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BC: "For the Reformation was neither a revolution nor a restoration, though including elements of both. It was negative and destructive towards error, positive and constructive towards truth; it was conservative as well as progressive; it built up new institutions in the place of those which it pulled down; and for this reason and to this extent it has succeeded" (Schaff).

FC: The Reformation By Abigail Weston

1: Index 2 Causes of the Protestant Reformation 2 Lutheranism 3-4 Calvinism 5 Where did it spread?? 4-5 Radical reformation 6-7 Consequences of the Reformation 7 Catholic Reformation 8-16 Religious Wars 17 Works cited

2: Causes There were a couple of causes of the Protestant reformation. They were Corruption of the Catholic Church during the Renaissance, impact of Renaissance Humanism, which questioned Church traditions, declining prestige of the papacy, influence of religious reformers such as Wycliffe and Hus, resentment of secular rulers over the power of papal officials and the landholding ability of the Church, Resistance to the power of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and the invention of the printing press allowed dissenters to spread ideas throughout Europe. Lutheranism Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism. It acknowledges 6 confessions like the Augsburg confession, the Articles of Smalkald and the Form of Concord. Every shade of belief may be found among them. From the orthodox, who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infediel theologians, who deny the authority of the Scriptures are some of the things that you will find among them. It dates from 1517 when Luther pinned the 95 Theses to the door of church in a castle. Today there are 50 million and it's ranked among the leading Protestant groups.

3: Calvinism | Calvinism is the theological system associated with the Reformer John Calvin that emphasizes the rule of God over all things. It's associated with reform theology. It's named after John Calvin. | It's theology is in Calvin's "Institutes of the Christian Religion". | The Calvinist doctrine of salvation is summarized in what is commonly called the Five Points of Calvinism, or the Doctrines of Grace, known by the acronym TULIP. They are total depravitry, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace and perseverance of the saints. Calvinists regard the sacraments as gracious gifts from Christ to his church. The substances of the sacrament, being Christ and their benefits, being appropriated by faith and are they are memorial and symbolic in nature.

4: In his classic, The Radical Reformation, George Huntston Williams classified the radicals as Anabaptists, Spiritualists, or Evangelical Rationalists. They are like Menno simons, Karlstadt and Servetus are examples of the three groups.

5: Where it (Protestantism) Spread?? It spread by the printing press. Also sermons helped spread protestantism. There were a lot of places the said that they were protestant. They were England, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Prussia. Germany and Ireland had some of their people say they were protestant. Here is a map: (it's in blue) Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation consists of the most diverse group of theologians of any of the other movements. They all share rejection of the catholic and the protestant churches.

6: Consequences There were a couple of causes of the reformation. It is impossible to understand modern history apart from the Reformation. We cannot understand the history of Europe, England or America without studying the Reformation. For example, in America there would never have been Pilgrim Fathers if there had not first been a Protestant Reformation. The Reformation has profoundly affected the modern view of politics and law. Prior to the Reformation, the Church governed politics; she controlled emperors and kings and governed the law of lands. The meaning of much western literature is really quite meaningless apart from an understanding of the Reformation. Moreover, for all practical purposes Martin Luther stabilized the German language. In the realm of science, it is generally granted by modern historians that there never would have been modern science were it not for the Reformation. All scientific investigation and endeavor prior to that had been controlled by the church. Only through sheer ignorance of history do many modern scientists believe that Protestantism,

7: the true evangelical faith, opposes true science. The Reformation laid down once and for all the right and obligation of the individual conscience, and the right to follow the dictates of that individual conscience. Many men who talk lightly and glibly about "liberty" neither know nor realize that they owe their liberty to this event. | Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) This was a effect of the protestant successes. Many religious orders came into being. They included Theatines, Capuchins,Somaschi, Barnabites, Ursulines and the Oratorians. Also the Jesuits came into being being founded by Ignatius. Most of Europe in 1560 was Catholic. It had a lot of widespread appeal to intellects and it relied on people. It was a counter force for protestantism. Many Catholics wanted change and change they got.

