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Argentina - Page Text Content

FC: Argentina Revolutionary Diaries

1: Table of Contents Prologue................................................2-11 Summery of revolution..........................2-3 Timeline...........................................3 Timeline Explanation............................4-6 Map.................................................8 Battles/Events....................................9 Anatomy of a Revolution chart................10-11 Diary Entries/Letters.................................12-65 Government official..............................12-13 Female Rebel-Maria..............................14-21 Female Rebel-Isabel Fernandez................22-29 Revolutionary Leader............................30-35 Disenfranchised People-Beatriz and Abril....36-51 Government official..............................52-57 Male Rebel-Jacinto...............................58-61 Jose de San Martin................................62-67 Epilogue ................................................68-80 Current Status.....................................68-69 Economic Status...................................70-72 Political Status.....................................73-76 What Happens Next?..............................77-80

2: The Argentine Revolution started because of two primary factors. First, the people of Argentina were frustrated by the harsh rules established by the King of Spain. The people wanted to make some of their own decisions regarding trade, taxes and communication. Argentines wanted to be able to trade freely with other foreign countries so they could have the best economic outcome. They were sick of answering to the King. Second, there was disruption to the Spanish royalty’s rule. France was gaining power over Spain, and King Ferdinand VII of Spain was dethroned. This shift in power helped create enough uncertainty that it allowed for the revolution to occur in Argentina. The revolution unfolded with various rebel groups trying to rule Argentina. The first rulers were called The First Junta, and consisted of three rebels. This ruling group was followed by various other Juntas and Trimuvirates. Each of these ruling groups tried to establish an independent rule of Argentina, while also attempting to expand the territory under their rule. During battle, the various ruling groups were mostly unsuccessful against the long-time established Royalist armies. Still, they did make some progress in several battles. During the years from 1810 through 1816, there was tremendous unrest in Argentina. | Summery of revolution

3: Timeline of Events | Eventually, the rebels who ruled Argentina established a single Supreme Ruler, who finally succeeded in pushing back the Royalists. At that the same time that this was happening, King Ferdinand VII of Spain was put back into the throne. In a way, the government structure ended up being quite similar to the structure that existed under Royalist rule. The result of the revolution was that Argentina became an independent country. Their Independence was awarded on July 9, 1816 and a national Constitution was established for Argentina. Although King Ferdinand VII was back in rule in Spain, Argentina was basically free of sovereign rule.

4: Explanation of Timeline 1806- The British attempt to invade el Rio de la Plata, which is the area between Argentina and Paraguay. This invasion was due to Napolean wars, and the British wanted to control the southern land of Argentina. However, at this time they were unsuccessful, this win from Argentina gave them more confidence in fighting. May 18-25, 1810- This is the start of the May Revolution. This was the starting point of the main revolution. At this time the Primera Junta was establish for governement, Viceroy Cisneros was no longer in charge.

5: 1812- The army sets out and begins fighting for Independence from Spain. The leader of the military at this time is Jose de San Martin. 1813- Battle of San Lorenzo. This was the first battle of the official Argentina Revolution. It occured in February, battling with the Royalists who had 125 men and about half of them were wounded, killed, or imprisoned, making Argentina rise to the top. 1813- Also in February, a meeting called the Asamblea del ano XIII, which was called to organize Buenos Aires’ plans and future.

6: Explanation of Timeline 1816- Another assembly met to talk about future plans for the military and government. This was soon leading up to the official independence. July, 9, 1816- Government joined in Tucuman, dense populated city in Argentina and made it official that Argentina was now independent. 1819- Simon Bolivar made a speech explaining the mix of species. It was a very motivational speech for people of low society to hear.

8: Argentina | - San Lorenzo

9: Battles/ Events (Buenos Aires) 1806 British Attack Buenos Aires but Argentine militia ended British occupation that year. (Buenos Aires) When developments in Spain in 1808 force a choice of allegiance, a cabildo abierto (open town meeting) in Buenos Aires. The result was on May 25 1810 Argentina deposed the spanish viceroy then installed a junta and declared war on royalists. (Buenos Aires) 1813 Feburary Asamblea del ano Xlll > to organize Buenos Aires plans and future (San Lorenzo) San Martin organized Argentine troops against the pro-Spanish royalist forces and in 1813 won an important battle at San Lorenzo, which secured supply lines with Montevideo (San Miguel de Tucuman) Patriots won a key victory at Tucuman in 1816 and claimed independence for the United Province of the Rio de la plata.

10: Causes Source: Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. p256-265.

11: Course They Seem to Take Source: Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. p256-265.

12: Dear Ana Today has been very troubling to say the least. I knew this time was coming, but when the day came I didn’t know how to react. After months of criticism for my French heritage, the Spanish Junta of Seville has designated a new viceroy. My viceroyalty, which was properly put in place by King Charles IV, has ended. I have decided to retire from politics and settle in the town of Alta Gracia. Although many nobilities view my decision as disreputable, my retirement from viceroy is the best choice to prevent revolt among the people and will sustain trade relations with the Spanish empire. | As long as I am viceroy, the people of Rio de Plata will never be content. Many of the landowners have political ties to Spain, and fear that I am loyal to Napoleon. As you know, he has invaded Spain and they are prejudice against the French. They think this even though I have refused to support him as king repeatedly. Some others seem to be under the impression that I am a good leader in times of turmoil, like during the British invasions, but not during times of peace. Even though I could not give up my rule, staying in power would only lead to civil unrest. Also, if I were to go against the word of the Junta of Seville, I would sever all political ties with Spain. Not only would this cut off trade with Europe, but also I would no longer be considered loyal to the Spanish Empire. I cannot afford to lose the support of the many wealthy merchants in Buenos Aires. Many of them could singlehandedly overthrow me with the armies at their control. Even though giving in to the Junta of Seville may not seem like the right choice, I cannot afford to risk a revolt and lose the support of those loyal to the Spanish crown. This new Viceroy will insure that the Rio de Plata remains a peaceful and prosperous state. I miss you greatly, Santiago Dairy entry inspired by information from: "Rio de la Plata." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Nov. 2010. Rock, David. Argentina, 1516-1987. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1987. Print.

13: Dear Cornelio Saavedra, During the time of my viceroyalty, you helped fight the rebels and allowed me to stay in power. You put down the mutiny of Álzaga and dissolved his military bodies. Now in my most desperate hour, I request you to use the forces at your command to help me put down the Primera Junta. I among others am gathering an army as we speak in Córdoba, and any contribution would be greatly appreciated. These rebels have taken the city of Buenos Aires, and are a direct threat to the state of Rio de Plata.We are fighting to defeat these revolutionaries as they pose a direct threat to our relation with Spain. When the Junta of Seville dissolved itself in favor of a Regency Council of Spain, these rebels refused to recognize it. They feel that as the Government that put Cisneros in place no longer exists, they are obliged to form a junta. They claim to be loyal to a Spanish Empire that no longer exists. Restoring Cisneros as Viceroy would ensure that when the times of turmoil in Europe have ended and the Spanish empire rises once again, we will have proven our allegiance to them. We are greatly in need of your assistance as the forces we have assembled so far have been damaged by espionage, desertions, and sabotage. An army from Buenos Aires may be marching towards us even as I write this letter. Do not hesitate to act as I have faith that any nobility who does not actively support our cause will eventually find Spanish troops knocking on their door. Santiago De Liniers Dairy entry inspired by information from: "independence of Spanish America." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. Rock, David. Argentina, 1516-1987. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1987. Print. | Dear Ana, I fear this may be the last time I can write to you. I may have fallen into enemy hands by the time you read this. As a revolutionary army sent from Beunos Aires grew on the horizon, the forces I had gathered went into disarray and began to flee the city. I, along with the other leaders, have made plans to escape. But as the opposing army closes in on the city, I am beginning to lose hope. As Joseph Bonaparte once said, “There is no legitimacy on earth but in a government which is the choice of the nation.” I think it suffices to say that the nation has spoken. My army has left me to die. As I wander the abandoned streets, I hope that the revolutionary army will spare the city. Do not worry however, as they do not want to make a martyr of me by execution. If you feel you have to leave, in the North there are many Portuguese merchants that I know would be happy to help you. I will keep you in my thoughts. With great hope, Santiago De Liniers Dairy entry inspired by information from: http://www.quotationpark.com/authors/BONAPARTE,%20Joseph.html "independence of Spanish America." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.

