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Brazil - Page Text Content

S: Brazil Revolution

FC: Brazil Revolution

1: Table Of Content s | 4-5 Anatomy of a Revolution vs. Brazil Revolution 6-7 Prologue Summary 8-9 Timeline 10-15 Disenfranchised Person 16-25 Government official 25-32 34-39 40-47 Female Rebel 48-55 56-61 Government Official 62-69 Revolutionary Leader 70-73 Epilogue Overview 74-77 Political Indicators 78-81 Photo Credits 82-82 Social Indicators 84-end Bibliography

2: Hausa Revolt War of the Triple Alliance Brazilian Revolution of 1889 Brazilian Antislavery Society Slave Revolt of 1814 Slave Revolt of 1807 Abolition of Slavery

4: CRANE BRITAIN’S ANATOMY OF A REVOLUTION vs. Revolution of Brazil | There are a few differences and similarities between the revolution of Brazil and Crane Britain’s “Anatomy of a Revolution”. In the “Anatomy of a Revolution” it states that conditions which seem to be present as causes of major revolutions include that people from all social classes are discontented and feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government. People begin to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, which results in a growing bitterness between social classes. Also, even though some people are hopeful about the future, they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for. Regarding the government, it does not respond to the needs of its society, the leaders and ruling class begin to doubt themselves. When the government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself, it cannot organize its finances correctly and tries to tax heavily and unjustly. This results in even more problems and revolts, creating perfect conditions for a revolution. This is similar to the Revolution of 1889 in Brazil because social classes were discontented and were angered by the various restrictions. In fact, the revolution in Brazil reflected many issues that have plagued Brazil following independence in 1822.

5: "Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. | Those issues include the difficulty in reforming a social, economic, and political system dominated by large landowners; the conflict between centralism and federalism; and the central political role of first the emperor and then the military as arbiters in political conflict. There was also a wide gap between the upper and lower classes which only grew bigger. Surely there are some similarities and differences between Crane Britain’s “Anatomy of a Revolution” and the revolution in Brazil.

6: Prologue Brazil has not always been a free country. Their Independence was officially declared in 1822, but the years leading up to this play a significant role in the call for freedom as well. Portugal had owned Brazil since the 1400’s, when most of Latin America was Spanish territory. Until they were proclaimed Independent, Brazil was the biggest colony in all of Latin America. In 1807, the French King Napoleon came into Portugal, angered by some of their actions. The Portuguese felt unsafe and threatened. Therefore, King Joao brought his court over to Brazil, accompanied by the British Navy. When the Portuguese came into Brazil was when the colonists began to work their way up to independence. King Joao selfishly gave Brazil many luxuries, such as opening foreign trade ports, but he only intended to help the Portuguese. However, these new luxuries slightly backfired on Joao because they only made Brazil more determined to be a free country.

7: Joo was very stern with the colonists. He not only allowed Brazilians to be tortured, but permitted and supported the slave trade. This was even after he had promised to cancel slavery all together. Nothing that Joao did benefited Brazil, and they were very pleased when he was called back to Portugal to help with their parliament. The absence of Joao left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil. Pedro was very different from his father, and put effort into giving the colonies independence. On September 7, 1822, just a year after his father left, Pedro declared Brazil an Independent colony. Brazil was finally free from Portuguese rule and was a country of their own. Pedro became the emperor in 1823, leading Brazil as a happy, newly freed country.

8: Brazil Timeline: From 1800-1900 1808-England vs France declared war on each other. This creates a conflict because the Portuguese sided with England, and therefore Napoleon threats to invade Portugal. At this point, the Portuguese court fled to Brazil. They opened trade from Brazil, refurbished Rio de Janeiro, and created a special focus on cotton (which the English bought a lot of). 1810-Treaty of Methuen; This is between England and Portugal; saying that Portugal will grant England with no tax on goods such as wine, and as a result England would help out Portugal with their military. | "History of Brazil - century 18 and century 19." Brazil - travel, political and cultural information. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. . | Inspired From

9: 1817- This is when we see the first Republican revolution in Brazil. There was discontent with the Portuguese colonial administration started the Pernambucan republican revolution, which was liquidated by the Portuguese Army. As a result of the revolution, Alagoas, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Ceará were separated from the Pernambucan captaincy 1821- Revolution of Oporto. This took place in Portugal, and it was the citizens demanding change in their Monarchy. This resulted in making a consitution. January 9th 1822- Pedro, the son of Don Joao VI who was the king of Portugal and Brazil, was commaned to come home to Portugal, but he refused. On January 9th, 1822 they celebrate this by called it the, “O Dia Do Fico” (I Stay) September 7th 1822 Pedro proclaims Independence from Portugal. His new title was D Pedro I. The country was in an economic crisis, and not to help they were forced to pay Portugal for their independence. 1824- The first Brazilian Constitution was established by Pedro I, and he made it without the consensus of the people. 1825- The British recognized the Independence for Portugal and Brazil 1826- Parliaments has opened in Brazil, the two main parties where the Liberals and the Conservatives 1834-The Liberals (majority in the house)have power,they passed a law that gave more power to the local governments,this further gave the liberals more power 1831-1850 - There were multiple signals that Brazil was suffering because of their difference of economic foundation, salve work, where as the European counties were thriving on the industrial revolution. 1891 - The first Constitution of the republican era is created. The most power was in the President .

