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Arctic - Page Text Content

S: Arctic

BC: Hope you enjoyed the book! Special thanks to Ms. Shapiro. Hope you learned a lot!

FC: The Arctic Natives | By: Macie, Leah & Jeremy.

1: Table of Contents | Page 2,3 Geographic Location Leah Page 4,5 Clothing Macie Page 6,7 Arrival of the Europeans Jeremy Page 8,9 Role of Women Leah Page 10,11 Role of Men Leah Page 12,13 Art Macie Page 14,15 Shelter Jeremy Page 16,17 Recreation\Games Leah Page 18,19 Origin Beliefs\Legends Macie Page 20,21 Social Structure Jeremy Page 22,23 Transportation Jeremy Page 24,25 Food Sources & Examples Leah Page 26,27 Special Events Macie Page 28,29 ]Special Dances Macie Page 30,31 Weapons\Tools Jeremy Page 32,33 Bibliography

2: Here is a map of Canada, and the arrow is pointing to the Arctic. | 2

3: Geographic Location | The Arctic is a cold place and lots of people think that since its the Arctic that it is always cold, but the Arctic is an interesting place. Vegetation is related to nature. In the Arctic, as most of you would have guessed that it is cold and so there is an ice cap. There are lots of shrubs, lichen, dwarf, sedges and health. There is a rock desert in the Arctic and an Arctic stony. The climate, meaning the weather is cold. It is usually -20 to -30 degrees Celcius and there is 100m- 400m and 0mm of precipitation. Landforms mean the way it looks like. Arctic has local lands, mountains and uplands. Uplands are sort of like mountains that are high up. There are also plateaus, which rise from lowland and they are usually dry. Natural resources are resources that we get from nature, usually found when mining, or when you are at a body of water and many more places. There is no agriculture or fishing in the Arctic. There is lead, zinc, silver and gold in the Arctic. The Arctic is an interesting location with facts you may have not known about. | 3

4: This is an Inuit parka. | This is an Inuit woman's winter suit. | 4

5: Clothing | The Inuit made clothing originally out of lots of different things. The Inuit wore two layers of caribou skin. The inner layer was the fur facing in, and the outer layer was the fur facing out. They also wore caribou snow goggles which were tailored to fit. It was important to keep warm. Up to four layers of foot wear was worn. Men and women wore similar clothing. They both wore trousers for extra protection and parkas. The large hoods in the parkas were used to carry babies and young children. At 2-3 years old, the children would start wearing combination suits. A combination suit is a single piece of fur made into one suit with a hood, pants, mittens, and boots. Children’s clothing was made of soft skin from younger animals. Some people trapped the arctic fox for its warm fur. Wolves, wolverines, foxes, and hares were also used. A person wearing poorly made clothes may actually freeze to death. Without clothing, the Inuit would have frozen; it was a good skill that they had. | 5

6: In this picture the Europeans are arriving to the Arctic in boats, and the Arctic Natives are helping them out. | 6

7: Arrival of the Europeans | The Europeans arrived to the Arctic in 1845-1847. The Inuit explorers encounter with the Erebus or the terror, the two ships commanded by Sir John Franklin in 1845-1847. This narrative demonstrates how oral traditions fill in historical records. Two brothers set off the coast of Qeqertag. They discovered black mass on the horizon, and determined that it was a great ship of wood. The decision to search the ship for usable items was made. The group found guns. They used percussion caps as thimbles. Barrels were broken so that the metal could be used for harpoon heads. A group of villagers found tools and began to cut a hole for a window. As well, they discovered dead white men on board. The window was below the surface level so the ship flooded. The villagers escaped before the ship sunk, but lost all of their valuables and goods. | 7

8: Here are some examples of material that could be used for making clothing. | 8