14: July 1807 Dear Diary, Today is my first day writing in this diary. My husband Pedro wants me to write down what is happening at this time in Buenos Aires. I am fortunate that I have learned to write from my older brothers who were taught by the local padres or priests. If anything happens to Pedro when he is at battle, we will have this diary, so that the truth will be known. These are dangerous times in Argentina, | and I fear for my family. My name is Maria, and I have two sons taking part in the revolution against Spain. Also, my husband, Pedro, is a revolutionary leader. My daily routine of sewing, cooking and taking care of the house have been put on hold because of the events happening in Argentina. We live in the bustling city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, where many of the revolutionaries mobilized The Spanish colonists established trade routes to bring silver from Peru from the Andes Mountains to the Rio de la Plata.These colonists built settlements across the Chaco River. The Spanish colonists are known for their cruelty because many of our indigenous people were forced to work on plantations and many died from being

15: overworked or from diseases. Spanish settlers rebuilt Buenos Aires and many people came from many Spanish colonies in South America. The Spanish monarchs have not paid much attention to Argentina. Locals here have resented direct rule from the Spanish viceroy. In fact, those natives living in the interior have already established a capital at Cordoba. I have never been there but I hear that it is a wonderful cultural center and I feel connected to these other Argentineans who seek independence. My husband is determined that we will be free of Spanish tyranny. My husband is part of the townspeople who have revolted against the British who wanted to take advantage of the fact that Spain is busy with war in Europe. Although we are not happy with the Spanish, we certainly do not want to be ruled by Britain. British troops captured | Buenos Aires under the leadership under General William Beresford. But, brave man like my husbands and sons fought them off! It was a true revolt against the British who sought to take over our land. The townspeople and I celebrated and I mark this event as the Reconquista of 1806 and the Defensa of 1807. The British were humbled and had to sign a treaty with Santiago Liniers, the Spanish viceroy of the area. It is enough to worry about seeking independence from the Spanish without the interference from Britain. My husband is fearful that we must not rejoice too much because trouble is brewing. The people in Buenos Aires will not be content until we are independent. Someone is knocking on the door and I must go. Until next time, Maria

16: May 1808 Dear Diary, I was feeding the chickens when Pedro rushed me into the house to tell me the stunning news. He called a special meeting of revolutionaries who would be interested to hear developments happening in Spain. Pedro met a | merchant earlier this week from Spain who told him that Napoleon Bonaparte, Frances monarch, attacked Spain. That’s why he left the country. Napoleon arrested Ferdinand VII, the king of Spain and appointed his brother to the Spanish throne. This news can be the opportunity that we have been waiting for because Spain is finally weakening. The wealthy landowners are tired of the Spanish governments interference in their businesses, they want to control the trade and keep the wealth here in Argentina rather than sending it to Spain. All Spain is interested in is taxing us to make the crown wealthier. These criollos are of Spanish descent but they have been born here, in Latin America. They have bought the land and didn't

17: want Spain to get in their way. Many of the mestizos, or people of Indian or Spain blood are gauchos who herd their wild cattle. This is how Pedro makes his living. The criollos are talking of independence from Spain and Pedro heard them talking while working on the estate. It’s funny how the rich and the poor both want independence from Spain. People in Buenos Aires resent the Spanish rule from the viceroy, and now that Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleons brother who’s on the Spanish throne, the time for revolution draws near. There is rumor of a man named Jose de San Martin who seeks independence from Spain From special sources Pedro has heard about how wonderful or how brave San Martin is and that | he is a man that everyone should support. Perhaps, under his leadership maybe we will become independent. I worry for my husband and boys as they are on a mission to make the town council get rid of the viceroy in Buenos Aires and form a new government. They will declare independence even though king Ferdinand will refuse to acknowledge this declaration of freedom. I know that this mission will be successful because the criollos have the wealth and power to make it happen. Pedro is confident too that we will once be independent of Spain. The church bells are ringing and it is time to attend mass. May God help us all! Maria

18: July 1816 Dear Diary, Today I weep tears of grief and happiness. I know that the death of my son was not in vain. He died bravely in battle under the leadership of El Libertador, or Jose de San Martin. San Martin's name is a household | name and he is the shining hope that will lead us to a new life free of Spanish rule. . I know that San Martin realizes that my son was a brave solider and lost his life for the independence of Argentina. Even though this sad fate happened, I must feel pride that we ended up declaring independence and named our new country United Provinces of the River Plate. I wonder how king Ferdinand feels now especially since he refused to acknowledge our independence on May 25, 1810. When Ferdinand regained the throne in 1814, the revolution actually picked up momentum. Our spirits will not be squashed by his refusal. I haven't seen my husband smile since my son's death and I hope that our lives will become normal again.

19: Jose de San Martin is a hero and he has urged all Argentine leaders to officially declare independence from Spain. They met in Tucuman on July 9 to do so. People are celebrating in Buenos Aires to our gained independence. Some people are worried that there will be arguments over the new government, and some even fear that there will be civil war. It is my hope that we will be work out any problems and create a government that is fair so that all living in this land will taste freedom from Spanish oppression. The fight is not yet over though. San Martin is a strategic general and has gathered pro independence forces in the hopes of crossing the Andes and liberating Chile too. | Pedro is determined to go on this mission even though I cry myself to sleep asking him to stay with me. I already lost one son due to this revolution and could not bear to lose Pedro, my true love. The cost of freedom is high but I stand by my husbands decisions because we have fought too long for this independence. Let God lead us and guide us to see this conflict end so that we may have a better life. This has been a long a weary time in our lives and the day that the fighting ends is the day that I will be able to rest my troubled heart. Pedro has aged due to sadness and the wear and tear of the revolution of our lives. The future is in God’s hands, Maria

20: All Maria Female Rebel Diary Entries Inspired by: Aniversario Gral Jose De San Martín. Digital image. Diario Buenos Aires. 16 Aug. 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. . "Argentine History." Embassy of Argentina in Canberra, Australia. Embassy of Argentina in Canberra, 15 Nov. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. . Brians, Paul. "Maria Eugenia Echenique: The Emancipation of Women." Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. Department of English, 23 Dec. 1998. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. . Discover Buenos Aires. Digital image. Discover Buenos Aires. 2 Apr. 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .

21: Gofen, Ethel, and Leslie Jermyn. Argentina. New York: Benchmark, 2002. Print. "José de San Martín." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. Link, Theodore, and Rose McCarthy. Argentina: a Primary Source Cultural Guide. New York, NY: PowerPlus, 2004. Print. Link, Theodore, and Rose McCarthy. Argentina: a Primary Source Cultural Guide. New York, NY: PowerPlus, 2004. Print. Napoleon Bonaparte- The Emperor. Digital image. Jegan's ACII and Wallpaper Blog. Jegan Somu, 18 Oct. 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. . Shields, Charles J. Argentina. Philadelphia: Mason Crest, 2004. Print. Streissguth, Thomas. Argentina in Pictures. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2003. Print.

22: 5/18/1810 Dear Diary, Today we found out that the French has taken the city of Seville and dissolved the Junta of Seville, the last Junta in the Spanish Crown. What if this leads to absolute rule? | Viceroy Cisneros tried to cover up this victory and tried to down play the situation, but we had already found out. This is what he said: "In Spanish America the throne of the Catholic Monarchs will endure, in the case it succumbs on the peninsula. (...) The superior government will not make any determination that is not previously agreed upon in union with all representatives of the capital city, to which subsequently will join those of the dependent provinces, until, in agreement with the other Viceroyalties, a representation of the sovereignty of Ferdinand VII is established." He's saying that we can come to terms with the power of France. I do not believe in these words and think he is just saying them to make us calmer.