10: December 15th 1808 Dear Diary, Things are getting ugly here in Portugal. Just a little bit ago, the liberal consitutionalist started getting rowdy about our government, complaining here and there about the little things. When I get the moment to get off of plantation, I listen in to whats going in the world,but sometimes I cannot grasp a full idea. I attempt to make out what is written in newspaper, but my reading skills are not up to par, and I can barely understand it. Because of the geographical restrictions on the land in Portugal, there are few farms, and in order to keep your life, you must work the maximum everyday, and it becomes a competitive work. The wealthy family that I work for are skeptical of this forthcoming revolution. As it stands today, they are in charge of one of the most successful plantations on the coast of Portugal, and because of the limited resources to get food, they provided for a lot of people within Portugal.

11: If a revolution were to occur and the people of Portugal would spread into Brazil, which is full of rich agricultural soil, and had endless possibilities when it came to farming. They would lose their power, and dominance quickly. In an effort to find out more, I have been making more and more excused to leave for town this week and figure out how our country stand. I have heard bits and pieces about, “Demanding a Constitution!” then talk about wanting to have King Dom Joao VI of Brazil come and rule from Portugal, creating an vast empire across the entire Atlantic ocean. Oh! What does this all mean! I wondering at night what will happen tomorrow,will it be the day that our countries changes forever? Will my family be safe throughout this entire process. When I try to sleep in the shacks outside, I can hear my owners getting mad at night and plates breaking, and yelling across the house. Each night the tension has been growing. Before I go to bed tonight, I silently pray, that one day, they will bring justice to the world, and free us slaves. Yours Truly, Pedro | " Inspired From: World History: The Modern Era - Username ." World History: The Modern Era - Username . N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.

12: FREE | ` January 7th 1817 Dear Diary, Its been crazy and a lot has happened since I've talked to you. My previous owners had a freak out rant against me, and nearly killed me. At night, I have nightmare of how they took me by my hair, screamed into the my ear drum, and took out the whip slashing me every two seconds. By the miracle of God, a young slave owner, was on his way to sail over to Brazil, and he top by my house, he was gave them a generous donation of he large furniture. In thanks, they handed me over to him. I spend 12 hours, getting reading to board a ship that would take us from Portugal to Brazil. As of now I’m aboard the massive boat, and have been sailing for about a week already. The slaves work all day, and sleep on the bottom levels, in what some may call a “hammock”, its nothing more than a couple of strings tied together. The other slaves and I have been trying to put together this puzzle on what is going on.

13: We have heard about this guy named, “Pedro” and that a lot of the people on boat are saying how he is going to be a savior to all of us. They are talking about how they fear that once they arrive in Brazil, that they will be consider lower on the social ladder than before. But, this man named Pedro is going to help prevent this. My new owners are worst then the last, they are majorly in debt, and they have me doing triple the amount of work that I had to do before. I cannot even begin to imagine what kind of work they will have me do on the new sugar plantation. Some of the fellow slaves aboard the ship say that the sugar plantation are one of the most dangerous places to work in all of Brazil. Every morning when I wake up before the sun, I have to wash the floor, clean the lou, and prepare breakfast for most of the ship. Each night, well after the sun sinks under the ocean, and I count my blessings, and hope to God, the tomorrow, we will reach land. All of this travel at sea has made me quite sick. Plus, the flu is going around this boat, and I see people getting sicker and sicker by the day. But, I don't have a clue, on how far we have gone, or how long we still have to go. I just hope that I will make there with my family safely. One day, mark my words, my family will be free... Yours Truly, Pedro | " Inspired From: History of Brazil - century 18 and century 19." Brazil - travel, political and cultural information. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. .

14: Dear Diary, Today, I took the time to reread through my diary, and found the in my last entry I wrote, “One day, mark my words, my family will be free...” Its been over two years, and my life has been altered dramatically. I work on a sugar plantations which is a constant struggle more my family and I. The sugar canes can easily cut you which creates a challenge while working. Though, many have said that because of the move to Brazil, we would see a full political, economic and social change in Brazil. However, its been two full years and I have yet to see a full change. Yes, the leaders have changed, and their view on society, but the social classes are the same, the distribution of money was consistent from before. Yet, I see a change. I see a change in the people, they are becoming more tolerant to people who are in different social classes. Even my owners, have seemed to gradually ease their commands, and be less strict when it comes to women and children. I see hope, and I see hope for Brazil, and all slaves. Unlike Portugal, Brazil is full of raw materials that can be used to make finished goods, which is the basis of the trading between the New and Old world. However, my owners were telling me that this brings an economic problem to Brazil, because the raw materials cost less the finished goods, so we are using up more money than we have. This has been concerning me for awhile now, as a country I felt the hope, but know, I feel the fear. The fear of failure. | July 5th 1821

15: The only solution, is to look to our leader, to lead us to a grand place, the place we have always imagine we would live. A place where I would be free, and a place where we could all coexist. This one time, I was over hearing my owners while I was preparing dinner, they were repeating a motto from Pedro, “Independence [from Portugal] or death!” (Pedro NYTimes) . This was proof that I knew in my heart, that Brazil does have the power to break away from old tradition of Portugal, and grow to be a better country. That one day, my goal would come true, my family would be free. Yours Truly, Pedro | Inspired By: "Revolutions in Latin America (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. "Brazil Revolution ." New York Times 23 July 1970: 32. Print.