9: Role of a Woman | Have you ever wondered what an Inuit woman did a long time ago? A woman’s job was to be a housewife and do most of the chores that the family couldn’t do. Sometimes, the children would have to stay home if they couldn’t afford to send them to school; they would have to help do the chores. The wives didn’t earn as much as the men, but they did have to supply food and clothing. Being housewife you had to take care of the children, whether they are sick or not. They had to clean up after them. They had to help and most mothers did their best to make their child satisfied. They tried to be a good influence on their children. Another job that an Inuit woman had to do was to make clothing for the family,. That’s why most families owned a farm or the father went hunting for animal fur. The women had to sew clothing for any weather, cold or warm. A woman’s job isn’t as easy as looks, a housewife was a hard job, and they had to do a lot of work and chores. | 9

10: This is a picture of three Inuit men hunting at sea. | 10

11: Role of a Man! | Inuit men were expected to be brave and tough when they were doing their job. An Inuit man had to hunt for the family, where it was fishing or using a gun. When their son was coming of age, the father had to teach his son how to hunt. Even if it was hard for the father to hunt, they didn’t have a choice, if they wanted food, that’s the only way. When Inuit men went hunting, it sometimes took days. They went camping . While camping they were expected to know how to cook and sew for themselves. They were used to camping a lot and sometimes they had to leave their family for a while, but they came back, if they were alive! Another job for an Inuit man was to build a home for his family. It did not happen in a snap; it could take a year but during that year, they would still need shelter. It was the man’s job, it was always hard, but it was done for the best. An Inuit man, had similar roles to a woman, it was tough role, but they had to do what they had to do. | 11

12: This is an Inuit walrus made of soapstone. | This is an Inuit bear sculpture. | 12

13: Art | The Inuit had many different ways and materials to make art. Carvings were animals, people, or spirits. The Inuit made bear sculptures such as, dancing bear carvings, walking bears, bears with fish and seals, polar bears, regular bears, and also the Inuit walrus made of soapstone. They used raw materials found on land or sea along coasts. Wood was never an option for the Arctic and stone was most common. Animal bone and ivory was also used. They made masks of driftwood or whalebone which were used in ceremonial dances. Art told stories to the Inuit, It was important to them. | 13

14: In this picture, an Inuit person is building an igloo. He is just doing the finishing touches and fine tuning the igloo. | 14

15: SHELTER The Inuit lived in two different kinds of houses, the igloo and the Inuvialuit sod house. The igloo was a temporary home. It was a dome shaped house made out of snow blocks. Snow blocks were shaped in a spiral way and leaning in a little. Soft snow was used to fill in holes and add more cushioning. The igloo took 20-30 minutes to build. Large igloos could be as big as 4 metres wide and 3 metres tall. Sleeping floors were built of ice blocks covered of fur. The Inuvialuit sod house was a permanent house. People mostly lived in them in the winter. The poles were tilted inwards at the top so that blocks of sod could be piled up over them and remain in place. The result was somewhat subterranean log-and-sod hut with the below ground to preserve warmth. In conclusion the Arctic Natives had two very complicated houses. | 15

16: This is a toy called ‘Ajagaak’. | 16

17: Recreational Games! There are many games that Inuit people played back a long time ago. The games were not just for kids, even adults played certain games. Many kids liked to play outdoor games since they feel strongly about the environment. They didn’t have electronics like we have. There are many games that we play now days, which they played as well, such as tag and hide and seek. Since they had to hunt for food, the children wanted to be like them, they would pretend to hunt. They also played with a toy called an ‘Ajagaak’ that sharpened their senses. There is another game called ‘Cats Cradle’ which used creative thinking. Another game, is just telling stories, it may just sound simple and boring, but the Inuit told amazing stories about legends that they believed in. Kids weren’t the only ones that liked to play games, adults also played games, but not exactly like the games that kids played. Men played games that tested their strength. One game that they played was wrestling ,which we sometimes do nowadays. There is also another game called arm pulling; it doesn’t sound so nice, but it did still test their strength. They also played a game called high which tested one's agility. Nowadays the Inuit people play games that are common to play, they play sports. They don’t play as much of the old games that they played back then. They play sports like we do, such as basketball, soccer, baseball and much more. There are many games that Inuit people played, and some that we never even heard of before. | 17