23: I feel that we must start a revolution and rebel the government. If the Americans can do it then I don't see why we can't do it. Also, can you believe that Spain won't let us trade with any other country besides themselves! It's ridiculous and it's causing me and my husband, Ricardo, have to smuggle our leather good to survive and be able to buy food. We want free trade so we can trade our goods legally and hopefully make more income than we are right now. Not only that, but as a Creole, me and my husband deserve to be higher up on the social ladder. We feel that our birthplace should have nothing to do with our social level. | Because of this and other reasons, Ricardo went to Nicolás Rodríguez Peña and Hipólito Vieytesto's houses to decide what to do next about the Viceroyalty. Although Ricardo wasn't a main contributor, he gave the rest of our neighborhood information about what would happen next. These meetings were held secretly so we tried to act as if they weren't going on. One of the meetings was today, that is where Ricardo is right now. I hope we can fix this problem.... - Isabel Fernandez

24: _______________________________________________________________ Diary entry based on information from: | "May Revolution - Definition." WordiQ. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/May_Revolution. "May Revolution." WorldLIngo. Web. 6 Oct. 2010. http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/May_Revolution. “Causes of the May Revolution.” Mundoandino.com 2009. 29 Oct. 2010. http://www.mundoandino.com/Argentina/Causes-of-the-May-Revolution "Argentina." World Hisory: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. "Argentina." Wikipedia Schools. 2009. 29 Oct. 2010.

25: Primary Source: Pigna, Felipe. Los Mitos De La Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Grupo Editorial Norma, 2004. Web. 6 Oct. 2010. Picture: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Baltasar_Hidalgo_de_Cisneros.jpg

26: 5/22/1810 Dear Diary, Today they held an open cabildo! A cabildo is when they assemble the citizens to discuss a disaster or emergency? That must mean they're trying to plan our new government. Ricardo heard that 450 invitations were given out, but 600 were printed. The rest were given to Creoles in secret. One of the Creoles that went, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, said that not even half of the people invited actually went, probably out of fear. The open cabildo was ordered by Cisneros who finally was convinced to open up one. After the meeting ended, Ricardo and I heard that there was a lot of debate and fights. We heard the two main sides were the archbishop of Buenos Aires, Benito de Lué and Juan José Castelli. Benito de Lué believes that

27: nothing should change and that we should keep everything the way it is now. Obviously he just wants to keep his power and is afraid of losing it. Juan José Castelli believes that we should decide our own futures until Ferdinand VII can take the throne back. Ricardo and I and the rest of our Creole community support Juan. | blood, me and the other Creoles deserve better than second-class citizenship. We are Europeans at heart, which is all that matters. - Isabel Fernandez | What I personally want to see change in my life is moving up in the social order. Because of my European | __________________________________________ Diary Entry based on information from: "May Revolution - Definition." WordiQ. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/May_Revolution. "May Revolution." WorldLIngo. Web. 6 Oct. 2010. http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/May_Revolution. Picture: http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://napoleonstark.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/the-open-cabildo-of-may-22-of-1810-in-the-city-of-buenos-aires-where-it-was-decided-to-replace-the-viceroy-baltasar-hidalgo-de-cisneros-with-a-junta.jpeg&imgrefurl=http://napoleonstark.wordpress.com/&usg=__YMRC8mSIqCLEv_V8XPLvGT-kpvk=&h=1201&w=1605&sz=820&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=IPKdfSgdfdvpSM:&tbnh=170&tbnw=164&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dopen%2Bcabildo%2Bargentina%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1152%26bih%3D642%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=102&vpy=93&dur=3059&hovh=194&hovw=260&tx=204&ty=80&ei=BPPnTOWMIcOB8gavtoTPDA&oei=BPPnTOWMIcOB8gavtoTPDA&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0

28: 5/25/1810 Dear Diary, Today was crazy! Let me fill you in on what happened yesterday first. Yesterday a junta was set up! We were all rejoicing until we found out who the president was. It was Cisneros. I mean, Cisneros being president is just like Cisneros being viceroy, which means that we would probably stay in the same social order as we do now, which is one of the main reasons we are | "May Revolution." WorldLIngo. Web. 6 Oct. 2010. http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/May_Revolution.

29: fighting for a new government structure. Now let me tell you about today. Today the Cabildo understood our message and Cisneros had to resign. Then they dissolved the Junta that he was in charge of. After dissolving that one, fellow Patriots started the la Primera Junta de Gobierno, or the First Junta. This made us all happy and ready for changes. The only thing I'm worried about now is if other countries don't accept this new government. I hope they see that this is the best structure for us and that it is the only way for equality in our government. | I'm especially excited for the new changes in our government. Ricardo, me and our Creole friends will be treated better in society. Not only that, but if free trade was allowed, imagine how well off me and Ricardo would be. We could afford a bigger house and more luxuries! See you next time, - Isabel Fernandez | _______________________________________ Diary entry based on information from: "May Revolution - Definition." WordiQ. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/May_Revolution. "May Revolution." WorldLIngo. Web. 6 Oct. 2010. http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/May_Revolution. Picture: http://napoleonstark.wordpress.com/

31: May 25, 1810 Dear Spain, I Lucas Emmanuel Gustavo I think that the Spanish are an insult to our culture therefore we shall overthrow them. As a member of the revolutionary committee and worker of Jose de San Martin I still push for Independence because of the things that have caused this economic downfall. I believe that the Spanish are the ones causing our economic and financial problems due to a lack of support by them. I am pleased that a militia forced the British out and that revolutionary patriots forced the Spanish out of office. Although there were some good things happening I'm displeased with all the issues and things happening. It has been a long struggle followed by stress of the May Revolution although i have no current update on who is winning it has been a long struggle and battle for those fighting in it. Recently King Ferdinand VII was overthrown and citizens just made the first government junta in the revolution. I’m am pleased that people are taken action in our daily issues and I'm currently trying to follow up on that. Also I'm not happy with the higher costs of things due to the free trade. I’m hoping with the helps of Jose de San Martin after the revolution is over and things are paid for we can go about lowering prices of things and taxes. I’m also not pleased with the smuggling that has been going on between artisans and I look to stop it before the situation gets worse in these times.

32: Entry One-May 3, 1806 Dear Diary, I am a citizen of Argentina, part of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, and it is May 3, 1806. A few days ago, the British have made a determined effort to capture the city in which I live, Buenos Aires. They targeted us because we had been steadily growing in importance for the Spanish crown, due to our lucrative leather industries in Argentine pampas. Spain has abandoned us, they give us no resources for defense and send no troops to intervene. They take our taxes, yet they do not hold up their end of the bargain in terms of our defense; we were forced to fight off the British on our own. I remember the night my own life was compromised, and I recall the terrors vividly: I am at home, quietly reading, a reprieve from the labor required for my job at the leather industry. I use my crude hands, worn from work, to turn page by page as I delight in the rest. The aching in my knees still resonates, even as I lie still. I make an effort to ignore the discomfort and focus on my reading. Just then, a terribly loud noise comes from my door; a pounding growing in violence the longer I sit, confused, until I finally tend to the disturbance. Unlatching the door, I briskly swing it open to observe the chaos coming from outside it. I am put into even more confusion as I see my friend, Carlos, barge in panting, and I sympathize that he must have ran from his home to mine, our houses being almost a half mile apart. We work in the same industry, so we are both worn equally; his knees as worn as mine. I know this must be an immediate emergency because I know I wouldn’t have ran a half mile unless the situation demanded it for my survival. “Adriano! The British! They are breaking down our walls, firing among our men and women, seeking to capture the city! Have you got your rifle?” Carlos shouts. I am frozen in shock, and I fumble over my words as I frantically search for my rifle. Carlos and I would always go hunting together; we always had pristine rifles. Never had I thought to use it for my own defense to fell a human. “M-My rifle?! Where did I put it!” I shout. I scour closets, rooms and shelves, leaving an upturned clutter in my wake. After probing my mind for possible locations, I remind myself I had sold it, I was low on money. A wave of emotions come over me, a wave mixed with regret, anger, defenselessness, and fear. I turn to Carlos quickly, “I do not have it, do you have a spare?” “No, but rest assured I’ll kill these British dogs and get you one,” Carlos responded. We venture into the upheaval were I see shot citizens, retreating children and the rallying of what little militia we have left. Carlos and I join them, where the immediately accept us after quick glances, and give us orders. The leader is a Spanish veteran living in Buenos Aires, who fought in the War of the Oranges in 1801, five years ago. He assigns all of us with a duty with such celerity that I immediately find myself responsible for the task of guarding the front lines. There, he says, I will be able to find a reliable firearm to defend myself, and our city.