16: November 29, 1807 Dear Diary, While I am not glad that the French have invaded my home country of Portugal, I must admit that am enjoying myself here and I felt as though I am truly helping the colonists here. | With the ships coming into port with the newly brought in goods, and being welcomed home be their families while their treasures were awed at with the wide-eyed expression of that of a fascinated child. Or the fish and vegetable stalls, getting ready for the rush of people, arranging their selections to look the most appetizing; or even the young children, whose laughs pierce the air as they ran through the streets, singing silly rhymes and playing with their friends. | I just can't help thinking that if Napoleon Bonaparte had not gone and invaded Portugal, how much life would have been different here. I would not have been exiled here and would not have opened this colonies port to trade with other nations, and we would not have been able to make leaps and bounds in this colonies development, leading to all this cultural diffusion and happiness. | Victoria-Government Official

17: These are the moments in my life when I could never regret my decision to make Rio de Janeiro the center for the government. In this city, everything is full of life; and with such a diverse culture and society from the increased trade, us government officials almost can get a front-row seat at the happenings of this colony and a look at what we need to change. The trip from Portugal was long and hard. We faced rough seas and strong winds. Many times throughout the trip, I feared for my life. While I suppose being on the boat was much safer than being back in Portugal but with the storms and all, there were many times when fear was pulsing through my veins as if it were blood. I felt so relieved after the trip though, when I got to my home. I actually live at a chacara (also known as a farm) in Sao Cristovao, a short distance from the Rio de Janeiro. All of the houses here look just like the houses back in Portugal, a fact that comforts me greatly. Also many shops here are owned by Portuguese natives, so many of the European goods that I was able to enjoy at home are still here for me to have.

18: I really like it here in Brazil, almost as much as Portugal. But even with all of this trade, these two places are so far apart that I see it as almost impossible to keep them tied together. I would love it if they could stay together, as I love both places dearly, but if Brazil ever does become its own nation, I do not know if I would go back to rule my homeland, or if I should like to stay here, in this warm sunny place. These are the thoughts that have been in my head most often these days, and it truly frightens me to think of what could happen to Brazil without a strong leader. But sadly, no one can really answer such questions. I must go, as it is almost time to rest and go to sleep. Till next time, Joao VI of Portugal | Victoria- Government Official

19: April 5, 1817 Dear Diary, I have worrying all night and could not sleep, so I figured I would right a little to express my thoughts. You see, I was having such a great time in Brazil that two years ago, when Portugal finally defeated Napoleon, I was torn between staying here and going back home. I decided to stay here in Brazil and become their king; a move I thought was smart at the time because I had guessed this new nation needed me more than Portugal. Especially now that the Pernambucan Revolution in underway, I am really think that Brazil needs me right now. Right now, Brazil is in a struggle between absolutism and liberalism. Many preferred the old way, but many more desire their freedom. The people here are having a hard time finding equilibrium in the middle of the two. Many people are upset with my decision to give the highest military positions to the Portuguese, but if only they knew that I think it’s better for them this way and they are safer this way because the Portuguese has a stronger military than Brazil, considering that Brazil is still a colony.

20: But, while I really think that Brazil needs me, with Napoleon having just been defeated and my fatherland free from him, my country is weak and vulnerable. They need me very much and each letter from home there says the condition there are worse and worse, my absence over there becoming more and more prevalent. | Also, with all the hectic things happening back home, I really hope that if I go back to Portugal, it will not get it in the Brazilians mind that they want independence. This would be devastating for me. Portugal has gotten so rich off of Brazil's mining, sugar, and coffee. Their exports are helping my own country so much and if we did not have that little extra money support, I do not know what would happen to Portugal. Also, with Brazil still being a colony and all, I am afraid if they will be able to stand on their own or not or if they will fall and become a weak country. I am so worried and have no idea what to do but have be consulting my advisors regularly. I just don’t want to make the wrong mistake; the one that could end everything I’ve started; the one that could end my hopes and dreams for what Brazil can be. | Victoria- Government Official

21: All I can do is hope and pray to God that he will give me the strength to carry on and make the right decision. On a positive note though, Brazil is strengthening a pretty good bond with other nations and countries, thanks to the fact that I opened up more trade. Wow that felt great to write that down and get it off my chest. Sincerely Joao VI of Portugal

22: November 25, 1821 Dear Diary, After many long months of second thoughts, I think I am glad to have left Brazil. I realize now that while I was there, it seemed like a heavy burden had been placed on me to turn the country into something that it's not. | I was expected to make gold out of coal; Just to be free from that place has helped me to be so stress-free. I was worrying the entire time I was there; whether I should stay there or come home here and I could not make my decision. I consulting one person after another after another and could not make up my mind. | However, after many, many, many meetings, it was decided for me to go back to Portugal because they needed me very much there. The commander in chief of the army over there came all the way from Portugal to Brazil just to tell me that there were small sparks for a revolution and that they needed their ruler badly. | Victoria- Government Official

23: So on April 26 of this year, I left Brazil. I knew I would never have the chance to come back and I now am missing the beaches and the food, and the overall happy mood there that I had left behind when we left. As the boat was leaving shore, I tried to not look back, for fear of changing my mind. But I couldn't just leave. I quickly turned around, expecting guilt and fear to wash over me for what lies ahead and for what I left behind.