18: Mother with a baby inside a basket. | Painting of Inuit on boat. | 18

19: The Inuit have lots of beliefs and legends about how they got here and about their lives. The Inuit believe that there was once a young girl who was forced to marry a man who was actually a dog. When they had children, half were puppies and half were human. The young girl’s mother put the puppies in one shoe, and the humans into another. The shoes turned into boats and carried the passengers to new homes. The children grew up to be Inuits and the puppies sailed farther away. They became white Europeans and later explored the Arctic. That is believed by the Inuit about how they got here, they have pretty interesting thoughts. | Origin Beliefs/ Legends | 19

20: In this picture, an Arctic family are standing outside their house. They had much smaller families. The animals are their food sources. | 20

21: Social Structure The Inuit’s way of life was so much different than people’s lives now. The Inuit had much smaller family units with no chief. In the winter, they would live and hunt in larger groups. In the summer, they would live and hunt by themselves. Alliances would occur between different families so they could larger groups. There was a feeling of association in Inuit culture. Food was expected to be community’s property and any wealth was expected to be shared. In conclusion, the Inuit had much different lives than we do now. | 21

22: Transportation The Arctic Natives liked to transport in many different ways. One of the ways that they transported was with crampons. Crampons were spikes that to the Inuit attached bottom of their boots. The Inuit also liked to travel in kayaks. Kayaks were made out of wood. They were small, one person boats. They had a covering of sealskin. Kayaks were built to be lightweight and easy to paddle. Another way the Inuit traveled from pace to place was the Umiak. Umiaks were large and open boats. They were skin covered boats. They were 7-10 metres long and 2.5 metres wide. They could carry between 10 and 15 people. The Alaskan Eskimo’s sledge was a narrow sled that will be designed to be pulled through forest by dogs. The Polar Eskimo’s sledge was a broad and a solid sled. They had narrow runners for traveling over the hard blue sea. The East Greenland sledge had broad runners and was lightly built to prevent them from sinking. The Inuit also traveled by foot and by dog sled. In conclusion, the Arctic Natives liked to travel and transport their belongings in many different ways. | 22

23: In this picture, the Inuit are travelling in the kayak that they built. The kayak had a cover of sealskin. | 23

24: Here is a picture of Char fish which was popular to eat. | This is a picture of Muktuk. | 24

25: Food Sources & Examples! | Inuit people certain different kinds of food, some that we never thought of eating. The Inuit people definitely ate fish, since they hunted for it. The main food they ate was Caribou, but they also ate fish such as: Char and White fish. Char was the most popular because it was for your health. Char fish reduces heart problems because it contains fatty acid that is good for you. Char is usually eaten frozen. Fish was not the only food that the Inuit people ate; they also loved to eat other types of seafood. They hunted for seal, which they found appetizing! There is also blubber, which you can get from whales and seals. Another type of seafood is called, Muktuk which provides Vitamin C. A popular type of food to eat was meat, it was very popular. A lot of people ate it because it had a lot of minerals and vitamins, which the body could use! Lots of Inuit people would have preferred to have their meat uncooked because, when you cook meat, it would reduce the amount of minerals and vitamins in the meat. Fruits and vegetables were not eaten so much, because it was hard to grow it in the cold weather that they lived in. With the weather, they could still grow berries. Turns out, Inuit people are not about the sugar, they care about their body and so they eat what is best for their body. | 25

26: This is a cartoon sun that represents the Inuit sun ceremony. | This is salmon to represent the salmon swimming up to the river and laying their eggs. | 26

27: Special Events | There were many special events to the Inuit that might not be as special to you. There was a celebration of the winter feast in central Arctic called “Quviasukvik”, and a ceremony to welcome salmon who were swimming up to the rivers to lay eggs. They did a bladder dance after a large hunt and believed that the soul of an animal was inside the bladder. If the bladder was honoured and returned to the sea, the animal’s spirit would find a new body. The Inuit also had a sun ceremony. It was the most important day of the year to them. The sun finally comes out from the horizon and the first person who saw it had to rush back to the igloo to tell everyone. There were lots of special days for the Inuit and they celebrated each one differently. | 27

