S: AP Biology Vocabulary Definitions and Illustrations
BC: This AP Biology vocabulary scrapbook was created in the hopes of providing a resource for everyone to refer to in order to understand the wonders of nature a little bit more.
FC: AP Biology Vocabulary Definitions and Illustrations By: Heba Ahmad Caro Period 1
1: A eukaryote is a single-celled or multicellular organism that contains a nucleus in its cells and genetic material inside the nucleus in the form of DNA and chromosomes. Also, the cells of these organisms are highly organized with numerous organelles and membranes and go through mitotic division. Different types include all living organisms except eubacteria and archaebacteria. For instance, the bird and frog in the pictures are both eukaryotes.
2: An ectotherm is a cold-blooded animal, meaning an animal whose body temperature relies on the environment around it and exchanges heat with its environment in order to regulate its body temperature. The frog in the picture is an ectotherm. To increase its temperature, it goes out in the sun and to decrease it, it goes into the shade of plants or objects.
3: An endotherm is a warm-blooded animal, meaning an animal that can regulate its internal body temperature by using its metabolic energy. This animal is able to maintain thermal homeostasis no matter what the temperature of the environment around it is. Only birds and mammals are endotherms.
4: An amniotic egg is a type of egg laid by amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals). It is composed of a hard outer shell and the amnion (a fluid-filled sac) inside of which the embryos develop. This sac is filled with amniotic fluid which protects the embryo. This type of egg allows amniotes to live on land. We eat these eggs for breakfast constantly. They are laid by birds just like the one in the picture below.
5: Enzymes are known to dominate our bodily functions. Amylase is an enzyme found in the saliva and pancreatic fluid in animals, as well as in parts of plants, that breaks up starch and glycogen into simple sugars. | All animals, including the birds I found in my neighborhood on a light pole, need this enzyme for digestion and have this enzyme in their saliva and pancreatic fluid.
6: What is an enzyme? An enzyme is a complex protein produced by an organism's cells to act as a catalyst in different biochemical processes of the body and its cells. It is essential in our body and can be found almost anywhere, assisting in processes such as digesting food, healing the body, supporting brain functions, and breaking down toxins. It can be produced in various organs such as the small intestine, stomach, pancreas, or salivary glands. They could also come from the food we eat. Enzymes are also found in all animals, such as a lonely bird on a tree branch (above).
7: Plants are dependent on various cycles for survival, especially the Calvin Cycle. The Calvin Cycle consists of light-independent reactions that occur during photosynthesis and produce sugars and starch. They occur in the stroma of chloroplasts (which are located in a plant's leaves) and are the second step in photosynthesis, occurring before the light-dependent reactions. The Calvin cycle produces glucose by using NADPH and phosphorous from ATP.
8: One type of plant is the angiosperm, which is a flowering plant that produces its seeds in an ovary or carpel.
9: Another type of plant is the gymnosperm, which is a plant that doesn't produce flowers and whose seeds are exposed. The gymnosperm cone is the structure on which the seeds of a gymnosperm are found, usually on its scales. A gymnosperm cone is composed of megasporophylls, which are the reproductive structures of gymnosperms.
10: There are also different types of flowering plants. A dicot is a flowering plant with two cotyledons (embryonic seed leaves), petals arranged in fours or fives, and reticulated leaves.
11: Not only are there are different types of plants but there are also different types of stems. The herbaceous stem is a green, flexible stem usually found in plants that are planted annually and don't live long. It is leaf-like and doesn't exhibit secondary growth like a woody stem.
12: On the other hand, a woody stem is a hard, rigid stem made out of wood and covered with bark. It is found in plants that live two years or more and develops through secondary growth due to the cambium. It develops in order to accommodate for a plant's continued growth and increase in the circulation of nutrients and water. A tree presents the perfect example for a woody stem, because of its trunk and branches, as you can see in the picture.
13: Lignin is an intricate polymer that hardens and strengthens the secondary cell walls of the cells of woody plants by binding to cellulose fibers. It is one of the main components of wood. This polymer is represented through the trunk and branches of the tree in the picture.
14: The green, waxy outer layer of a plant is called the cuticle. The cuticle is produced by the outer layer of a plant's epidermis. Its purpose is to protect the plant from damaging and to repel water. It is found all over a plant, covering its leaves and stem, just as in the picture above.
15: Many plants grow fruits. A fleshy fruit is the ripened ovary of angiosperms. It consists of fleshy tissue and living cells, and its main functions are to protect the seeds and aid in their dispersal when animals eat them. Fleshy fruit are soft and juicy at maturity. The picture illustrates a fleshy fruit that is not yet mature.
16: A unique characteristic of some plants is their thorns. The thorn of a plant is the sharp, woody extension on a stem, leaf, or branch that protects the plant from predators. In the pictures, you could see the thorns because of their red, flamboyant color.
17: A plant tendril is also a distinctive characteristic of some plants. It is a threadlike structure of climbing plants that holds onto an object or another plant in order to support the climbing plant. The tendril holds onto the object or plant by twining around it. It in this photo, the tendrils of the climbing plant are wrapped around the trunk of a tree.
18: One significant part of flowers necessary for reproduction is the flower ovary. The flower ovary is the portion of the carpel (the base) that contains the ovules of the flower. It ripens into a fruit after the ovules are fertilized.
19: The anther and filament of the stamen are also important for the reproduction of a flower. The anther is the portion of the stamen holding the pollen while the filament is the stem of the stamen supporting the anther.