24: But surprisingly, it didn't. Not one bit. That was when I knew I had made the right choice. I decided to leave my son in charge, Pedro. After watching him grow into a fine young man, I realize now how strong his character is and how good Brazil will do in his hands. With such a great character like his, I hope he rules even better than me. Brazil could use a good ruler right now. So the ship landed in Lisbon this year on July 3, and while I thought that I would feel relieved to be away from the stressful Brazil, I wasn't. This is just so much stuff that I have to do here. Not only do I have to stop the revolutionaries here in Portugal, but there have been rumors that Brazil is seeking independence. I don't know if I can just let my son go like that. I mean, of course I love him, but is he really ready to lead a country on his own? Without my guidance? I'm not so sure and I don't want Brazil to get buried in a hole too deep for them to get out of. | Victoria-Government Official

25: I really hope that my son will be a fantastic ruler. And here in Portugal, we will definitely miss the profit from Brazil's exports. We made so much profit from that. | I guess all I can do is hope and pray to God to give Pedro the strength to carry on and lead Brazil up and to develop it into the strong nation I know it can be. Anyway, with my long to-do list of items, I’ve got to run. | I can't believe I even found time to write in this diary after so long. Anyway, good-bye diary! Hope to see you soon! From, Joao VI of Portugal

26: March 12th, 1821 Dear Diary, The war in Portugal of the absolutists vs. the liberals had originally already been going on since 1820 even. My father, Dom Pedro I, re-entered in the war and is fighting for the liberals under the ideals of the constitutional monarchy which Brazil is ruled by. Someday I wish to be the constitutional emperor of Brazil and be as good a leader as my father. During the Napoleanic wars in 1814 and 1815, Many of the Portugese elite returned with the end of the French occupation. Just as it did in Spain, liberal revolt effected Portugal in 1820 and the new cortes took power and began the start of the constitutional monarchy. Right now he is fighting for independence and against the ideas of absolutism, by the attempt to put in place a liberal constitutional regime. He’s fighting against Carlota Jaoquina and Miguel, absolutists, which is something that troubles me. Sometimes I feel like I must root for one or the other, or that I must be faithful to both - yet I cannot. This revolution has affected my family greatly, maybe even so that members of it will never see each other ever again. He is also being assisted by Martim Francisco, Antonio Carlos, and Jose Bonifacio in this re-hashed rebellion in Portugal, which is good because he cannot fight this battle by himself.

27: Not only that, but since my father helped move towards independence, there was a great advantage in that he was a member of the royal family. Besides, the overall goal was not to defeat the Portugese, but to hold the regions of Brazil from them. Someday I will be constitutional emperor, and if a time comes when I must choose to fight, I too will fight for freedom resembling a member of the royal family. I will be something that people can look up to, something they believe in. Not one party alone can fight a revolution (and win). I must be a great leader who my people will look up to in times of need. | Portugal will no longer rule Brazil, for my father will gain independence and our great country will be free. I just know it. I can feel it. I would say all I care about is winning and being free from Portugal’s grasp, but I would be lying. There is no doubt that I want that, and it would be great for that to happen - but the thing I want most is for my father to come back safe. I do not know what I would do if he died. His loyalties are to Brazil and its independence, but I could not bear if he died fighting for his country. even if we won, the victory would be bitter sweet. Nevertheless, I look towards the end of this harsh conflict, in which I can only hope my father returns home from safely. ----------------------------------------------------- Diary entry inspired by information from: Lecture 19 reading. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? 2004, The teaching company Limited partnership.

28: June 18th, 1831 Dear Diary, Today I was crowned constitutional emperor of Brazil after my father, Dom Pedro. He went off to fight in the civil war in Portugal, where it is the absolutists against the liberals. My father lead the liberals in war, won, and came back from the war alive to crown me, his youngest of many sons, Pedro II: emperor of Brazil.

29: I was playing in the garden at the chácara, being watched by the servants assigned by my mother when heard that the Prince returned to Portugal, that my father declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal, and that we negotiated independence through little bloodshed and little social change. My father is a very great man. He could easily have been fighting against independence, yet he fights for it because he fights for what is right. Seeing as I am now constitutional emperor, I will need to fight the good fight, and fight for what I believe rather than just fight for what the emperor should fight for. Just because I am royalty does not mean I should be above my people. Rather, I shall be the opposite. A constitutional monarch...I mean emperor, is nothing without the support of its people. It’s almost as if a ruler’s power is either taken advantage of so that that the people eventually overthrow him, or that he is an emperor without any power at all. Diary entry inspired by information from: Lecture 19 reading. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? 2004, The teaching company Limited partnership. Lecture 19 CD. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? Tracks 1-6

30: Dear Diary, It has been a mighty long time since I have written in this diary. In the time in which I have been absent from writing, my father has died and I have been ruler of Brazil for I have just been so busy and all, ruling Brazil as constitutional monarch. But now I see that I will be able to write more and more Today the Monarchy in Brazil has been abolished. These ideals of positivism and a republic are the very thing this country needs in order to reform Brazil’s government. | November 15th, 1889

31: It’s not that these people are forming an uprising, or planning a rebellion against our established government - rather, a coalition of reform-minded officers and civilians influenced by the 19th-century ideas of positivism and republican politicians who seek a federalist political system are joining together to end the Brazilian monarchy today - which, I am proud to say, I am a part of. We will provide food, shelter, and a stable government to the people of Brazil as always, but now we shall change our government to better fit the current of positivism and a Republic. When I was ruling as monarch, I used to hear talk everywhere of the hardships of the people and the lack of social and political change. I myself contemplated the things that should be done in order to make this country better socially, politically, and economically. When my father ruled this empire, he ruled with a strict, conservative government to rule over Brazil as a constitutional monarch - and the country flourished. But now, we must change these ways in order to have a current, working government. The social class system was preserved after Brazil won independence from Portugal, and the country had social peace and political stability maintained by the Brazilian elites. Now we will change Brazil’s social and political structure for the better. We have now officially ended the Brazilian monarchy and have turned it into the Republic of Brazil. Goodbye to Brazil the empire; hello to Brazil the Republic.