33: Carlos and I rush to a garrison with people such as Carlos and myself, because Spain has failed to send us troops. Amidst the fog, we can make out a few British soldiers. I take it we are winning by comparing the number of fallen bodies I see on both sides, with the British post racking up considerable amounts of corpses. As we take cover behind the fort’s defenses, Carlos aims and takes a few soldiers out, hitting one in the head, and a few others in the torso. I am still bereft of a firearm, with the only firearm available on top of an Argentine corpse. I wield it, but the gun’s lever action seems to be jammed. Carlos reassures me that I can take a British gun, once they clear off this force. I stay in cover as the firing slowly dies down, and we emerge victorious. Carefully scanning the throng of corpses strewn about, the militia seems to have killed all of the troops sent to this location. As the militia heads out towards another rally point, Carlos walks steadily over to a corpse, examines the gun, and picks it up. He turns to me, smiling, ready to toss the gun over to me. Right then, a wounded soldier who appeared dead, pulls out his pistol and aims for Carlos’ head. I lunge and shout to warn him, but the soldier proceeds to fire. Carlos has fallen, and I am frightened at the realization that no one can live from a shot like that. As the soldier reloads to take a shot at me, I run for Carlos’ rifle, and aim it at the dying troop. I had never wanted to kill a man with that gun. But when you and an enemy are gunpoint at gunpoint, it’s either you or him, that gets taken down. That was my last thought as a man free from the sin of taking a life. Afterwards, I flee back home, lock myself in my house, and mourn the loss of my friend Carlos. After a while, I calm down and fall into a sleep once the news of our victorious defense permeates the city. I questioned my loyalty to Spain after that day. Everyone in Buenos Aires questioned the worth of their allegiance to Spain, after they had abandoned us to the terrors of war. It is because of Spain’s neglect that my friend is dead, and I now have blood on my hands, blood that does not belong to me. Spain is deserving of this torture, not me. Everyone in Buenos Aires now speaks of rebellion. They even speak of a possible coming of French invasion on Spain. If Spain had been overrun, then I see no worth in submitting myself loyal to them.

34: Entry Two-January 30, 1815 Dear Diary, The rumors were true. Rumors of a French invasion had been circulating for some time, and on May 13, 1810, a British frigate arrived in Montevideo and confirmed the rumors: Spain had been overrun. Once the news hit, Buenos Aires was in an uproar. Napoleonic forces had hit Spain, and Spanish king Ferdinand VII was taken prisoner. Napoleon wanted to put to power someone he could trust, so he placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. I heard many tales of Joseph; they despised him, and called him “Bottle Joe” because of his alleged drunkenness. So Spain had desperately tried to keep news of this disaster from reaching its colonies. They had kept a close eye on all New World countries, because ever since the American Revolution, Spain had feared the spirit of independence would spread to those lands. They believed that the colonies needed little excuse to cast off Spanish rule. Spanish Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros de la Torre pleaded for calm, but on May 18, a group of citizens came to him demanding a town council. Cisneros tried to stall, but the city leaders would not be denied. So on May 20, Cisneros met with the leaders of the Spanish military forces stationed in Buenos Aires, and they said they would not support him and encouraged him to go ahead with the town meeting. On May 22, the meeting was first held, and by May 24, a ruling junta was created, which included Cisneros, Creole leader Juan Jose Castelli and commander Cornelio Saavedra.

35: None of the citizens of Buenos Aires wanted former Viceroy Cisneros to continue in any capacity in the new government, so the original junta was disbanded. Subsequently, another junta was created on May 25th, with Saavedra as president. There were committee members that included creoles and patriots. They essentially ended the authority of Viceroy Cisneros and replaced it with the Primera Junta. This was our first independent government ever since the events of the May Revolution, which included the deposition of Viceroy Cisneros. I believe this was intended as a show of loyalty to the Spanish crown, yet this revolution actually started the process of independence for Argentina. Us citizens in Argentina had enough of Spanish rule, even though Ferdinand VII was restored in 1814. Paraguay already declared itself independent in 1811. I believe that in short time we will formally declare our own independence from Spain, because we have leaders such as Jose de San Martin and Manuel Belgrano. I still wish for our own independence, because I do not wish to be associated with Spain. Ever since that day where my friend Carlos was killed, where I became a murderer, I had this persistent resentment for Spain. We must act fast, because now Spain is resuming function ever since Ferdinand VII was restored. Spain will be looking to recover control over its colonies in the Americas, but we must let them know they have been far too unstable and unsupportive, with events such as Joseph Bonaparte taking the throne, and how they did not send us aid when we were under siege by our enemy.

37: June 1813, Dear Diary, It has been three years since I last wrote to myself and a lot has transpired during that time. The revolution is still going on but things seem to be less heated between the government and people of what I’ve seen so far. Also in 1812 Jose de San Martin helped find the Lautaro Lodge, which is a secret organization committed to independence. He later organized and organized Argentine troops from the revolution to go against the Spanish royalists who helped win in 1813 in San Lorenzo. Even though the tension between Argentina and Spain still seemed to be pretty rough the outlook of the citizens and the revolution has clearly went down.

39: July 9, 1816, Dear Diary, , 1816 will be a day I will never forget let me tell you what happened. Today July 9thToday was a very important day not only for me but for my country. The revolution has officially ended and we were declared full independence in a meeting in San Miguel Tucuman. Also just a little of a year ago two nations joined together in Argentina united Provinces of South America. The last year or so has been very good for my country because we're finally getting what we worked so hard for and I than Jose de San Martin for all his hard work and effort he has put in to making this country independent. Although prices on things are still high just like six years ago when I first wrote in my diary they have decreased a little and certainly will go down now after todays impressive win. Although this date will forever go down in history and my country is named free and independent there still will be some economic issues that will be prolonged for sometime.

40: Date: July, 18 1819 Dear Beatriz, First let me start by saying how long it has been since we’ve seen each other! How have you been doing? We haven’t seen each other since last year when we were together. I remember the day when they took us away. We were working on the plantation and they sold us, from there we were separated and I haven’t seen you since. I was looking | old pictures and found us sitting in front of the plantation together. I really miss you! How is your new life? Don’t even ask me! It is so unfair. Each morning I must wake at 5 a.m, I work in the fields until 3 p.m without any break! From there I help when the kids come home from school, feeding them, bathing them, anything my owner says. There are two kids, the most spoiled and snobby kids you have ever seen. Screaming at the top of their lungs to be fed and taken care of, these aren’t two year olds, both of them are five. Of course I am the one to deal with it all. My work does not end there, I have to finish cleaning the house until the end of the day.