8: Antoine de Bourbon had been previously killed at the siege of Rouen, and this last casualty pretty much eliminated the first generation of Catholic leadership. The noble prisoners were exchanged, and the edict of Amboise issued in March '63. This restricted Protestant freedoms somewhat, allowing worship outside the walls of only one town per bailliage, although the nobility still had the freedom to do as they would on their estates. It increased the resentment and tension in the towns and was generally unsatisfying to most. Catherine began a two-year tour of the provinces with her son Charles IX, as part of an effort to establish a sense of unity with the nobility. This spread a ripple of alarm through the Protestant community. When the Spanish marched troops along the "Spanish Road" from Italy to Flanders, their presence on the eastern borders of the kingdom added to the panic.The rumor that Catherine was plotting with Spain to exterminate them caused the Huguenots to attempt a coup at Meaux. This plan failed, and provoked the second war. This was much a repeat of the first. At the end, Montmorency was dead, the crown was more in debt, and the Peace of Longjumeau was a pretty much the same as the Peace of Amboise. They escaped to La Rochelle and raised another army to begin the third war. Condé and Coligny made an alliance with William of Orange in the Netherlands. The third war therefore involved a even larger number of foreign

9: Religious Wars | The religious wars began with overt hostilities in 1562 and lasted until the Edict of Nantes in 1598. It was warfare that devastated a generation, although conducted in rather desultory, inconclusive way. Although religion was certainly the basis for the conflict, it was much more than a confessional dispute. It all started with the massacre of protestant worshipers. This was done by the duke of Guise. | People appealed to the Prince de Condé to become the "Protector of the Churches." They ake the job and it takes on a more militant tone. Condé mobilizes his forces quickly and moves decisively to capture strategic towns along the waterways, highways, and crossroads of France. He takes a string of towns along the Loire and makes his headquarters at Orléans. He also contracts with Protestant leaders of Germany and England for troops and money.The Guise in turn sought help from the Pope and Phillip II of Spain. The Protestants' siege efforts to recapture the towns were long and costly. Only one open pitched battle was fought: that at Dreux which was a Catholic victory. The young Admiral de Coligny managed to safely withdraw most of the Protestant forces to Orléans. That was beseiged in the winter of '62-'63. At Orléans, the Duc de Guise was killed by an assassin.

10: interests, and lasted from '68 to '70. The Protestant strategy this time was to fortify the Southwest and stand off the crown. This was reasonably successful for a fairly long time. However, at Jarnac, under the nominal leadership of the king's younger brother, Henri d'Anjou, the Protestants suffered a great defeat and the Prince de Condé was killed. Coligny met the Catholics at Moncoutour and suffered another defeat. However, he collected his forces and made a brilliant "long march" across the south of France, defeating the royal army. Another peace was negotiated at St. Germain. This peace was more favorable to the Protestants than the previous, naming specific towns as secure strongholds. This third war was more protracted, and brought the war to the rural areas in central and southern France, spreading the suffering to the population and raising the cultural tensions between Catholics and Protestants. The Protestant strategy this time was to fortify the Southwest and stand off the crown. This was reasonably successful for a fairly long time. However, at Jarnac, under the nominal leadership of the king's younger brother, Henri d'Anjou, the Protestants suffered a great defeat and the Prince de Condé was killed. Coligny met the Catholics at Moncoutour and suffered another defeat. However, he collected his forces and made a brilliant "long march" across the south of France, defeating the