32: Diary entry inspired by information from: "independence of Brazil." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. ABC clio Brazil independence article Lecture 19 reading. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? 2004, The teaching company Limited partnership. Lecture 19 CD. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? Tracks 1-6

34: November 28, 1834 Dear Diary, It has been 1 year since I was brought over to Brazil from my native homeland in Africa, I have worked countless days and hours receiving a limited time for rest and no gratification for the work that I have done. I was taken from Africa on August 26, 1833 and it is now | November 28, 1834, I am 19 years old and I am not sure how much longer I will be alive and where I will be in the next few years. Every day I have lived in fear of if I will die from the harsh conditions that I work in everyday or the punishment I will receive for my mistakes. There is my constant desire to escape from this place but I’m unsure if I will make it or if I will perish. The days are harsh and I feel as though I will die each day from the pain that I feel from my work. My owner is not a generous person he beats and us and yells at us and gives us no gratification for our work. There are only a few limited hours in which we are able to rest , and we receive 1 meal a day and very little of it.

35: Every day I see my brethren beaten and die before my eyes, I can't bear the fact that I can die from this one day. I lose my hope that there are people out there that can help us and save us from the work and punishment we receive. Yet for now I must focus on living and put my hope into the other people of this country and the emperor Pedro II who speaks of an end to slavery. But even I have my doubts whether if he speaks true words, or if it will ever happen when I am alive. There have been small revolts of slaves who went against the government but all have failed, I lose hope that I will ever be free and whether I will ever live in another place. I have heard of a revolt that has been rumored to happen in Bahia, a group of escaped slaves that will attack Brazilian authorities. I work close to Bahia and if I could escape I could leave this place help the other slaves revolt against the corrupt leaders. I know that there are others here who want to leave, some of which who want to join the revolt, I might not be alone when I leave.

36: Those among me who want to leave from here and join the revolt and others to fight from freedom have contemplated killing our land owner. I can’t possibly think of actually killing the owner but if I want freedom and to join the revolt I am forced to fight and kill. It is hard to believe that I will actually attempt to kill a person but that must be the price of freedom.

37: December 31, 1834 Dear Diary, Today I can say that I am free from my time of working under an owner, I am free from working under such harsh conditions. I am free from constant times that I felt that I would die from the painful work I did as a slave. I no longer work for no pay, I no longer such under such harsh rules from my owner, and I no longer eat 1 meal a day. Fellow slaves living in the same place with my have joined together to rebel against our owner. Last night we escaped our quarters, broke into our owner’s home and while he was sleeping, we killed him. I feel guilty in killing my old owner but I do feel that he deserved his death for the treatment he gave us slaves.

38: I can move freely from the farm where I worked and I can now see the outside world and see the places I was not allowed to see. Now that me and my fellow slaves are free, we are going to head to Bahia were we can join the other slaves in a revolt against the Brazilian officials. We can now fight against the officials and help the other slaves break free and set a precedent for the rest of the world. I can now say that I do not need to put my hope into other officials, for now I believe that we slaves will be the answer in getting freedom for all. | All Diary Entries Are Inspired By: "Hausa Uprising." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. Brazil." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 07 Nov. 2010

39: January 30, 1835 Dear Diary, It has been 5 days since the revolt we slaves took against the Brazilian officials. Everything that occurred that day was an atrocity, many have died from this, others were punished by there owners, and then there are those like me who have run away and now on the loose, being hunted. Nothing has going according to what I imagined to have happened, this seems that it was a nightmare, that I was dreaming, but I have to realize the harsh truth that it is reality. I have lost the ability to use my arm, I can’t work work properly as a slave anymore, working in the fields, I fear that I will be killed instead. Even so, my owner’s death means that I have no place to work anymore, I am free but I am being hunted. I have many convictions now, I am a runaway slave, a murderer, and a conspirator to an uprising against the Brazilian government. I don’t know where to go now I merely wander through the forests and away from roads. I have to refrain from being in towns otherwise I will be caught. My life has become worse than it ever was before this uprising, I regret ever joining. I am now a wanted man with no where to go, I have been wounded with no way to recover, I fear that this might be the last journal entry that I can ever write again.

