BC: Wow! That was GREAT! | Yeah, and you can see more by walking around in your neighborhood and every other environment! | OH, BIOLOGY! | The End!
FC: Life's Best Recipes | What's Cookin'? Biology is Cookin'! | By: Yao Liang Featuring: Keys | Oh, Biology!
1: Bon Appetit! | No one ever cooked quite like Life so I put this book together to celebrate all the wonderful home-cooked meals that Life provided us with over 3.5 billion years. Thanks Life!
2: Ingredients Adaptation of an animal, is where animals fit in a suitable environment that provides for needs for the animal's requirements and conditions | Directions The ducks live near a water source for many purposes; water supply, food source, and defense tactics. The water source supplies them with a place to drink and bathe in. In the lake there are small fish and water vegetation for the duck's food source. These ducts in particular have no predator to fear in this environment because the local neighbors keep them away from harm and supply left over food for them. | Adaptation of an animal! | Look closely and you'll see a lake.
3: Adaptation of a plant! | Ingredients Adaptation of a plant is the concept of a plant living and adjusting in an environment that fits its conditions of sustaining life. | Directions This big boy has grew to over 15 feet. It's height has helped it adapt in it's environment; letting it directly receive innumerable amounts of sunlight without any issues with other plants shrouding it. By growing such an array of leaves near the bottom, the tree keeps itself prepared for cold, harsh weathers. Looking closely, the end of the trunk near the roots seems to extend out. Considering that there is a lake in the background, an underground water supply must be near.
4: Amniotic Egg | Ingredients Amniotic Eggs are eggs which are terrestrially adapted and equipped with amnios, a pouch that holds a developing embryo. | Directions Like any other egg, the amniotic egg is covered with a rough shell that cracks when either the animal is hatching or the natural predator attacks, Within it can contain an animal with limbs. The embryo that develops in the egg is held in a pouch that the egg has within. However, in this case it is simply a delicious meal presented to you by life.
5: Amylase | Ingredients An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch and carbohydrates into simpler compounds; sugar. | Directions This enzyme is found in saliva and helps with digestion. In this gorgeous mouth, saliva is pouring over the tongue from the glands that produce saliva. There are 3 saliva glands that produce saliva with amylase and the pancreas creates amylase. The reason why some things are a little sweet when they don't seem like it, such as rice, is because the amylase breaks it into sugar. | Yum!
6: Salads | Ingredients Angiosperm is a seed producing plant. There are many types of angiosperm. Also known as angiospermae. these plants are distinguished from gymnosperms characteristics like flowers and fruits that have seeds. | Directions The white flowers in the pictures are the flower characteristics of the angiosperm. The fruits are beneath the leaves, closer to the trunk. By having these characteristics, the plant can obviously be labeled as an angiosperm. | Angiosperm
7: Arthropod | Ingredients An arthropod is invertebrate organisms that have exoskeletons, segmented bodies, and jointed appendages. | Directions This little guy is one noticeable arthropod. It's entire body is either segmented or made of two ants that decided to join forces. However, either two ants or one super insect, the organism has an obvious exoskeleton with jointed appendages. | Hey!
8: Autotroph | Ingredients An organism that produces it's own food; light and inorganic chemical reactions. Autotroph is labeled as a producer within the food chain. Types of autotroph are plants on land or algae in water. They do not require living energy to live and can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide within the environment. | Directions As plants on land, these autotrophs absorb the light and are like any other producer in the food chain that do not require a living source of energy. | LIFE'S FAVORITE!
9: Cellulose | Ingredients A component in the structure of the cell walls of plants and algae. Cellulose is commonly found in every plant, making about 33 percent of it's entire matter. Cellulose can be digested by some insects, and to some extend even humans can digest cellulose. | Directions This plant, like any other, is made of up cellulose in it's structure. It's wonderfully green leaves and stems are structurally composed of cellulose are eaten by some insects.
10: Ingredients Chlorophyta is commonly known as green algae and is one of the most diverse group of algae. It has over 7,000 species. | Directions The atrocious green algae on the ground surrounds the small plant. It covers the ground and creates a green image. | Chlorophyta
11: Commensalism | Ingredients Commensalism is when two organisms interact with each other, but only one benefits while the other is unaffected. It can be compared to mutualism; both organism benefits, and parasitism; one organism benefits while the other is harmed. | Directions The bees are organisms which live in nests, and happen to build it anywhere possible and safe. The nest can either be place in a house, on a branch, and practically any where that predators will not see and cannot climb to. The tree or wherever is unaffected by the bees, while the bees benefit from having a place to dorm.
