BC: Ashli Winters AP Biology Biology Collection 1st Period
FC: AP Biology 2 0 1 2
1: AP Biology: August 26th, 2012
2: Adaptation of a Plant
3: Plants have adaptations to help them survive in different areas. These are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a certain place or habitat and might make it very difficult for the plant to survive in a different place. The picture to the left is one of a tree living by my apartment building in my apartments. The tree had to eventually adapt to the change of its surrounding. If it didn't, the tree would have been able to survive and wouldn't be in that exact spot today.
5: Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars. It's present in the human saliva, where it begins the chemical process of digestion. Foods that contain much starch but little sugar taste slightly sweet as they are chewed because amylase turns some of their starch into sugar in the mouth.
7: Angiosperms, the flowering plants, are the most diverse group of land plants. They are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of derived characteristics. The picture to the left is of a sunflower, which is an example of an angiosperm for its flower, which aids angiosperms by enabling a wider range of adaptability and broadening the ecological niches open to them.
8: Animal with Segmented Body
9: Animals with segmented bodies typically falls into three types characteristic of the different phyla: Arthropoda, Vertebrata, and Annelida. On the left is a picture of an example of an arthropda (a type of animal with a segmented body). The three main segments are the thorax, the abdomen, and the head.
10: Anther and Filament of Stamen
11: The stamen is the male reproductive organ of a flower. Each stamen generally has a stalk called the filament. At the top of the filament is the anther and pollen sacs. In the center of this organism is the stamen where the reproductive proccess of pollination takes place.
13: An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. They are members of the phylum Arthropoda, , and include the insects, arachnids, and crustaceans. On the left is crawfish, which is an example of a crustacean, a type of arthropod.
15: An autotroph is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light, or inorganic chemical reactions. They are the producers in a food chain, and are able to make their own food, along with not needing a living energy or carbon source. Plants are an example of an autotroph, which is why there's a picture of a flower (orchid) on the left.
17: Cambium, in plants, are a layer of actively dividing cells between wood and bast tissues that is responsible for the secondary growth of stems and roots Theoretically, the cambium is a single layer of cells, called initial cells. It originates from undifferentiated cells that have retained their embryonic capacity for continued growth and differentiation.
19: Chlorophyta is a division of green algae. Like the land plants, green algae contain chlorophylls a and b, and store food as starch in their plastids. It refers to one of the two clades making up the Viridiplantae, which are the chlorophytes and the streptophytes or charophytes.
20: Conifer Leaf
21: The varied leaves of conifers are attached singly along the stems in a helical pattern. Diverse needle- and claw-shaped leaves range in length from about one centimetre in many conifers to more than 30 centimetres in some species of pine. They can be needlelike phylloclades or a pair of longitudinally fused needles. Most conifer leaves, whatever their shape, minimize water loss. The reduced surface area of the scale- to needle-shaped leaves is an obvious example, but even the broader forms often have a thick, waxy coating that makes them waterproof.
22: Deciduous Leaf
23: Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe. Plants with deciduous foliage have both advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage. Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season; this uses resources which evergreens do not need to expend. To the left is an example of a deciduous leaf that I found on a plant inside my house.
24: Dicot Plant with Flower and Leaf
25: Dicots was a grouping formerly used for the flowering plants whose seed typically has two embryonic leaves. To the left is a picture of a sunflower, which is an example of a dicot plant with a flower and a leaf.
26: Epithelial Tissue
27: Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of cells closely packed and ranged in one or more layers. This tissue is specialized to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces. There's different types of Epithelial Tissues, and those types are subdivided according to the shape and function of its cells. Squamous epithelium is a type of Epithelial Tissue that is found in the lining of cavities such as the mouth, blood vessels, heart and lungs and make up the outer layers of the skin.
29: A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. To the left is a picture of bread mold, which is an example of eukaryote.
31: An exoskeleton is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body. Examples of exoskeleton animals include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters. Exoskeletons contain rigid and resistant components that fulfill a set of functional roles including protection, excretion, sensing, support, feeding and acting as a barrier against desiccation in terrestrial organisms. Exoskeletons have a role in defense from pests and predators, support, and in providing an attachment framework for musculature.
33: Fermentation may refer to: Fermentation (biochemistry), a metabolic process whereby electrons released from nutrients are ultimately transferred to molecules obtained from the breakdown of those same nutrients Ethanol fermentation, the production of ethanol for use in food, alcoholic beverage, fuel and industry Fermentation (food), the process of converting sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol with yeast Fermentation (wine), the process of fermentation used in wine-making Lactic acid fermentation, the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into cellular energy and the metabolic byproduct lactate Industrial fermentation, the breakdown and re-assembly of biochemicals for industry, often in aerobic growth conditions Fermentative hydrogen production, the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen manifested by a diverse group of bacteria Cheese is an example of fermentation.
34: Flower Ovary
35: In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. It is the part of the pistil which holds the ovules and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals.
37: Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction, and leaf and fruit senescence.
38: Gymnosperm Cone
39: A gymnosperm cone is the gametophyte of the plant. The male cones are smaller and further up the tree, while female cones are larger and further down the tree. The female cones generate seeds, while the male cones produce pollen. The pollen is further up and once released will adhere to the female cones down below. Once fertilized, the zygote grows into an embryo that is encased in a seed. The female cone then releases the seed.