40: May 3rd, 1792 Dear Diary, Recently, things around here have been changing, quickly. People have been complaining and rioting about the economy and social rights. In fact, just several weeks ago, Jose Joaquim da silva Xavier, the guy who led the first Brazilian rebellion against the Portuguese, was jailed | and executed on April 21, 1792. Known as Tiradentes; the teeth puller, he was a man of various talents, including merchant, doctor and dentist, or tooth puller. Tiradentes was dissatisfied with Portuguese rule in Brazil. No doubt influenced by the American War of Independence, Tiradentes led the first organized movement against the Portuguese. When Portuguese officials attempted to collect back taxes when the gold, (that had made Minas Gerais state wealthy and powerful,) was petering out, Tiradentes organized a protest, and was killed for his efforts. Although this first rebellion was unsuccessful, everyone still looks up to him as a hero and I can sense that there will be more rebellions to come. While I am somewhat nervous about more rebellions erupting, I’m also kind of

41: excited. All my life, everyone has looked upon us women as if we carried shame. We are expected to behave with public modesty, personal humility, sexual propriety, and docility toward men. We are barred from voting, holding public office, testifying in court, and adopting children. Married women could sign contracts and work for wages only with express permission from their husbands. Paternal legal authority meant that married women were expected to be subservient to their husbands in public and at home. Because the civil codes made divorce difficult and did not allow provisions for economically vulnerable women, wives, many of who I personally know, face significant obstacles in leaving their abusive husbands. I’m lucky because I’m not married yet, however my friend Catherine is and every day I see her it seems as if she has a new bruise on her body. I’ve tried to help her, but every time she stops me because she knows that no one will care. Husbands are superior, like they own you. If these rebellions became bigger, and more frequent, maybe they could lead to independence from the Portuguese. Maybe Catherine will finally gain more rights from her husband, because I can’t stand watching what is happening to her. Maybe I could be treated equally for once! Perhaps I could even vote or get a really nice job. A lot could change in Brazil... Sincerely, Camilla Markey | Diary Inspired by Information From: -Crider, Gregory. "Family Life in 19th Century Latin America." Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. -Smith, Bonnie. Women’s History. United States of America: American Historical Association, 2004. Print. "Brazil." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 14 Nov. 2010 -.

42: December 15th 1822 Dear Diary, I am so happy! Just several months ago, Brazil has declared independence from the Portuguese at last! It all started when the Napoleonic Wars forced the Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil in 1808, and for a short period the colony became the seat of the Portuguese empire. In 1808 Britain persuaded Portugal to open the colony to trade with the rest of the world, and Portugal rescinded its prohibition against manufacturing. These events paved the way for Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822, where Pedro declared it near the Ipiranga River in So Paulo.

43: I’ve overheard people in town saying how he tore the Portuguese blue and white insignia from his uniform, drew his sword, and swore: "By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free." Independence! After its independence from the Portuguese Brazil became a monarchy ruled by Pedro, the first ruler of the new Empire of Brazil. I’m hoping the government gets the message that through all these rebellions, all we want is equality and a better economy. All political, social, and economic advantages were toward the very small percentage that was the Portuguese upper class. This created a huge gap between the rich and the poor by making the already rich, high-class Portuguese even richer and doing nothing about the poor other heritage-based lower classes.

44: Now that Brazil is independent from Portugal, maybe the gap will close and we won’t have to riot for what we believe in. But, until then, I will rebel until the government is completely fixed and whole. Independence is just the first step. I know that if I want to earn more rights and have a role in this country, I must go and fight. Jugdging by the way the government is playing out, it looks like there is still a lot of political problems to deal with. I must go though right now, there is a meeting for the rebels in town right now. Sincerely, Camilla Markey | Diary Inspired by Information From: -“Brazil, rebellions from independence to the republic (1700s–1889).” Blackwell Reference Online. November 14th 2010. http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405184649_yr2010_chunk_g9781405184649247 -Hamilton, Neil. "Pedro I." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 1 Nov. 2010.

45: March 23 1890 Dear Diary, This is my last entry. My days have been counting down, and I am extremely old. Throughout Brazil’s history, I have watched as it has gone from colonial, to independent, to monarch, and now, a republic. On November 15, 1889, the Brazilian military staged a coup d'etat, dethroning Pedro II and ending the monarchy. This group was made of a coalition of reform-minded officers and civilians, influenced by the 19th-century ideas of positivism, and republican politicians, who sought a federalist political

46: system. Brazil was proclaimed a republic, and the institution of slavery was abolished, the separation of church and state proclaimed. The new republic is now referred to as the United States of Brazil; provinces had become states. The First Republic began with the optimistic goal of creating a modern liberal parliamentary republic based on scientific principles. Although a republic was a good thing, those social and political problems persisted after Brazilian independence. Political strife continued, marked by military coups and dictatorships. Additionally, severe environmental and social problems, including widespread poverty, still challenge Brazil. Also, patriarchy is still a long-standing influence that shapes the lives of us Latin American women.

47: The practice of patriarchy, or the assertion of male power or domination over women, is certainly not unique to Latin America nor does it follow any singular pattern across the diverse nations that emerged in the Americas after independence from the European powers. Cultural practices and legal restrictions reinforce the practice of patriarchy, but many women find ways to challenge or otherwise deal with its limits, like me. I’m a fighter, and I won’t let anyone boss me around or tell me I’m not good enough for something. I am a female rebel, and I have and always will stand up for what I believe in. Sincerely, Camilla Markey | Diary Inspired by Information From: -"independence of Brazil: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. -Crider, Gregory. "Family Life in 19th Century Latin America." Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010.

