the male pollen ( from male cones) adheres to female cones. From then on, the zygote will convert to an embryo. | I lost the green charm :( so from now on this little guy will be in our pictures.
15: Plant cuticle The " sheen" you see is the plant cuticle. It gives plant that waxy, protective layer, made of Cutin. It covers the epidermis of plants and protect them from UV radiation. They also help support the plant's structure. | Thorn of a plant These spikes are thorns. Thorns are a modification of a stem or leaf in the shape of a sharp woody spine. This protects most fragile and short lived herbaceous plants from herbivores.
16: Deciduous Leaves Deciduous trees shed their leaves once a year. They have bilateral symmetry and turn red, yellow, or orange in the cooler seasons. | R-Strategists Species who are apart of R-selection are R-strategists. Some o their defining characteristics includes rapid maturation, short life spans, and a high number of reproduction. PS. I found my green charm :)
17: Cellulose Cellulose is a fibrous polymer made up by a series of carbohydrates. It's structure is thick, rigid, and "rod-like". It is the main structural component in green plant's cell walls and is what gives their structure strength and rigidity. | Conifer Leaf Conifer leaves come from plants that produce gymnosperm cones.Such plants belong to the Coniferinae class. The leaves generally have an overlapping or awl-like pattern that taper to a sharp point.
18: Fibrous Proteins Insoluble elongated molecules that are strong and are essential in serving the body's structure and protection needs. They are an important component in human hair. | Abscisis Acid ( ABA) A plant hormone that is very common in many plants. One of its main function is to help plant adapt to certain changes in the environment. A few of their other functions include protecting the cells from dehydration, stimulating root growth, promoting dormancy in buds and seeds. Studies have shown a great amount of Abscisis acid in apple seeds.
19: Eubacteria Prokaryotic organisms from the Bacteria domain. The name means " true bacteria" and include all bacterial organism except Archaebacteria. Common characteristics include being unicellular with DNA in their chromosome and not having an enclosed nucleus. They live inside or on the human body, (especially on smelly feet). However, only a few of them are actually harmful.
20: Ethylene A gaseous plant hormone that is mainly associated with fruit ripening. However, it has other functions such as stimulating shoot and root growth. It is found in almost all parts of a plant's body but more abundant in the old spots of ripening fruits. | Enzymes Enzymes are molecular catalysts that decreases the activation energy of an reaction, which in turn increases the rate of the reaction. Enzymes can be found in milk, where the enzymes breaks lactose down to glucose.
21: Amylase An enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugar. Amylase can be found in the human saliva, pleasant isn't it? | Sporophyte plants that produces asexual spores. Pine cones are mainly sporophyte. Their tree is sporophyte but the reproductive cones are gametophytes.
22: Fruit with fleshy seed Fruits that contain several seeds with an inner layer of " fleshy" material. The most common fleshy fruits are apples( shown here), pears, and grapes. | Actin A globular protein found in all eukaryotic cells. This protein is active when a muscle contracts. Check out my brother's non-existent triceps.
23: Modified leaf of a plant When a lead alter itself to perform more functions than photosynthesis and transpiration. For this purpose, the plants can change their structure of leaves, color, or even add spines/thorns. This Aloe Vera plant's leaves are covered with thorns to protect itself from predators and their waxy dense covering helps the plant preserve water.
24: Angiosperm A vascular flowering plant with its seeds enclosed within an ovary. They ovary are then enclosed within a flower. | Gymnosperm A "naked-seed" producing plants. Some of their trees are evergreen ( leaves lasting more than one season) while others are deciduous. This is a pine tree, one of more common gymnosperm. They reproduce by open spores.
25: Xerophytes Plants that have adapted to dry environments by altering their external or internal mechanism or appearance to store as much water as possible. This Aloe Vera plant have a thick,waxy cuticle to reduce water loss and slow transpiration. The leaves are also covered with thorns to protect the plant from predators.
26: Our journey now ends here but the knowledge that we gain stays. Oh my gosh, that was so lame.