S: CELL PROJECT
BC: YAY THIS PROJECT IS DONE :D
FC: Big Book of Cells | By: Farhan Tejani & David Sietmann
1: The Big Book of Cells | By: Farhan Tejani & David Sietmann
2: The first part oF cell theory is all living things are made of cells.the second part to cell theory is that Cells are the basic units of life.The third and final part about cell theory is Cells come only from other cells. All of these theory have been proved and are considered to be the "laws " of cells | Cell Theory
3: Robert Hooke contributed to cells by observing tiny compartments in the cork of a tree and gave them the Latin name cellulae (meaning small rooms). This was the origin of the biological term cell. Rudolf Virchow concluded that every cell comes from an already existing cells.Schlieeden found out that each plant cell has two functions One independent, involving its development, the other as an integral part of the plant.Theodor Schwann concluded that animals, as well as plants, consist of cells and cell products, and even though the cells are part of a whole organism, they have an individual life of their own.
4: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic | Cells in our world come in two basic types, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. "Karyose" comes from a Greek word which means "kernel," as in a kernel. "Pro" means "before," and "eu" means "true," or "good." So "Prokaryotic" literally means "before a nucleus," and "eukaryotic" literally means "possessing a true nucleus." So, prokaryotic cells have no nuclei, while eukaryotic cells do have nuclei. This is far from the only difference between these two cell types, however.
5: Eukaryotic cells are much larger and much more complex than prokaryotic cells. These two observations are not unrelated to each other. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. The purpose of the nucleus is to sequester the DNA-related functions of the big eukaryotic cell into a smaller chamber, for the purpose of increased efficiency. This function is unnecessary for the prokaryotic cell, because its much smaller size means that all materials within the cell are relatively close together. Biologists describe the central region of the cell as its "nucleoid" (-oid = similar or imitating), because it's pretty much where the DNA is located.
6: Eukaryotic DNA is linear, complexed with histones, and organized into chromosomes, while prokaryotic DNA is circular with no ends, has no histones, and isn't formed into chromosomes. There are many more differences between these two kinds of cells however, they are clearly more alike than different. They perform most of the same kinds of functions, and in the same ways. Both are enclosed by plasma membranes, filled with cytoplasm, and loaded with small structures called ribosomes. Both have DNA which carries the archived instructions for operating the cell, and the DNA in the two cell types is precisely the same kind of DNA. The genetic code for a prokaryotic cell is exactly the same genetic code used in eukaryotic cells. In conclusion, despite their many differences, the eukaryotic cell is clearly developed from the prokaryotic cell.
7: Similarities Animal and plant cells are both eukaryotic, which means that they both have true nucleii that contains chromosomes. Animal and plant cells both contain cytoplasm that contain mitochondria which contain enzymes that are used to obtain energy from glucose. They also both have a cell membrane that controls what comes in and/or out of the cell.
8: Differences Plant cells have a cell wall that allow high pressures to build inside of them due to osmosis. When they are put in distilled water, they swell but don't burst. If animal cells were put in distilled water, they would swell up and burst. This is why all animals have to excrete excess water. If your kidney stopped working (kidney failure), your blood would get very dilute when you drank water and water would start to rush into your cells through osmosis and they would burst.
9: Cell Structures | Nucleus The nucleus is a large oval body near the center of a cell. It controls cell activity and contains genetic information (DNA). | Nucleolus The nucleolus is located inside the nucleus and contains more genetic information (RNA). | Cell Membrane The cell membrane is a porous structure that controls what goes in and out of the cell. It also separates the cell from other cells.
10: Cell Wall The cell wall, only found in plant cells, is a non-living structure that protects and supports the cell. | Vacuoles Vacuoles are sacs that act as storage for food, minerals, and waste. Plant cells have large vacuoles full of water, while animal cells have smaller ones. | Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is a clear, thick fluid found outside the nucleus, but within the membrane that contains cell structures called organelles. | Mitochondria Mitochondria supply the cell with energy. They are the center of respiration and release energy for cellular functions.
11: Ribosomes Ribosomes are small spherical bodies that help make protein. They are usually found in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum. | Lysosomes Lysosomes are small structures that contain enzymes used in digestion. If a lysosome bursts, it can destroy the cell. | Golgi Apparatus Golgi bodies are tube-like structures with tiny sacs at their ends. They process and package proteins after synthesis.
12: The cell membrane is a membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside of the cell. The cell membrane selectively controls the movement of the cell. It consists of two lipid layers with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a large amount of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several cell parts outside of the membrane including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton. It also provides shape to the cell. | Cell Membrane
13: Homeostasis | Homeostasis is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, constant condition of properties like temperature and pH. It can be either an open or closed system. In simple terms, it is a way for a cell to keep functioning normally.