41: This revolution was supposed to help us in the end! My owner says it wouldn’t last too long, but I can never trust him. Beatriz, we are going to be free soon! Don’t you understand? It will be great once we can have a life of our own! Here I don’t have any friends we aren’t allowed to work in groups, he says we won’t get anything done. I could show him a thing or two. My owner was completely against this revolution! He doesn’t want us to be free, he really is an awful man! Have you ever heard of Mariano Moreno? He was the leader of the May Revolution. He is who everyone (slaves) looks up to, we practically worship him. I heard news yesterday, that he and some other guys were meeting at the Cafe de Marcos, they say they were speaking about republican ideas! | This means that someone is actually fighting for us. Since we have no rights in the government, it all comes down to the owners. They have this power over us and it isn’t fair, I feel like I am taking orders from two governments, the real one and my owner. But Mariano Moreno is fighting for us! I will tell you more about him later! Hopefully I have the right address! Looks like those kids are back from school now, they are calling me. But, enough about me! I want to hear how you are! Hope you are doing well, Abril This diary entry was inspired by: Encyclopedia Britannica. "Argentina :: Independence -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2010.

42: Date : August 27, 1819 Dear Abril, Why, it is so nice to hear from you. Time does go by so fast; I don’t even recognize the days anymore. I have been hanging in there my friend. A lot has been occurring since we last saw each other. Being with this new owner has been quite an adventure. He’s a rich landowner and he has a lot to say about the government. Yet before I tell you about him, I must share with you something quite amazing. As you know, Argentina had been involved with the revolution to fight for our independence from Spain and my owner decided to go to Angostura to hear a man named Simon Bolivar speak. He said he wanted to write it down on paper and be able to witness something that will make history. My owner needed help while traveling there so he asked me and two others to join him. I will express to you right now that I am glad I went to hear this man’s inspirational words. I shall inform you a little background information so you can understand the situation. Simon Bolivar is originally from Venezuela, he fought for their independence, and through the many who were dedicated to this revolt as he was, by 1811 Venezuela gained independence. Yet he didn’t stop there he wanted to win independence for other countries under Spanish control. For several years after that, he fought, building armies and leading them. However, nonetheless this past year

43: as well when we arrived at the congress meeting, it was awe inspiring. I stood way in the back behind my owner and listened to Bolivar speak. He spoke of how we are a mix of species; Europeans, Indians, Spaniards, and aborigines. As you know we know that better than anybody else. Yet what called my attention was this, “Slavery is the daughter of darkness: an ignorant people is a blind instrument of its own destruction” (Bolivar). Tears began to form in my eyes. I couldn’t believe someone was proposing the idea that slavery is immoral. We are people too, and just because we are the “worst” mix of nationalities doesn’t give anybody more superior authority. Yet society runs like this and fighting for rights is ignored and pushed aside. After this my ears were fully open. Oh! Abril, statements he made were motivational! Although, he was proposing a form of government for Gran Colombia, this doesn’t change the fact that people can learn and understand something from this. He states that “.. the rule of law is more powerful than the rule of tyrants, because, as the laws are more inflexible, every one should submit to their beneficent austerity; that proper morals, and not force, are the bases of law; and that to practice justice is to practice liberty” (Bolivar). I agree with this because it is evidently true. Our laws should be based on morals and this proper awareness of right

44: and wrong allow us to understand fairness, which is freedom. Oh! He said so much more but this was significant for me. Argentina should also consider this idea so we could live in society with freedom and recognition. Nevertheless, I had to share this experience with you. I am so glad we reached out to each other! Tell me more in what’s happening in your life now...anything inspirational? new experiences? And to answer your question about Mariano Moreno, yes I am aware of him. He too, is quite an inspiration as well. Anyhow, write me soon and hope all is well. Your Old Friend, Beatriz Diary Entry Inspired by Information from: "Argentina." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc- clio.com/Search/Display/317193?terms=Argentine+Revolution+1816 "Simón Bolívar." Image. Library of Congress. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/301186?terms=simon+bolivar

45: "Simón Bolívar." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc- clio.com/Search/Display/1469756?terms=Simon+Bolivar "Simón Bolívar: Speech proposing a government for Gran Colombia (1819)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1475223?terms=simon+bolivar

46: Date: September 5, 1819 Dear Beatriz, It is wonderful hearing from you now! It seems like we are in the same situation. I cannot believe you traveled to Angostura, it must have been a long trip, but it seemed worth it! Simon Bolivar seems to be an honest man that wants equal rights and as you said having laws based on morals. This story reminds me of Manuel Belgrano, have you ever head his name? He is known for his beliefs in liberalism. | He is a strong believer in liberty and equality, he joined with Mariano Moreno and Bernardino Rivadavia to establish a junta. Even though it is a junta, the government hardly affects us and there are still benefits for the slaves. One of the most inspirational quotes I have heard from Manuel Belgrano is, “Life without freedom, is not worth living.” (Belgrano). I have this written on the ceiling of my room, I fall asleep thinking there is someone that believes in our rights. There is one person that doesn’t... my owner. Everyday he complains about this revolution; always telling me how I will never be a free woman. This is degrading to anyone, we are just as equal as anyone else.

47: We may not be affected by the government directly but that doesn’t mean we should be taking orders from these landowners. Mariano is a believer in freedom of speech and press, he wants to help us. In the May Revolution the main focus was on popular soverignty, division of powers, and representation. The popular soverignty was from Mariano, he gave people that lived in feudal territory to vote on toleration of slavery. Now that he is in power, I am hoping there will be more freedom coming our way. It seems like two different worlds, our lives. Your owner allowed you to travel with him to hear this inspirational speech, that would never happen here. | They have completely different opinions about the revolution. I have noticed a trickle effect from the government to owner to me, the government doesn’t have rights that affect us, so instead our owners make the rules for us. It feels like we are under the rule of two governments. I am looking forward to hearing more news from Mariano and Manuel hopefully something will break soon.In response to my experiences, there hasn’t been anything major. I am hoping to one day hear a speech from Mariano or Manuel they seem to target us in giving us more of what we want, they understand us. What else does your owner have to say about the revolution, I am curious! Abril Inspired by: Mariano Moreno." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.

48: Date : September 16, 1819 Dear Abril, I must tell you that journey to Angostura was not the easiest however it was worthwhile. Since Argentina has already gained its independence I think its time for leaders to start thinking of everyone in society. Start thinking of ways we can make this country a better place...a more balanced country. Why to answer question of Manuel Belgrano, yes I have heard of him. I am aware that he fought for the Independence of Argentina however I am also aware that he wanted a monarchy. I believe it was in 1814 that he set off to find a suitable ruler which I find to be ridicule. I am grateful he fought for independence and wanted rights for the general population in Argentina however I believe he should just be remembered as an intellectual leader in the revolution. Nonetheless, you say that your owner was against the revolution? Abril, I find that to be interesting. Moreover, because my owner was all for the revolution and he has influenced my opinion as well. I wasn’t ever truly involved with what the government was doing until I began working

49: for him. He told me stories how in May of 1810 he was involved with the militia that formed that year who overthrew the British occupation. He also shared he knew many of the revolutionary patriots that removed the Spanish viceroy. Yet fighting for independence for Argentina and believing in the rights for the people in Argentina are two different things. A person can fight for the Independence for Argentina however they can strongly believe in the caste system within society. Then there are people like my owner which fought for independence but also believes in the equality of people. This opinion of his I find interesting because he does have slaves however he doesn’t treat us badly. He actually is very generous. He makes sure we always have enough to eat and drink in order to work on the field, he makes sure that our rooms are a clean enough environment, and he gives us days of resting. At first I wondered if this man was really true because as you know my last owner was brutal. He never fed us, he beat us and

50: if we didn’t finish our chores horrible consequences were made sure of. Yet I find that working for this owner has been more reassuring. To be honest with you I even asked him one day why does he had slaves if he believes in rights and this was his answer, “ I have lots of land. Land that needs hardworking people to stay strong. I don’t consider you as my slaves, but the key holders of this beautiful land. On my land you will not consider yourself as a slave. I am only one person and you all are my company. And I treat my company well.” After that I realized how rare of a mentality my owner has. He is good to us and I greatly appreciate it. He says he will continue to fight for our rights too. Until then, I am stable where I am right now however it would be grand one day to live in my own home and own land. Now you’re aware of my life currently and my owner’s opinion. Now tell me and be honest what are the things your owner believes in and tell me what are the things you believe in?

