S: Seasons of Change
BC: THE END!!!
FC: Cell project by:Casey Kim and Bobby Bilyeu
1: 3 principles of cells 1. All organisms consist of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms. 3. Cells can only be produced from pre-existing cells
2: Theodor Schwann | Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist who served as an assistant to Johannes Muller. He found the digestive enzyme pepsin in 1836. He discovered that yeast is a living thing and suggested that fermentation was a biological process. Schwann was a microscopist who examined animal tissue. He wrote a book called, Microscopic researches on the Conformity in Structure and Growth Between Animals and Plants. Schwann supported Schleiden’s cell theory to animals. | Summary: Schwann discovered that animals are also made up of cells
3: Rudolf Virchow | Rudolf Virchow was a rebel in the scientific and medical community. He believed that diseases originate in cells. Also he tried to disprove that phlebitis was the cause of most diseases. He made the medical rule that every cell originates from another cell popular. He also figured out more leukemia. In Germany, his home country, he was made public health controls, inspection of meat and poultry, and oversaw the installation of modern sewage disposal in the city. He also established hospital trains, so doctors could help soldiers in need of medical treatment on the battlefield. | Summary: All living things are made up of cells
4: Robert Hooke was the first person to discover cells. He made an observation in his best seller book, Micrographia. In his book Micrographia, he observed many organisms. From Observation XVIII in Micrographia, he wrote:” I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular. These pores, or cells, were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this”. Hooke had discovered plant cells. He also noted that he had seen cells in other structures. | Summary: First person to discover cells after looking at a cork through a microscope. | Note: there is no real picture of Robert Hooke
5: Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German botanist who studied at Hamburg to become a lawyer, but decided to pursue botany because he loved it so much. While at the University of Jena, he wrote a book called Contributions to Phyotogenesis and it stated that different parts of plants are made up of cells. He also saw how important the nucleus is to a cell. He concluded that all plant parts are made up of cells and that an embryonic plant organism arises from the one cell. | Summary: Plants are made up of cells.
6: Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells are very different. Prokaryotic cells do NOT contain a nucleus or organelles (small organs) surrounded by membranes, whereas Eukraryotic cells do. Although both Euraryotic and Prookaryotic have DNA in their cells, the DNA in Eukraryotic cells are linear, and the DNA in Prokaryotic cells are never ending.
7: Difference Between Plant Cells and Animal Cells | Plant Cells have central vacoules, cell walls, and chloroplasts while animal cells do not.
8: Ten cell structures | 1. Cell membrane - The cell membrane encloses the cell and separates the cell interior, or the cytoplasm. 2. Cell wall - This structure is only found in plant cells. The cell wall surrounds cell membrane, composed of proteins and carbohydrates, supports and maintains cell shape, and it protects the cells from damage. 3. Chromosomes - The chromosomes contains DNA. 4. Cilia/Flagella – These 2 stuctures move substances across the cell surface. 5. Endoplasmic reticulum (Rough and Smooth ER) – The Rough ER is studded with ribosomes (little dots) giving the ER a rough appearance. The Rough ER helps to transport proteins that are made by the attached Ribosomes. The Smooth ER is an extensive system of internal membranes that move lipids. Like the cell membrane, the membranes of the ER are made of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
9: Continued | 6. Golgi Apparatus – This serves as the packaging and distribution center of the cell before the destination is reached and after synthesis. 7. Lysosomes – The lysosomes digests and recycles the cell's used components by breaking down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. 8. Mitochondria – The mitochondria produces energy in adenosine triphosphate form. The cell then uses the energy to function. 9. Nucleus – The nucleus stores genetic info of the organism, and it is the brain of the cell, so it controls everything else in the cell 10. Ribosomes – Ribosomes produces proteins. Ribosomes are made of RNA and proteins, it is the site of protein synthesis.
10: The cell membrane separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment. It can control what moves inside and outside of the cell. The cell membrane is a part of many processes within the cell. The cell membrane makes a surface for the cell wall, glycocalyx, and cytoskeleton have an attachment surface. The cell membrane also helps to maintain the shape of the cell.
11: Homeostasis means to keep something even or constant. Cells need homeostasis because without it, the cell would be unstable. The cell membrane is what maintains homeostasis in the cell. The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell. If there is to much of something in the cell such as waste, the cell membrane lets it leave the cell, and if there is not enough of something, like nutrients, it allows the nutrients to go into the cell.