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S: The Permian Period

BC: I would like to thank all my friends, Mrs. Sapp And Mrs. Moore For helping me with everything.

FC: The Permian Period | Yousef Fahd Rashed Al-Mulla 7-2

1: Table Of Contents My Topic: The Permian Eon | Topic: Page: Time 2 What was occurring 4 Plants 6 Animals 9 Climate 10 Summary 12 Bibliography 14

2: The Permian Period began about 299 million years ago. | 2

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4: What happened during The Permian Period? The Permian period, part of the Paleozoic Era, which ended in the biggest mass extinction the Earth has ever known, it began about 299 million years ago. The coming of the super-continent of Pangaea showed severe changes of climate and environment due to its huge size. The south was freezing and windy, with most of the region frozen under ice caps. Northern areas suffered increasingly from intense heat and great seasonal changes between wet and dry conditions. The lush swamp forests of the Carboniferous were gradually replaced by conifers, seed ferns, and other heat resistant plants. The climate changed gradually through weeks from humid to dry to hot to dry again. | 4

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6: Plants There were many plants in the Permian Period that struggled to survive and ones that survived. The climate was getting hotter and dryer causing them to have a lack of water that caused them to die quickly. The black type of soil formed in this period. It absorbed heat and the dry climate making the plant to become weak and die. Some plants had a mutation making them need a lot of heat to survive. Thats when the black soil was helpful, the mutation caused the plant to live longer and spread faster allowing the other species become extinct. Generations later red soil started to form causing a reflection against the heat and mild climate. The color black absorbs the most heat other than bright colors, the black soil brought the heat to the floor until the plant absorbed it, it caused it to survive for a longer period other than different species. Some plants were poisonous and harmful to the herbivore kind, but some were good for the herbivore kind. Plants had a hard time surviving during the Permian period, some died and some lived for various reasons. | 6

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9: Animals The Permian Period is known to be the greatest mass extinction for many animal species. Due to the Pangaea super continent colossal size there were extreme climate changes which greatly affected the animals species. Many species died from the sudden changes but other species such as reptiles found these conditions favorable. Due to their thick and moisture retaining skin the early reptiles took over the amphibians place. Over a period of time the reptiles adapted to the harsh desert like environment where they thrive today. Reptiles known to be cold blooded had to find away to deal with the daily temperature changes from freezing cold in the evening to 40 degrees Celsius during the day. Some of the species, which were called Primitive Pelycosaurs, developed sail like structures on their back, which attracted heat during the day and helped them keep warm during the night. Most animals died due to the great changes but some adapted to the environment by evolving. | 9

10: Climate The climate in the Permian was a climate that changed efficiently. At the start of the Permian Period, the Earth was still at the stage of an ice age from the Carbon in the air. Glaciers melted around the mid-Permian period as the climate gradually warmed, drying the continent's land. In the late Permian period, the drying continued although the temperature cycled between warm and cold cycles. The climates temperature was becoming hotter because the increase in volcanic activity. During the volcanic activity it released many gases; one of them was carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide had an effect on the atmosphere making the temperature warmer. There is evidence that the temperature was getting cooler, carbon dioxide had a different affect on the climate, so instead of heating the temperature it cooled it down. The climate always changed during the Permian Period. | 10

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12: Summary The plants, animals, and climate all affected the 30 million year Permian Period. The plants had hard times surviving because the climate and the herbivores. The climate killed many plants and animals because of its heat and coolness. Before the Permian period came the Triassic Period. It was a hard time in the Permian times. If mankind lived at the time, it was scientifically proved that no one would survive. The Permian period was a tough time for organisms. | 12

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14: Bibliography "Exploring the Environment." Exploring the Environment. N.P., n.d. Web. 8 July 2009. . "Permian: The Permian Period." Palaeos: Life Through Deep Time. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2013. . "Causes of the Permian Extinction."Internet 1996 World Exposition. Puffin, 1 Dec. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. . "Permian." Home Page. Version 1. fdfwe, 12 Dec. 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. | 14

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