11: royal army on at least one occasion and depriving the crown of their chance to break the Protestant hold on the South. The cost of keeping the army in the field was telling on the crown again, and yet another peace was negotiated at St. Germain. This peace was more favorable to the Protestant. Then in august of 1572, they massacred Huguenots and it destroyed an entire generation of their leadership.The fourth war was set off when the city of La Rochelle refused to pay taxes to the king because of the massacred and refused to admit the royal governor. The king declared war on the town in November '72 and finally got an army to beseige it in February. There were high casualities on both sides, and the royal treasury began to feel the strain. The siege was called off in May. Catherine began to prepare for the election of the duke.The treaty wasn't good for the Protestants. They could break it when they were strong enough. In 1574, Charles IX died. His brother, Henri, now installed as king of Poland, lost no time giving the slip to his Polish courtiers and heading for the border. He took a leisurely tour of Italy and then arrived in France to take up the crown.This was not be. Henri III's reign was tormented by the impossibility of peace. Meanwhile, Condé was raising money, troops, and support from the German princes, particularly Jan Casimir, the son of Fredrick III of the Palatine.

12: Henri de Montmonrency, the Sieur de Damville, Governor of Languedoc " brought another substantial army to the Protestant side. In February '76 Navarre escaped from the court and headed into his own territory, raising an army behind him. The king's younger brother, the Duc d'Alenon, the last of the Valois sons, began to play to the anti-royalist factions. His propagandists put out manifestos portraying him as alternative ruler to the current king, one able to speak up for the rights of the people and rule more justly. When 20,000 troops invaded France under Jan Casimir in the spring of '76 and these various armies collected themselves together in the heart of France within striking distance of Paris, the crown was forced to negotiate. The Edict of Beaulieu, otherwise known as the Peace of Monsieur was signed in May and was very favorable to the Protestants. In separate private agreements, the leaders got substantial settlements: Navarre was confirmed as Governor of Guyenne, Condé was made Governor of Picardy, Alenon was made Duc d'Anjou and given a raft of titles, and the crown agreed to pay the bills for Jan Casimir's mercenaries. It left Henri III smarting. The Parliment of Paris refused to register it. This year saw the formation of the first attempt at a Catholic League to oppose the Protestants. To coopt this threat to his authority, Henri III declared himself the head of it.

13: However, somehow a royal force was put together to take back some of the Protestant towns along the Loire. La Charité fell in May of '77, The Peace of Bergerac was signed in July. It was more restrictive in allowing places of worship to the Protestants than the previous peace, but was still largely the same. It disallowed any leagues and associations, trying to fend off the growing movement from the Catholic right wing. The seventh war was a flurry of action. Henri de Navarre's seized the city of Cahors. Sometimes called "The Lovers War", it seems to have been some kind of maneuvering between Navarre and the crown in which Queen Margot was involved. It didn't last long, and Navarre and Catherine de Medici signed the Treaty of Nerac, followed by the Peace of Fleix. The Netherlands were trying to find a prince to replace Phillip II. When Anjou died in '84, it precipitated a new crisis. King Henri III was childless and looked to remain so. With the death of Anjou the heir presumptive became a Protestant: Henri de Navarre. He wouldn't trade his religion. It kind off started a war. The League managed to dominate in the north and east. Navarre and Condé entrenched in the south.They looking for foreign aid from german princes and Elizabeth. In 1587, an army of German mercenaries entered France. Guise took a Leaguer army to deal with them, and Henri III sent the Duc de Joyeuse to cut Navarre off in the southwest. Navarre won the first spectacular Protestant victory at the battle of Coutras, killing Joyeuse and routing his army. Guise trounced the Germans and sent them home. The people of were becoming more and more dissatisfied with Henri III and his failure to suppress the Protestants. In May of 1588, a popular uprising where barricades went up the streets of Paris for the first time caused Henri III to flee the city. The Committee of Sixteen took complete control of the government and welcomed the Duc de Guise to the city. The League held a meetingin Blois in the fall. THe proposed Cardinal de Bourbon take the crown. On Christmas Eve in 1588, when Guise was at Blois for the meetings, Henri III invited him to his quarters for some discussion. He was killed along with his brother.