12: Deciduous Leaf | Ingredients These leaves tend to fall off when the seasons change and when the plant meets maturity. The leaves turn a would turn a shade of colors and then fall off when comes winter time. Leaves would fall when it is not needed and finished with it's purpose. | Directions These leaves of the shrub do change during changes in the season and maturity. They remain green for the moment and are abundant until maturity comes and each leaf's purpose is finished with; like getting laid off from a job.
13: Exoskeleton | Ingredients It is an outer layer skeleton that protect an organisms body, such as a shield. Most insects, such as the usual cockroaches. In popular usage, some of the exoskeletons are used as shells. Animals such as the tortoise have an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton. | Directions This big bad beetle has clamped on to a rope with it's limbs and has it's exoskeleton ready for any danger, such as a poke from the deadly predator, the key! The exoskeleton covers the insect and makes an atrocious layer.
14: Ingredients The flower ovary is the female reproductive area which located near the end where the flower connects to the sepals. It is part of the pistil that carries the ovule. Some plants have the ovaries grow into ripened fruits. | Directions The yellow pedals of this flower come together at a point in the middle where the ovaries of the flower are located. Pollen would enter above and reproduction would then occur. Based on positions in the flower, the ovary is classified as either superior, inferior, or half-inferior, but in this case, the pedals block any sight of the ovary. | Flower Ovary
15: Frond | Ingredients Frond is a large divide in a large leaf. Usually frond can be used to name a large compound leaf, but for ferns the leaves are noticed as smaller. | Directions The large leaves can be described as fronds because of their size and beg divide in the center. The leaves are quite massive, and unlike a fern, many would notice these as large compound leaves. | Oh, man! Look at those leaves!
16: Fruit - Dry with Seed | Ingredients In general, fruit - dry with seed are nuts that are a composite of the seed and fruit of a plant. As we know them, nuts are simply hard-shelled seeds from plants. | Directions This delicious almond was once part of a plant and is considered a fruit. It once had a leathery "flesh" that was taken off at harvest. And as an additional benefactor, it is also nutritious to consume. It has been tested to lower cholesterol levels! Wow,, this is something to add into your meals!
17: Fruit - Fleshy with Seed | Ingredients In comparison to fruits - dry with seed, fruits - fleshy with seed are the typical fruits in everyone's diet. "Fleshy" describes the fleshy area between the covering of the fruit and the seed. For example, in an apple, the white area under the red skin is the "fleshy" part. | Directions In this image, the seeds are located in the drink, but lemon remains on the side. If the lemon would be cut open, the fleshy area would be seen. In a typical lemon, the fleshy area is light yellow. This is one great fruit to add into anyone's diet.
18: Desserts | Ingredients Heartwood is the wood near the heart of a stem of branch. Each heartwood of trees look different from each other. The term "heartwood" is given from its position in a tree. | Directions This cleanly cut log shows the heartwood in the center. The original color of the heartwood was different in comparison to this current image because of constant exposure to the sun and weather. | Heartwood
19: Wow, Biology! | Insect | Hey, guys! I'm back! | Ingredients As we humans regard them as pests, insects continue to be part of the most diverse groups of animals on the planet. Insects are included as arthropods, and can be classified distinctly by their set of antennas, exoskeleton, "head-thorax-abdomen" body, and three pairs of jointed limbs. | Directions This little guy from earlier is also part of the insect group. Look at those antennas! Surprisingly some insects are in some people's diets. That's amazing! It's always good to try new meals, so let's start with this insect that has it's jointed limbs to squirm with when being boil, fried, or however you would like to prepare it.
20: K-Strategist | Ingredients K-strategists are usually bigger in mass compared to r-strategists. K-strategists are typically strong in such that they are able to defend for themselves and compete for food in their niche. One noticeable distinction is that k-strategists cannot rapidly reproduce like r-strategists. | Directions This little ducky is labeled as a k-strategists because ducks, like humans, reproduce at a slower rate than r-strategists, such as ants. Us humans are also K-strategists. We all, ducks, humans, and other k-strategists, are built strong in order to compete in society.