48: September 7, 1821 Dear Diary, My name is Iara, and I am sixteen years old. I live in South America, in Brazil, and it is my entire world. You see, I hear of far-off places across the vast ocean, places with names like Britain and Africa and Portugal- I dream of these places. Of getting anywhere but here. I am third class in my colony, and life for me is not always easy. They call me a Mestizo, because Papa is from one of those far-off places, and Mama is from here; they call her an Indian. I don’t understand why this is any cause for distinction; why this makes it difficult for Papa to get a higher paying job, why this is the reason there isn’t always enough for me and my little brother, why the Portuguese and Creoles are any better than I am. Certainly, the world must be crazy. I try to do my best to understand everything, and when the things in my life don’t add up, I do my best to interpret why not. Mama and Papa don’t like it when I question the way things are. They tell me that I should be happy that we have a home and that Papa is employed overseeing farming, rather than doing the back breaking labor himself. Some, are not as lucky. Papa says that things are

49: changing all around the world, and that we need to brace ourselves for the future. He thinks that I don’t know about what’s going on in the rest of South America, but how wrong he is! Turmoil is flooding the world, and there is talk of bloody revolutions spreading like wild fire. My parents, they don’t want me involved in any of it, but when my little brother is in the town’s school and Mama is busy, she sometimes sends me to the market to buy food for the week. And boy, do the men there speak. They talk of men like Jose De San Martin and Miguel Hidalgo; revolutionists who have either faced bloody demise or have succeeded in liberating their very own colony. Talk like that excites me, makes me wish that I was a boy who was brave enough to fight for my rights. Miguel Hidalgo was a priest who fought for what he wanted, and the people of Mexico executed him! Honestly people must have taken him so seriously, especially if a nobody like me hears about him all these years later. In any case, the men of the market have had many loud and empowering talks while I have been there, and they talk about the most inspiring things!

50: Free rights for everyone, they talk of negotiating with Portugal (as we are, unfortunately not an independent colony) to make things fair for everyone, and not just the higher classes. They’ve even looked at me, a young woman! and asked me what my thoughts are on the matter. I stammered my response about wanting everyone to get along in peace and they laughed in my face. Sometimes I just act so childish! These men give me hope that I can help with a new change, though. They’ve noticed me standing around and listening and sometimes they ask for my opinion or advice. However, once, when it seemed I was becoming too interested, one of them, a boy no more than two years older than me, pulled me aside and gave me a warning. He told me that these men were creoles, and and they were merely involved in any idea of a revolution simply because their rights were in danger. He said that because of the way the government was set up now, they were being treated the same as us Mestizos, and they felt that they deserved their better, second class status. It was kind of a reality shock, in a way, but I was grateful nonetheless. I have no interest in these men taking advantage of me, especially if they have no intention on making

51: any progress on the rights that could help me and my family. Alas, Mama would have a fit if she knew how much I crave information about the world today! All I want to do is help, and surprisingly the news of bloodshed in the countries all around me does not frighten me; it leaves me with a certain excitement in my bones. If ever I get the chance to help, especially if it’s more than giving feedback to a bunch of spineless creoles in the market, you will be sure to know that I will do so. I can picture it now; word spreading of a sixteen year old girl who changed Brazilian history forever; independence and freedom for all! I can be a hero! For now, I will have to settle on helping Mama with housework and practicing my writing. The Portugese won't be in charge forever! One day this diary could be famous for the accounts of how Brazil became independent! Adios. -Iara | Diary Inspired by information from:

52: June 20, 1823 Dear Diary, A lot has changed in the time that I last wrote to you. I was just a little girl then, and now at 17 I find myself caught in a very strange world. In my old entries I used to write about dreaming to be a revolutionist, to rebel against the government that seemed so unstable at the time. And now it seems that I am, in fact, a part of our revolution. Even though the main ‘rebellion’ has already taken place. That’s right- us Brazilians have gained our so-called independence. The very word disgusts me. As I have mentioned before, Brazil once was a Portuguese colony. However, as of last year September the royal family decided to pay us a visit. For good. It seemed that the cowards fled the homeland in wake of Napoleon threatening their world, and so they decided to wreak havoc on the already unstable set up that is our lives here. They brought with them their son, Pedro, who was to become the head of our Colony, after we got our independence. So you see, despite the fact that we are no longer a Portuguese colony, it is still the Portuguese who are in charge. They are not fit to rule me, and thus I am now a rebel. I do not comply with the rules and I have gotten myself into some trouble. The creoles in my market place no longer share conversation about rebellion, they no longer wish to include me in their daily banters. It was naive of me to think that they would ever actually take action in doing what they talked so bravely about day after day, and in fact the one man who warned me was completely correct. A plus side to the royal family taking over Brazil completely is that the Creoles got their social status back; they no longer have to associate themselves with the third class Mestizos. They are no longer our strongest backers in the forever-present rebellion, and they are fools not to see how unstable the current form of government is. Greedy and ignorant, the fact that they turned their backs on us when we need them will

53: only make things harder in the future. Don’t they see that if the government can make things so hard on us, they can easily make their lives terrible as well? I fear for everyone's well being. What the creoles don’t see, and what they probably should is that they are not going to be treated as an upper class for much longer. As a result of Pedro declaring Brazil Independent and abandoning Portugal, there has been an uncalled for side effect. Thousands of the Portuguese people are flooding our country, my very own home and they are going to cause problems for us soon enough. The creoles don’t realize that with the growing population of first-class Portuguese, there are going to be fewer jobs for everyone and less status for everyone. This is Brazil, this is my home and it is being tarnished indefinitely! Speaking of fewer jobs, Papa sent word that he lost his overseeing the farm. The man who owned it said that with all the free labor that is flocking to our colony now, he had no need paying him. I do hope everything is going to be alright. I’m going to be realistic. I cannot be a fighter. I am a woman, and I am a Mestizo. But I am going to do everything in my power to first get us Mestizos the rights we deserve, and then make sure that those rights apply to all genders. I will not give up, even if it costs my life. -Iara | Diary inspired by information from: http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/309744?terms=Brazil%20Independence%20&webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=/Search/Display/309744%3fterms%3dBrazil+Independence+&token=B44F6BD0