51: Hope to hear from you soon, Beatriz | Diary Entry Inspired by information from: "Argentina." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2010.http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/317193?terms=Argentine+Revolution+1816 "Manuel Belgrano." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/314412?terms=manuel%20belgrano&webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f314412%3fterms%3dmanuel+belgrano&token=9037750EFBED1D5005611CD636AAF233&casError=False

52: Date: October 1, 1819 Dear Beatriz, After hearing those words from your owner, I wish I could take off and find you again. You ask about my owners beliefs, well yes he is against the Revolution. | His main belief is that everything should be kept the same as it is now. It used to be that he was apart of the viceroys, until 1806. That is when the British attacked Buenos Aires, most of the viceroys fled the city because they did not want to be at fault. I couldn’t believe it, when I heard this! He had to leave his family and kids because there wasn’t enough time for everyone to leave together. He eventually came back to Buenos Aires and had to start over again, at first he was just a poor landowner.The governement tried to redistribute land to other landowners, and they kept taking away the small amount of land he had.

53: He said the government was robbing him. Once he started expanding his land later, he realized this was a good way to become wealthy. He started growing more variety of foods, as you know Argentina is the center for slave trade and he began buying slaves to work on his farm ever since. He likes having this power over us, because he cannot be part of the viceroys anymore because of the junta. I think this has to do with why he does not believe in equal rights. He enjoys being the controller of us because it is how his life was before he had a fled the country. Anyway, enough about his thoughts! I believe that we should be free!! | The government should gain independence and then reform the social order. It seems that this is what Mariano and Manuel were focusing on, especially in the May Revolution. I guess I will just have to hope and see how this Revolution turns out. Hopefully it will be ending soon, and life can go back to the way we want it. Good Luck, Abril inspired by: "José de San Martín." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. FERRADÁS, CARMEN LICIA . "Culture of Argentina, History and ethnic relations." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .

54: Date: October 11, 1819 Dear Abril, Its unfortunate that many people think such as your owner does in this country. However we have to be the stronger group and still believe in what’s right. I am content to hear your thoughts on this and hope the best for you. Stay strong my friend and continue to look at those words on your ceiling. Because one day that freedom will become real to us. As Simon Bolivar exclaimed, "A people that loves freedom will in the end be free." I truly believe in this! Nonetheless, why do you think our country is called “silvery”? Of course the Spanish explorer Sebastian Cabot in the 1500’s had loved the the silver ornaments our ancestor natives wore and named it “Argentina”. However the name has become something more powerful, more symbolic because we’ve gained our independence. We our now our own country.

55: Spain does not rule us anymore. It’s time we take our intelligence and artistic excellence in order to make this country even greater. Although this name still needs to develop since we still are a very divided country. This was especially proven with the Constitution that was presented this past year in May. The congress just can’t seem to agree on a form of government which will continue to make friction. Once this time of complication of conflict is over, Argentina will hopefully be a united country and will propose even greater ideas. Your Good Friend, Beatriz | Diary Entry Inspired by information from: "Argentina." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2010.http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/317193?terms=Argentine+Revolution+1816 "Argentine Constitution of 1819 : Define, Explore, Discuss." 1000s of Museums Online : MuseumStuff.com. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://www.museumstuff.com/learn/topics/Argentine_Constitution_of_1819 "Simón Bolívar: quote on freedom." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society.ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/788276?terms=Simon+Bolivar "History of Argentina." Emayzine 2001. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/histor~4.htm.

56: May 25, 1810 Dear Diary: Although I have seen this day coming for years, it was nonetheless startling. It was bad enough to hear that King Ferdinand VII is no longer in control in Spain, but to have the Honorable Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros removed from office is almost too much for me to bear.I am wondering what will happen to the rest of us here in the government. Will we too be tossed out by these rebels? So far, there has been little violence, but I don’t trust the Primera Junta that has taken over power. | Cornelio Saavedra, Mariano Moreno and Manuel Belgrano say they are “for the people” and say that they will remain loyal to the King against foreigners, but I don’t believe them. They seem to be more concerned with their own power than anything else. I know that the people of Argentina have been frustrated by the way that the Spaniards have treated us, but as a loyal subject of the crown, I understand why the King insisted on ruling us with a heavy hand.

57: I do think that the King should have allowed for Argentina to trade with more foreign countries – and for that I do have some resentment . It will be interesting to see if this new Junta is able to make a difference. My experience tells me no. The people need a strong, absolute ruler – not a group of three who are trying to change the rules. I hope to God I will be safe. Hugo Sanchez | June 1811 Dear Diary: Well, it has been just over a year since the Primera Junta took control of the government, and what a horrible year it has been. As I feared, violence has escalated as these rebels try to expand their territory. The royalist armies have outnumbered them and, may I say, outsmarted them too. The Alto Peru campaign was totally unsuccessful for the rebels. And, they just lost badly at the Battle of Huaqui, but rumor has it they are going to continue their efforts – this time in Paraguay.

59: January 31, 1813: Dear Diary: Late last year, the newly formed Trimuvirate named Jose de San Martin as their new leader. Belgrando was finally removed from command of the Northern Army after losing so many battles. While I was happy that Belgrando and the militia were so unsuccessful, the bloodshed under his rule was horrible. It was especially gorey during the Jujuy Exodus when Belgrando’s militia burned everything in sight in an effort to stop the royalists. I don’t know much about San Martin since he just arrived from Spain but I pray that he is less violent than Belgrando. I do know that today San Martin won the battle at San Lorenzo. I don’t know if he is just a better commander, or if the royalists are getting tired of the constant battles. But either way, a victory is a victory, and I am getting nervous about my position. I continue to do my job the best I can, but it is difficult given the fact that our leadership keeps changing. I think that these Juntas and Trimuvirates are destined for failure. How can you rule by a group? Though I could be killed for writing this, I think the days of absolute rule will return. It may not be under the King of Spain, but I don’t think Argentina can continue to survive with non-stop uprisings and battles. My first choice would be for the King to be returned to the throne – but in any case, we need a powerful, single ruler. We need this revolution to end. Hugo Sanchez

60: March 1, 1814: Dear Diary: Breaking news: Gervasio Antonio de Posadas and his small fleet of ships just defeated the Spanish near the Montevido coast. I cannot believe this! The royalists are no longer in control of Buenos Aires. Posadas has only been the Supreme Director for only a month and he already has a major victory. I was right, the militia finally moved to a government structure that allowed for more control by one person – and look at what happened: the militia just had crucial win against the royalists. Now I am really worried about my safety. While a part of my heart is hoping for total independence from Spain once and for all, I am terrified for my life and my country. I am not sure we can survive without the oversight of the royal forces. I know I have continued to work hard to serve the various rulers we have had over the past four years, but I don’t know if I will be viewed as a royalist sympathizer. In the end, I could be killed. I fear the fighting is going to worsen now that these militants have achieved a major victory. God bless Spain. God bless Argentina. Hugo Sanchez

61: July 9, 1816 Dear Diary: Argentina is free! Today a Declaration of Independence of Argentina from the Spanish crown was finally signed. We even have a National Constitution. Deep down, my heart is celebrating though my mind is confused. 1815 was a year of ups and downs. The militia continued its efforts to win more territory but was not successful in Peru due to lack of control by the commander. And then, late last year, King Ferdinand VII of Spain was put back onto the throne. I was overjoyed at his return. And, I was certain that Argentina would be headed back under stronger royal control. But that is not the case. Instead, here we are: Argentina is free! Hugo Sanchez | Bibliography: Argentina." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Argentina." Wikipedia Schools. 2009 "Argetinane Constitution of 1819: pictur http://historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac09 http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/alpha/argentina1810.htm http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1800s.html Primary Source: World History I and II Text Book t