41: Heartwood is wood that as a result of a naturally occurring chemical transformation has become more resistant to decay. Its formation occurs spontaneously. Once its formation is complete, the heartwood is dead. Usually heartwood looks different; in that case it can be seen on a cross-section, usually following the growth rings in shape. Heartwood may be much darker than living wood. It may be sharply distinct from the sapwood.
43: Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and one pair of antennae. Insects typically move about by walking, flying or sometimes swimming. On the left is an example of an insect, which is a picture of a moth.
45: K-strategists are species of organism that uses a survival and reproductive 'strategy' characterized by low fecundity, low mortality, longer life and with populations approaching the carrying capacity of the environment, controlled by density-dependent factors. Some examples would be elephants, humans, oak trees, etc.
46: Leaf - Gymnosperm
47: Leaves of gymnospermous plants are extremely variable. Most gymnosperms are evergreen, with leaves lasting more than one growing season. Others are deciduous and drop their leaves at the end of every growing season. Among the conifers, leaves are always simple; that is, the blade is a single unit. Leaves may be small and scalelike, needlelike, or have a broad blade. In some conifers small branch fragments with numerous needlelike leaves are dropped at the end of the growing season.
49: Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features, some of the most apparent being the scales covering their bodies and wings, and a proboscis. Almost all species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Like most other insects, butterflies and moths are holometabolous Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain; conversely, their larva are considered very problematic to vegetation in agriculture, as their main source of food is often live plant matter.
50: Lipid Used for Energy Storage
51: Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids,e.t.c. The milk in the picture is an example of lipid used for energy storage.
52: Monocot Plant with Flower and Leaf
53: Monocot is short for monocotyledon which means when the seed germinates one leaf emerges as compared to two with the dicots. They are characterized by parallel venation in the leaves, fibrous root system and flowers with all parts in a multiples of three. Some examples are grasses, palm trees, lilies, iris, and orchids.
54: Pine Cone - Female
55: The female cone, when is entirely formed, is much larger than the male cone. The female produces the ovule and the male produces the pollen When both are forming, the female pine cones form at the bottom of the tree while the males form more at the top.
57: Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes. Pollen is produced in the 'microsporangium' (contained in the anther of an angiosperm flower, male cone of a coniferous plant, or male cone of other seed plants). When placed on the stigma of a flowering plant, under favorable circumstances, a pollen grain puts forth a pollen tube, which grows down the tissue of the style to the ovary, and makes its way along the placenta, guided by projections or hairs, to the micropyle of an ovule.
59: A pollinator is the biotic agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. There are many examples of pollinators and, as seen in the picture to the left, a moth is one of them.
60: Protein - Fibrous
61: Fibrous proteins form 'rod' or 'wire' -like shapes and are usually inert structural or storage proteins. They are generally water-insoluble. Fibrous proteins are usually used to construct connective tissues, tendons, bone matrix and muscle fiber. Examples of fibrous proteins include keratins, collagens and elastins. On the left is a picture of hair, which is an example of keratin helping me to explain what fibrous proteins are.
63: The pteridophytes are vascular plants that produce neither flowers nor seeds, and are hence called vascular cryptogams. Instead, they reproduce and disperse only via spores. Pteridophytes include horsetails, ferns, club mosses, and quillworts. They are used for medicinal purposes, as soil -binders, and are frequently planted as ornamentals.
64: Radial Symmetry
65: Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes. Many flowers and plants are radially symmetric. Roughly identical petals, sepals, and stamen occur at regular intervals around the center of the flowers. The picture of the water lily on the left has an example of radial symmetry.
67: A species characterized by having rapid development, high motility, and a high reproductive rate relative to a k-strategist. Some examples of r-strategists are weeds, mosquitos, mice, etc.
68: Scale from Animal with Two Chambered Heart
69: Fish hearts have two chambers, one atrium and one ventricle Fish hearts simply draw in deoxygenated blood in a single atrium, and pump it out through a ventricle. On the left is an example picture of fish scales. Their scales help protect them against some predators.
70: Stem - Herbaceous
71: A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground.
72: Stem - Woody
73: A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of thickened bark. Woody plants are usually either trees, shrubs, or lianas. Wood is a structural cellular adaptation that allows woody plants to grow from above ground stems year after year, thus making some woody plants the largest and tallest plants.
74: Stigma and Style of Carpel
75: Flowers have a stigma and a style. The stigma prevents pollen from other flower species from fertilizing the plant and sometimes keeps the plant from fertilizing itself. In some plants the style does the job of keepin the plant from fertilizing itself. The definition of stigma is a usually stickyto collect pollen. Ths definition of style is the tube part of the pistil which connects the stigma and the ovary.
76: Thorns of a Plant
77: Thorns are modified branches or stems. They may be simple or branched. The thorns are mostly there for defense so that no animal can come along and eat it. To the left is an example of a plant with thorns.
78: Vascular Plant Tissue
79: Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally. There are also two meristems associated with vascular tissue: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. All the vascular tissues within a particular plant together constitute the vascular tissue system of that plant.
81: A xerophyte organism is a plant that has adapted to survive in an environment that lacks water, such as a desert. Xerophytic plants may have adapted shapes and forms or internal functions that reduce their water loss or store water during long periods of dryness. A cactus is an example of this.