20: Flowers also have a stigma and style, which are portions of its carpel. The stigma is the sticky surface of the carpel that receives pollen and initiates germination. The style is the stem of the carpel which is located between the ovary and the stigma. It supports the stigma and is also through which the pollen tubes grow in order to reach the ovules in the ovary.
21: Another unique characteristic of some plants is a frond, which is the leaf or leaf-like part of a cycad, palm, fern, or other similar plants. It is basically a compound leaf.
22: Trees are made up of two types of leaves, conifer and deciduous. Leaves that are opposite of deciduous leaves. They are able to withstand extreme weather conditions, such as the cold or drought, so they remain on conifer trees all year long. These leaves appear to be needle-like or scale-like, and some conifer trees they are found on are pines, firs, spruces, and other types of evergreen trees.
23: Deciduous leaves are leaves that fall off during a specific season (such as the winter season or dry season) or at maturity. These leaves take on many forms and structures, but the most common form is those of maple leaves.
24: Cellulose is a polysaccharide made up of chains of glucose monomers. It is the made “ingredient” or substance found in all plant tissues and plant fibers and especially in the cell walls of plant cells.
25: The vascular tissue of plants is the tissue in higher plants that make up their vascular systems and are in charge of transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. Vascular plant tissue consist of the xylem and phloem and any tissue related two these main two.
26: Plants consist of vascular tissue with diverse functions. For instance, phloem is the vascular or living tissue in plants that transports nutrients and sugars (especially sucrose) dissolved in fluids (that were produced from photosynthesis) from the leaves of the plant to wherever they are needed. The phloem is located in every part of the plant, starting from the leaves and continuing to the roots. It is found surrounding the xylem and running parallel to it. In a tree, it is the innermost part of the bark.
27: The xylem is the vascular tissue in plants that transports the water, nutrients, and minerals taken up by the plant's roots throughout the rest of the plant, up to the leaves. It is also the main element found in wood; it actually creates the woody element of stems.
28: Plants are known to made up of numerous layers of tissues and cells. The cambium is a layer of cells between the xylem and phloem from which the phloem, xylem, or cork grows by division, resulting in secondary growth of the stem and roots in vascular plants and secondary thickening in woody plants
29: In addition, the meristem is found in the tips of the roots and the stem of a plant, as well as in the cambium, the meristem is the undifferentiated tissue that contains actively dividing cells that constantly produce new tissue, allowing plant growth through the production of plant organs and mature cells.
30: An insect is an invertebrate small arthropod that has six jointed legs, two or four wings, compound eyes, two antennae, and an exoskeleton composed of chitin. They also have a three part body plan: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. | An arthropod is an invertebrate from the phylum Arthropoda, which has a segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. For instance, this insect is an arthropod.
31: A pollinator is an insect or animal that such as a bird, ant, moth, bee or butterfly that transfers pollen from the anther to the stigma of flowers, fertilizing them and allowing them to reproduce. The picture on the left shows many ants, while the other illustrates a moth, both of which are pollinators.
32: An exoskeleton is found in some invertebrates.It is a rigid outer covering or outer skeleton of the body providing the animal with support and protection. For instance, it is found in spiders and insects, such as the one on the blade of grass in the picture.
33: The exoskeleton of this insect, as well as all others, is made up of chitin. It is the main element in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of some fungi. In the picture, the insect represented is a moth.
34: The movement of the muscles in all animals is complex. Actin is a muscle protein that works alongside myosin in controlling the contraction and relaxation of muscle fibers. It is found in the I band of myofibrils. It has two forms, G-actin (globular) or F-actin (fibrous). In this picture, you could see that the bird is relaxed as it stands on a tree's branch. The actin in its muscles is control.
35: Myosin is a major fibrous protein in muscle fibrils that works with actin in contracting and relaxing muscle. Bundles of this protein connect and overlap with bundles of actin, leading to muscle contraction when these two bundles slide over each other. It also controls various movements in other cells, such as vesicle transportation. The bird's muscles contract as it walks on the branch or as it flies.
36: Connective tissue is the tissue that originated from the mesoderm. This type of tissue consists of a few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix made out of collagen, fibers, and cartilaginous, fatty, and elastic tissues. The job of this tissue is to connect, support, and protect other tissues and organs. It also provides strength, storage, and flexibility. It is usually found in the blood, muscles, bones, tendons, adipose tissue, lymphatic tissue, ligaments and capsules around joints, and cartilage, and the birds in the picture below definitely have all of those features inside of their bodies.
37: Epithelial tissue is membranous tissue that lines the body cavities and covers the internal structures and organs of the body. It also covers the outside of the body (skin) and forms many glands. It lies on top of the connective tissue, separated from it by a basement membrane. Its job is to secrete, absorb, detect sensation, and transport materials between cells. This tissue is found in the same locations in the bird above.
38: Glycogen is a polysaccharide that is the primary storage of carbohydrates found in the liver and muscles. When needed by the body for energy, it breaks up into glucose. It is found in all animals, including birds such as the one above.
39: Keratin is a fibrous scleroprotein. It is the main structural material found in the skin and horny tissues such as hair, nails, hoofs, horns, bills, feathers, claws, etc. In birds, that would mean that Keratin is found in their bills, feathers, and claws.
40: Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship between two interdependent organisms through which both benefit. One such relationship is between plants and birds. When birds breathe, they exhale carbon dioxide, allowing plants to use that carbon dioxide for food, and in return receive oxygen from plants.
41: Radial symmetry is symmetry consisting of equal parts or proportions radiating outwards in a circular arrangement from a central axis. In this flower, radial symmetry is exemplified through the sameness of the petals, allowing a person to twirl the flower or divide it equally and see the same thing.