62: Dear diary,05/16/1810 While in the tavern to night I was invited in to the back room by my dear friend Santiago. For many days prior he has been coaxing to join in his secret organization. But I knew from the start it would only get me in to trouble. But this night was different he had told that we were being betrayed by the government and that now was our time for freedom that now was our time for revolution. Interested in his word I agreed to go with him. My heart raced as I walked back there and sitting around the table in the cramped back room were people of the town. Anxious and curious about what was to be spoken I was relieved when the tension was broken by my friend. He informed us the new information that he had received. He told us about how Spain was defeated. At first when I heard this I was shocked with disbelief, unsure about my feelings about what I had just heard. As he explained what had happened, that Spain had been involved in the peninsular wars aiding France just to be turned on by them under Napoleon. He told us how Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo had been with holding the information from us, his people, and that he didn’t intend on telling us anytime soon. At that point I knew how I felt about the situation, I felt betrayed and angered I knew now that indeed it was time for freedom and a revolution. Sincerely, Jacinto a new revolutionist

63: Dear diary, 05/18/1810 What a rush I felt as I stood, with a group of people who shared the same ideas that I had, protesting against Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo demanding that his lies stop. That he would stop the over taxation. That he would protect us the way he should. While that coward begged for calm we would not subside just to please him and allow this tyrannical rule of Buenos Aires continue. He even tried stalling but the city leaders would have none of it. The city leaders put the wants of the people first, unlike the tyrannical extension of Spain Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo, and they would have none of cheep stalling tactics. With the addition of our efforts the city and military leaders held a town meeting with Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo and now I along with the fellow revolutionists that stand beside me anxiously await their decision on what will become of Buenos Aires, Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo and more importantly Argentina. Sincerely, Jacinto

64: I just hope that Belgrano doesn’t get any more powerful. To me, he is the worst of the bunch. It seems like he will do just about anything to win more power and control. He seems to get more and more desperate as he and his rebel militia are unsuccessful. Luckily, I never have to directly interact with him. But I hear from some of the other government officials that he is truly an evil man. He views all of us that worked for the royalist government as suspicious. My friend Manuel Albranno told me he looks at each of them with open hatred. Why would he hate me? Yes, I secretly remain loyal to the King, but I also love my country, Argentina. I hate to see the bloodshed. I hate to see my country torn apart. Hugo Sanchez

66: Dear diary,05/25/1810 Elation, fear, hope. The words that I feel every time I recount what had happened this day, what I had help cause. The leaders of Buenos Aires finally heard our wants and needs. The old junta consisting of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo was not seen as what was best for Argentina and Buenos Aires by the city and military leaders and accordingly the old junta was disbanded. And because of this I feel elation, we had won our battle to rid ourselves of the unjust ruler Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo. With the creations of the new junta with leaders mostly who were creoles. This causes me to have some fear. The power hasn’t fully been transferred back to the people but instead just moved to another group of people. We could easily end up is the same situation we face now but I have hope and I put my trust in out new leaders to make decisions not based on selfish need or lies like Baltasar Hidalgo but instead decisions that reflect the wants and needs of the people. Sincinerly, Jacinto a free argentine

67: These diary entries inspired by: Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina (Palgrave Essential Histories). 1 ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print. "Argentina :: Independence -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. . Minster, Christopher. "Argentina: The May Revolution." Latin American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.

68: February 3 1813 Dear Dairy We just had started our junta, the first act from the Spanish has finally begun and its gone without a hitch. Declaring war on the royalist was probably the Best idea we had ever decided, and were ready to take them down. So far we have the advantage were winning some battles trying to declare our freedom without so much blood shed. We had finally won in one region so far and the discriminated royalist will find the creoles wrath I speak for everyone saying that. After taking that region the we had named it Paraguay. From all those years in the Spanish army I couldn't take the beating and teasing. So I moved back to my real home Argentina and fighting for it and its people. Even though I got promoted I didn't want to work for those scum. I used all of the military and resources I had and it worked I won the battle of San Lorenzo. This battle was one of my greatest. We didn't really have a lot of soldiers but we had heart that's all we needed. The felt like they were better, and more soupier than us they were wrong. They thought we couldn't stand up to ourselves they were wrong. that's why I disappeared I rather fight for people who respect me instead of calling me scum. Royalist cant take our power no one can. The fight for this land came from 250 men, they fought for Argentina including me and we fought had everyone surprise. Now the only surprises are going to be us being defeated. José de San Martín

69: July 28 1821 Dear Dairy They wanted me to take upper Peru, I told everyone how this would be impossible, but I knew that this was the only way to have Peru free from Spain. I planed this idea that I would claim to have a health problem to begin my plan. Where I had requested and obtained appointment as governor of Cuyo Province, located near the Andes, where I could supposedly get better. I used this move to gather my forces in western Argentina and develop a plan to cross the Andes into Chile, acquire reinforcements, and attack Peru. In that three year time period i had to myself I joined what I call my friend Bernardo O'Higgins. I led our soldiers across the Andes then I February I had taken Santiago. they offered me a spot in the Chilean government I had declined that to give to Bernardo O'Higgins, because he could put his troops on he attack against Peru. finally we had taken the rest of Peru and taken the royalist scum out of it. after the capture of Chile i was finally aiming for Peru but instead of going to Lima I went straight into Pisco landing my navel ships in 1820. after we limited the resources and reinforcements from Pisco the royalist retried to the mountains and we aimed for Lima and we got it. I was named the Nation protector. having the victory after all those years of deceiving my enemies and my allies it all had worked. José de San Martín

70: Dear Dairy While trying to take down all of the royalist I found this interesting person that I could call an Allie, Simón Bolívar. He had great accomplishments he had recently defeated the Spanish in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. we met at Guayaquil in Ecuador, but he was so different. I always thought me and him would be alike since of the challenges we faced but I was wrong. So then I went back on my ship and gone back to Peru. I didn't like ho he had not offer me a amount of reinforcements and didn't want to be under his attack in the final attack of the Spanish rule. We also had this argument about this territory we were in his Guayaquil he made me ready to assault, but I stayed calmed and walked away. In September I felt like I had brung war and unhappiness so I resigned from being protector of Peru.after my wife died in 1824 I decided to head for england with my daughter. Then I had settled in Belgium. When I had decided that I just wanted to go to Buenos Aires I received to go back in the military but then i decided that I wouldn't need that anymore. I passed through my home land Argentina and left because no more strife and other thing that would interrupt my peace so then I just went to France were i hope is my death place. Good Bye José de San Martín

72: Bibliography for Event's Map "Argentina." Map. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/311340?terms=Argentina "Argentina." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/317193?terms=Argentine+Revolution+1816 "Asamblea Del Ano XIII Profile. Information about Asamblea Del Ano XIII. Middle East Culture and Attractions." Mundoandino: Andes Culture and Attractions. Travel to Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. . "History of Argentina." Emayzine 2001. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/histor~4.htm

73: "HISTORY OF ARGENTINA." HistoryWorld - History and Timelines. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=nnc#nnc. San Lorenzo (where it is on map) http://www.weather-forecast.com/locationmaps/SanLorenzo1.10.jpg "José de San Martín." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/315788?terms=San+Martin