21: Keratin | Ingredients Keratin is a fibrous structural protein that is part of our outer layer of skin. They assemble into bundles that are known as intermediate filaments, which are touch tissues. | Directions Keratin can be found in the structure of nails as well as in skin and hair. It makes a tough layer, giving our nails that hardness.
22: Lignin | Ingredients Lignin is a compound that is found in the structures of wood and the secondary walls of plants and some algae. It is commonly known to support trees through strengthening the cells. | Directions Within this leafy greenness lies the compound lignin. It covers areas in the secondary walls because this a leaf plant and not wood of a tree. It helps fill spaces in these cell walls with cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Awesome nutrition to add into the deserts. | Mom says you can substitute the oil with applesauce for a low-fat alternative! (Lignin with applesauce) | HELPFUL HINT:
23: Long-Day Plant | Ingredients Long-day plants are basically plants that flowers only after being exposed to longer periods of light than a certain critical length such as during the summer. | Directions This plant goes through long days of light exposure and meets more than the critical length that summer offers. Other examples of long-day plants would be lettuce, spinach, and some types of wheat.
24: Meristem | Ingredients Meristem is the tissue found in stems where growth can take place. Meristem consists of meristematic cells that work together to help cell division and growth in the plant. | Directions Meristem is not easily seen by a naked eye. However, it is spread amongst the cells of a plant and healths with growth. There is a specific secondary meristem type that helps with lateral growth! Wow. | Biology! Wow! | HELPFUL HINT:
25: Phloem | Ingredients Phloem is a living tissue in vascular plants. It carries out organic nutrients to all parts of the plant. A certain nutrient phloem carries is sucrose. | Directions In trees, Phloem is the innermost layer of bark. By innermost layer, it is the outer rim of the center. In this image, the phloem would be around where the arrow is pointing to. It creates a ring around the log. The phloem is mainly concerned with transporting soluble organic material made during photosynthesis. It could end up as something nice to try in your meals given by life.
26: Pollinator | Ingredients A pollinator is the agent which helps transfer pollen from the anthers of a male flower to the stigmas of a female flower. The pollinators are attracted to the plants by either the scent, size, and color of the plant. | Directions Typically, pollinators are recognized as bees. This big one right here, is quite a large bee or hornet. Either way, when bees pollinate, they nurture their young ones when transferring pollen among plants. | Atrocious...
27: Porifera | Ingredients Poriferas are commonly known as sponges. They are multicellular organisms that have numerous pores throughout the entire body to circulate water. They have unspecialized cells and do not have a nervous, circulatory, and digestive system. | Directions Like a porifera, these clearning sponges have openings which allow water to circulate through. by circulating water, it allows the sponge to be soaked and dispense water through any region of the body. It's a nice way of cleaning after the big meal.
28: Pteridophyte | Ingredients Pteridophytes are plants that produce neither fruits nor seeds. They are indeed vascular plants which have xylem and phloem. Their process of reproduction involves the usage of spores. | Directions Such as a fern, pteridophyte, like the ones in the image, release spores into the wind in hopes of reproduction. No fruits or seeds are found in the vascular plant. As use for humans, they can be used for medicinal purposes or simple ornamental purposes. | Look at the little guy.
29: R-strategist | Ingredients Unlike K-strategists, r-strategists reproduce in a large amount at a time. They tend to have smaller body sizes and shorter generation time. These organisms tend to mature faster than k-strategists. | Directions An example of a r-strategist would be an ant. Ants reproduce in large amounts and make massive colonies that are nuisances to humans. As one can obviously see in the picture, ants are really small in comparison to other r-strategists, such as spiders. | Look close! There's an ant! And another! And another!
30: Radial symmetry | Ingredients Radial symmetry is the characteristic given to organisms that have identical sides. However, the top and bottom of these organisms would be distinctive. When an organism has identical pieces produced from a central axis, then the organism can be described as having radial symmetry. | Directions A prime example of radial symmetry are simple flowers that mostly have identical pedals that come together at the center. The leaves of the plant can also be described as having symmetry. If either one were to be folded in half, the sides would line up. | Mom says you can substitute the oil with applesauce for a low-fat alternative! | HELPFUL HINT:
31: Rhizome | Ingredients Rhizome is typically the stem of a plant found underground. What is unique about rhizomes is that when they are separated from the nodes, they are capable of giving rise to a new plant. Some plants even grow rhizomes above the surface; near the soil layer. | Directions A common rhizome is ginger. When the rhizomes separate and raise a new plant, farmers take this advantage and use to propagate certain plants. Ginger is one of these plants.