14: The League sent an army against Henri III, and Henri III turned to Navarre for an alliance. The two kings joined forces to reclaim Paris. In July 1589, a monk named Jacques Clément begged an audience with the king and put a long knife into his spleen. At first it was thought the king might recover, but the wound festered. On his deathbed, Henri III called for Navarre and named him his heir. The last war is the war of the League. They staged coups in principal cities of France. In a reign of terror, they kept watch on the political correctness of the citizens. Well financed with Spanish money, Mayenne took to the field. Henri IV brought the war into the north, which he knew was critical if he wanted to be king of France and not just king in Gascony. In September of 1589, Henri met Mayenne and gave him a serious defeat at Arques. His army swept through Normandy, taking town after town that winter, and then he inflicted an even more crushing defeat on the League in March of 1590 at Ivry. He sieged Paris in the spring and summer of 1590. He made good like allowed women and kids to leave. It alarmed Phillip II of Spain, he ordered the Duke of Parma to divert himself from suppressing the Dutch to relieving the siege. Parma was able to successfully get supplies into the city. The two never met in open combat, but Henri IV was obliged to withdraw. In 1593, the League held an Estates-General in Paris, to

15: name a candidate for the throne of France. The Spanish proposed the Infanta. This was a shocking departure from the Salic Law (no woman can inherit the throne of France), and Parliament passed a decree that the crown could not go to any foreigner. At this point, Henri IV made his "perilous leap" and abjured his faith in July 1593 reputedly with the famous witticism that "Paris is worth a mass." A coronation was arranged for him at Chartres which was in the hands of the League. This was a blow to the League. Many people did not trust the conversation, including the Protestants who hoped it was not for real. Still, some of Henri's hardcore Protestant supporters withdrew from him. In the end, he won over enough moderate Catholics to strengthen his position. In the spring of 1594 Henri IV entered Paris without firing a shot, and the Spanish garrison marched out. It wasn't over yet, but Henri was now in possession of his capital. He began a vigorous program of winning over the support of moderate Catholics with a combination of charm, force, money, and promises. A great deal of money was spent guaranteeing various nobles pensions and positions in exchange for the support, and a great deal of money was given to the towns in exchange for theirs. Henri himself made the crack that the loyality of the king's "bonnes villes" was "vendu, pas rendu." In the end, Henri

16: considered it a bargain given he alternative costs of war. Meanwhile, the king of Spain renewed the offensive in the northern territories, hoping to unite with the still rebellious Leaguer lords. Cambrai, Doullens, Calais were all taken in 1595 and 1596. Henri IV besieged La Fere, a Spanish outpost in French territory. In 1597, the Spanish took Amiens. The king fought back quite vigorously. Finally, in 1598, the Spanish signed the Treaty of Vervins. It restored the captured towns to France. The league leaders, Mayenne capitulated in '96, the young Guise in '95, and Mercoeur at last in '98. 1598 saw the publication of the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots freedom of worship and civil rights for nearly a century, until Henri IV's descendent Louis XIV revoked it in 1685. It is not the end of the Huguenot story in France, but it closes this chapter of the Wars of Religion.

17: Bibliography Yahoo answers. What are some of the causes of the protestant reformation? Yahoo. Inc. 2012. Web. 6 Sept 2012. | www.answers. com/question/index?20100803122008AA Gstohl,Mark. THe Radical Reformation. 2004.Web. 8 Sept. 2012. | Arnold, Dr. Jack L. THE CAUSE AND RESULTS OF THE REFORMATION IIM Magazine Online. 1999. Web. 7 Sept. 2012. Http://third | McHugh, John. "Lutheranism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New YorkRobertr Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 7 Sept. 2012. . | Calvinism. Theopedia. Web. 7 Sept. 2012. . | The Catholic Reformation. History Learning Site. 2012. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. Catholic-Reformation.htm Kagan, Donald;Ozment, Steven;Turner, Frank M. The Western Heritage. Ed. 9. AP edition. New Jersey: Pearson, 2007. Print. | The wars of religion. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. Http:// wars.htm

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