28: Artic Native showing other people Inuit drum dance. | Arctic Native doing Inuit drum dance. | 28

29: The Inuit had some very important dances that they did at some ceremonies. One dance was Inuit drum dancing. It played part it special occasions, such as: births, marriages, boys’ first hunt, changing of seasons, greetings to visitors, or to honour someone who has passed away. The drum used was called a qilaut. It was made of caribou skin with seal or walrus skin on the handle. The dance was commonly done by men. But, both women and men performed it. The drum dances usually took place inside large igloos. There were up to 60 people doing the dance. The drum dance was very special to the Inuit on special occasions, and they loved doing it. | Special Dances | 29

30: In this picture, are the harpoon heads. The harpoon heads were Inuit weapons. They were made out of walrus tusks or whalebone. | 30

31: Weapons and Tools In the Arctic, the Natives used many weapons. One of the tools that they used was called an ivory harpoon head. The ivory harpoon head was used for fishing. The harpoon head kept the animal close to the surface after the animal was killed. Ivory harpoon heads were made out of walrus tusks or whalebone. Another tool that the Arctic Natives used was called an Ulu. Ulus were used for skinning animals. They were also for preparing the animal skins and butchering. Other tools are: stone knives, knives of carved bones, clubs, stone traps, spears, fishing lines, nets, leisters and three pronged spears. In conclusion, the Arctic Natives used their weapons and tools for many things and they really liked their weapons. | 31

32: 32 | Bibliography | Ekoomiak, Normee. Arctic Memories. Toronto, Ontario: New Canada Publications, 1988. "Arctic Relocatable Structures Inc. - General Shelter." Arctic Relocatable Structures Inc. Web. 03 Apr. 2012. . "Canada's First Nations: European Contact." Home. University of Calgary. Web. 03 Apr. 2012. . Stanford, Quentin H. “Canadian Oxford School Atlas 8th Edition.” Oxford University Press. Vitebsky, Piers. "Die Arktis Als Heimat." The Arctic Is. Web. 03 Apr. 2012. . Free Spirit Gallery. "EskimoSculptures - Inuit Walrus Soapstone Carvings." Inuit Art Walrus Sculptures Eskimo Soapstone Carvings. Web. 3 Feb. 2012. . Forero, Diana. “Family” February 24 2012 Forero, Diana. “Family” March 19 2012 Burgan, Michael. Inuit. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2005 Free Spirit Gallery. "Materials Used In Inuit Sculpture." Inuit Art Northwest Indian Art Eskimo Native Toronto Canada. 2011. Web. 3 Feb. 2012. .

33: 33 | Free Spirit Gallery. "Inuit Drum Dancing Of The Arctic." Inuit Art Northwest Indian Art Eskimo Native Toronto Canada. 2011. Web. 3 Feb. 2012. . Free Spirit Gallery. "Inuit Polar Bear Sculptures Eskimo Dancing Bear Carvings." Inuit Art Northwest Indian Art Eskimo Native Toronto Canada. 2011. Web. 3 Feb. 2012. . Laugrand, Frédéric, and Jarich Oosten. "Quviasukvik. The Celebration of an Inuit Winter Feast in the Central Arctic." Journal De La Société Des Américanistes. Web. 8 Feb. 2012. . “Recreation.” October 15 2006. March 7 2012. "Traditional Inuit Tools." ATHROPOLIS: Home Page of the Throps and the Squallhoots. Web. 03 Apr. 2012. . Mantha, John and Diane Silvey. “The Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada.” Kids Can Press LTD. Productions, Goldi. "The Arctic People - Religion / Ceremonies / Art / Clothing." First Peoples of Canada Before Contact Menu. 2007. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. . Findlay, Heather. "The Arctic People - Transportation / Migration." First Peoples of Canada Before Contact Menu. C Goldi Productions Ltd., 2007. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. . Christopher, John. "The Arctic: Transportation, Infrastructure and Communication." Parliament of Canada Web Site. 24 Oct. 2008. Web. 03 Apr. 2012. . Siska, Heather. The Haida and the Inuit People of the seasons. Vancouver, British Columbia: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd, 1984

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