32: Scale From Animal With Two Chambered Heart | Ingredients Scales from animal with two chambered heart are basically scales from an animal that has a two chambered heart. | Directions Fishes are one particular animal with two chambered hearts and scales. Although when we prepare the fish, the scales are removed and then we leave the rest of the preparation to the chef - you! | MOM'S FAVORITE!
33: Spore | Ingredients A spore is a reproductive structure released by a plant that can adapt to an unforeseen weather change. Spores will germinate and develop into a sporeling. Spores are released by vascular plants. | Directions In comparison to the gametes, spores, like the one in the picture, are units of asexual reproduction, which the gametes are units of sexual reproduction.
34: Stem – Herbaceous | Ingredients Herbaceous stems are simply part of a plant that has leaves and stems that die during the end of the growing season. They die down to ground level and grow again from another seed. | Directions Preheat oven to 400F. These herbaceous plants in the picture have herbaceous stems which will soon die down when the end of the growing season comes. They are relatively fast growing plants and may even at times grow rather large. Unlike the woody stem, these stems would droop down towards the ground and regrow when the season is right.
35: Stem – Woody | Ingredients Woody stems are part of plants that use wood as their structural tissue, a woody plant. These plants would grow year round above ground, growing taller than before. Their structure is typically strong because of the wood base and a thick layer of bark at the roots. | Directions This plant in the picture is likely to grow into a tree which is one example of a woody plant. Noticeably, the stem of the plant is wood, and it gives the plant it's vertical growth that doesn't seem to be dying down. In comparison to herbaceous stems, these woody stems will grow past the end of growing season.
36: Stigma & Style of Carpel | Ingredients Carpels are the building blocks of gynoecium and typically consist of the stigma and style. The stigma is found at the tip of the style and used to catch pollen with it's feathery or sticky texture. The style is the pillar that holds the stigma at the tip and is where the pollen travels through the pollen tube in order to reach the ovary. | Directions The flowers in the picture contain the stigma and style of the carpel; however, the pedals are blocking any view of the two structures. They help these plants receive pollen and go through reproduction.
37: Tendril of a Plant | Ingredients Tendrils are specialized stems that extend out with a threadlike shape that is used for support and cellular invasion by parasitic plants. | Directions Tendrils are noticeable when you see a stem, leaf, or petiole that extends out in a curling shape. It usually wraps around a plant, making an attachment that allows the other plant to invade attached plant. | Attack of the plants! | HELPFUL HINT:
38: Thorn of a Plant | Ingredients Thorns are simply modified branches or stems that stick out from the sides. It is proposed that plants may have evolved and used thorns as a defense mechanism. | Directions The plant in the picture has thorns, but not as much as one that would be constantly threatened in an open environment when more animals would roam. It's purpose still remains the same, and it still remains a modified stem that happened to be short and prickly. Despite being prickly, life offers this as a fine desert.
39: Vascular Plant Tissue | Ingredients Vascular tissue is part of vascular plants. Primary examples of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. They transfer fluid and nutrients internally. Meristems also associate with the vascular tissue. | Directions The simple structure of this plant contains the vascular tissues that support it's growth. It's process of transferring fluid cannot be seen but it is constantly helping the plant grow. As the plant grows, the vascular tissue start to differentiate according to the area.
40: Xerophyte | Ingredients A xerophyte is a plant that has adapted to an environment that lacks water. The shapes and structures of these plants would reduce the amount of water loss and stored during long periods of dyrness. | Directions Cacti are plants that live in the desert, an environment that lacks water, and are able to adapt in the dry environment with it's structure that allows for less transpiration. Transpiration is a process where water is absorbed and released into the air through plants. Xerophyte have reduced the effects of releasing water by reabsorbing water from within it's structures and using water in new areas and cells.
41: Xylem | Ingredients Xylem is one of the two types of vascular tissue that transports nutrients throughout the vascular plant. The xylem is basically wood that completes most a vascular plants structures. Bundles of xylem can be found in non-woody plants and non woody areas of a woody plant. | Directions Xylem is in areas of vascular tissue, specifically where there are bundles of vascular tissue. It's mainly helping the plant move water around all of the plant's areas. It helps make the plant receive water and grow into a fine, beautiful, and nutritious meal. | MOM'S FAVORITE!