74: Epilogue 1)Some of the pressing issues in Argentina today is the extremely high population. During the 20th century Argentina greatly suffered an economic crises caused by high inflation, current account deficits, external debt and capital flight. Also there are many environmental problems that Argentina deals with such as; deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution and water pollution. These are all current issues going on with Argentina today that started in the early 2000's and still exist and have progressed in Argentina over the years. 2) The main cause of the economic crisis that occurred within Argentina started in 2001 when there depressions had started and growing of external in debt-ness had occurred and a bank that had been culminated this was known as one of the biggest political issues in the history of Argentina. Another immediate cause to this is the government running up taxes and causing more people to run up in debt and for the high inflation is also because of the government and raising the prices on things. For the people in debt and the prices of things going up the high inflation just adds to a bigger mess. 3) Long term causes to Argentina's economic crisis is the prices will continue to go up and the increase of quantity of money which will later lead to higher prices of fuel. Also increase of consumer goods and and downfall in interests rates and cut in tax rates. Lastly, cost of producing will raise and which will lead into more problems and a bigger issue attached on to the current ones occurring. 4) I cannot accumulate any of these current issues to the Argentine revolution because there weren't any relevant issues involving taxes and high inflation because the revolution was more based on power and natural resources and exports from other countries. I dont think its an unresolved problem after the revolution but I think it might have been if some of the circumstances were a little different. -

75: Epilogue Citations http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/argentina/argentina_economy.html http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-147115131.html

76: Debt (BIllions) | Year | Debt Levels | Blue=Argentina Green=America | This data explains a lot about Argentina's economic state. Their debt levels show that although they do have a considerable amount of debt, the amount is minuscule compared to the United States.When Argentina's debt decreased around 50 billion dollars between 2004 and 2005, you could hardly tell because of how high up the United States was on the graph

77: Inflation Level (%) | Year | Inflation Rates | Blue=Argentina Red-America | What is interesting is that compared to inflation rates, the United States is actually doing better than Argentina. While the U.S. stays semi-consistent, Argentina fluctuates constantly, at on point increasing by 37%, which is huge. This has affected Argentina because during that time where inflation increased, Argentina was going through an economic crisis. This pushed people under the poverty line and raised the unemployment rate.This was a serious problem for Argentina, but as you can see they are starting to recover for the most part so it won't affect them more than it already has, which is a good thing.This was not connected to the legacy of the May Revolution because the | government continued to change after the initial revolution ended, so the laws of the First Junta were very different than they are today in Argentina.

78: Works Cited for Economic Status | "Argentina - Inflation Rate (consumer Prices) - Historical Data Graphs per Year." Index Mundi - Country Facts. 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 17 Nov. 2010. . "Historical Inflation." Inflationdata.com. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. . "Countries of the World - 22 Years of CIA World Fact Books." ITA - Information Technology Associates Immigration USA for Windows. 13 Feb. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. . "U.S. Debt Clock.org." U.S. National Debt Clock : Real Time. 22 Nov. 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2010. .

79: Here we can see the number of presidents that both Argentina and the United States have had since their revolution. This in effect shows the number of changes of power. As we can see the United States has had fewer changes in power than Argentina.

80: This graph depicts the number of years on average that the leaders would hold power for in Argentina and the United States. In Argentina a leader would only hold power for about 3.5 years where as in the United States a leader would stay in power for roughly 5.3. These results are calculated from the 1816 Independence Day in Argentina and the 1776 Independence Day in the United States leading up to 2008.

81: The government in Argentina and the United States are very similar, almost identical. Argentina’s government style is a republic and the United States is a federal republic. Both have an executive, legislative, and judicial branch that consists of basically the same members who perform the same jobs. Just like in the United States the minimum suffrage age is 18 and is universal. So why it is that Argentina have had so many more leaders and their time of rule much shorter than the United States? This is for 2 main reasons. The first is that the revolution in Argentina was rushed. The time from when the war for independence began to when it is generally accepted to end is only a span of 6 years where as for the United States it is a span of 19 years. This is nearly 3 times that of Argentina’s revolution, because Argentina rushed it revolution it’s new starting government wasn’t as solid as that of the United States. Also the argentine constitution was written in 1853 this is nearly 37 years after the generally accepted end of the argentine revolution. The United States constitution was written before the revolution had ended. This further supports the fact that Argentina didn’t have as strong a government at the end of their revolution which explains why they had more rulers ruling for less time.

82: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html "Argentina :: Independence -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html

83: What Happens Next? After the Revolution Summary In 1826 Buenos Aires took control over the interior of Argentina. Then, the first president, Bernardino Rivadavia, a resident of Buenos Aires, was known as a porteno. This meant that he was a resident of the port city of Buenos Aires. The porteno’s argued with the ranchers over trade and economy. An opponent from a different political party who represented ranchers overthrew him. Members who supported Rivadavia killed the next leader. Then Juan Manuel de Rosas, a landowner from the pampas, took control of the government from 1829-1852. He was ruthless and murdered political opponents and native Indians. A military general named Justo José de Urquiza overthrew him. The years directly following the revolution were marked by political upheaval. Urquiza created a constitution based off of the U.S constitution and was declared president of various provinces. In 1860, the name Argentina was officially used to describe the union of the provinces. The name comes from the Latin word for silver, argtentum. Buenos Aires rejected joining the confederation and was eventually forced to do so after civil war. It became the capital. During the time period of 1868-1874, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, who was the president, advocated for public education. As a result, Argentina had one of the highest literacy rates in the world at that time. In the 1870’s and 1880’s there were wars with the

84: indigenous Indians over land. The Indians lost their land and were almost annihilated completely. By 1880, Buenos Aires became a federal district of the country. At the turn of the century, Argentina entered a golden age of expansion of its economy. The country developed its railroad system and exporting beef and faming products to Europe. Many improvements were made to the info structure to the country. World War I broke out and the Great Depression hit the U.S and it had a negative effect on Argentin’s economy. The president couldn’t solve the economic problems and was overthrown by army leaders. After that, there was a serious of military dictators. Then, in 1946, Colonel Juan Domingo Perone, became president. His policies included increase government spending and taking control of industries and taxing agricultural production. Because of his policies the national income fell. Additionally, he stopped freedom of speech, changed the constitution so he could have more power and allowed himself to be president for the second term. As a result, his popularity declined, the Catholic Church refused to support him and he had to leave the country. In 1956 the new president, Artruo Frondiza, restored the original constitution of 1853. There followed years of strikes and political unrest. In 1973, Perone returned from exile and became president again. Third wife, Isabelle, became vice president. Perone died in 1974 and Isabel became the first female president of Argentina. Inflation rose to over 400 percent and there are many terrorist groups that arose in the country. Isabel is arrested in 1976 by military leaders The new government

85: kidnapped and killed many of its opponents and those victims of violence became known as the Los Desaparecidos, or the disappeared. Many were tortured and killed. In 1982, Britain found itself at war with Argentina. The Argenine president, Leo Poldo Jaltiera, wanted to take back the falkand island from the British. The war lasted 72 days and Argentina was forced to surrendor. For the next seven years, Argentina and Britain were alienated from each other. As a result of this war a new president was elected, Raul al Fonsin, in 1983. He restored the constitution of 1853. The country was in a state of economic and political decline. Therefore, in 1989, Carlos Menen, who was member of the peronest was elected president. Mnenen changed the constitution so he could run for an extra term. Then, in 1999 Fernando de la Rua was elected president and focused on improving the economy. Argentina faced economic collapse and de la Rua resigned. In January 2002, Eduardo Duhlde became president; he was the fifth president in two weeks. Thousands left the country to live in Italy and Spain because the economy was so bad. The next president was from 2003-2007, Néstor Kirchner. Currently, there is a women president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, who began her term in 2007. Argentina faced turmoil over the years as it tried to live up to the standards set to the Constitution of 1853.

86: Work Cited for What Happens Next? "Argentina (Argentine Republic)." CultureGrams Online Database: Subscriber Area Only. 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . "Argentina." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. Gofen, Ethel, and Leslie Jermyn. Argentina. New York: Benchmark, 2002. Print. Link, Theodore, and Rose McCarthy. Argentina: a Primary Source Cultural Guide. New York, NY: PowerPlus, 2004. Print. Shields, Charles J. Argentina. Philadelphia: Mason Crest, 2004. Print. Streissguth, Thomas. Argentina in Pictures. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2003. Print.

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