54: May 16, 1824 Dear Diary, Things are worse than ever. It would be a lie to say that things have improved since I last wrote to you, when in fact things have gotten so much worse. The working conditions all across Brazil have been severely worsened, and every day I fear for my life. My Papa has been murdered, for the most absurd of reasons. You see, one of the land owners who lives in my town knew that Mama was an Indian, and he said that she should have to work because of it. As if anyone around needed more workers. Talk has spread like wild fire across Brazil, and it’s been estimated that more than half of us are enslaved, working for the higher class. The world has come to insanity. In any case, my father refused to let my mother work, despite the fact that our family was given many warnings. And so they killed him. Just like that. There was no law involved, no order and no penalty for the death of an innocent person. He wasn’t even Mestizo. My Mama is heartbroken, and without my father around for protection she is constantly afraid for her life and her wellbeing. As it is they have her working in Papa’s old position, but who knows how long she’ll stay safe?

55: I, myself, have been put to work in the fields. I am not as unlucky as those who drew the card of working mining our Brazilian wood; they endanger their lives every single day. The way that this government treats its people with such carelessness is sickening, and everyone is beginning to lose hope. I am starting to lose hope. I work in the cold, in the heat, in the rain and the sleet, endless hours. It could be worse, however. My own brother, he’s still such a young boy, he works in the sugar cane fields. Nobody cares how much danger they put our lives in, making the lower class do backbreaking labor all for free. Many Indians have lost all of their rights completely, and those who protest are slaughtered without second thought. The Portuguese care only for our exports of coffee, sugar and wood, they depend on our trade immensely. They don’t care about the people. I'm scared for my life, scared for what could happen if one day I decide to take my rebellion to the next level. I’ve withdrawn from my council of friends and allies, with whom I used to meet in secret twice a month. We wouldn’t plan major rebellions, things that could lead to blood and war. No, we would simply focus on protecting those who we could, keeping an eye on the people in our community who were struggling immensely. Now, even that, is gone. I fear for the future of Brazil. Four years ago I could not have predicted the harsh times that have come to fall upon the Mestizos shoulders; I could not have predicted that everything would take a turn for the worst. The only thing left for me to do is pray for freedom, or at least for the notion that one day things will improve. They can’t get much worse. I keep a fire in my heart, the idea of rebellion strong inside my head. One day, I’ll make it. I’ll show the world. -Iara | Diary inspired by information from: http://www.vbrazil.com/information/history/brazil-centuries-18-19.html

56: Dear Diary, December 3, 1807 As I have thought so deeply about the future of my country Portugal, I sometimes wonder how this will really end. Will Brazil gain the independence that they have just recently began to plead? Or will the strong Portuguese rulers be able to stand firmly and keep the colonists from revolting? This tragedy began when Napoleon, the French King, came into Portugal with anger towards our violation of his continental policy. A little frightened, our Portuguese King Joao brought all of his court and government, including officials like myself, to Brazil. Brazil is and has always been our main colony. As I have been informed, there was the Treaty of Tordesillas way back in 1494, nearly 400 years ago. This treaty was signed by Pope Alexander VI of Spain, proclaiming most of Latin America Spanish territory. Luckily for us Portuguese, Brazil was left in our name. It comes in handy in times like these when our own country is under attack and in need of somewhere to go. I like to call it another homeland. However, the comfortable feeling of home was not at all the mood of entering Brazil. Because I was a newcomer to the colony, there were many unfamiliarities and surprises.

57: I myself had never even been to Brazil before now. I had no idea what to expect of its people, but assumed that since it was our colony, it would be much like Portugal. Much to my surprise, it is nothing like Portugal. The population is rather mixed and not at all equal. There is an apparent distinction between classes, especially the Mestizos (the Spanish Indians) and the pure Portuguese. Only a small portion of the population is considered higher class, and they have more advantages in all aspects of society. However, nearly all of the population here in Brazil is Roman Catholic, and the higher status one has in the church, the higher they think of themselves in society as well. Since the high status colonists are mostly Portuguese, they go about as if they are simply Portuguese people living away from home. You can only imagine how these people acted when us real Portuguese came into Brazil. Here we are stared at as if we are foreigners, when it is our land to begin with. We even gave them their economy system, the captaincy system, where citizens make the colony and not companies. And their main economy regulator is agriculture. Brazil cultivates wood, sugar, and coffee, with the help of slaves. The slaves are mostly Mestizos, and if they refuse to slave, our government finds a way to get rid of them. Besides few tensions such as this between us and the Portuguese, all is fine for now. However I can tell that there will be a trauma filled ride ahead, and with Joo being such a stern king, this prediction will most likely be proved true. Sincerely, Alberto Dogaldo

58: Dear Diary, October 14, 1809 I correctly presumed that things would only get worse from here on out. The Brazilians are beginning to be angered by us. I suppose if I was in their position I probably would be too, but I can only support Portugal, to whom I am the most loyal. It has been quite a while now since we first arrived in Brazil. King Joao has made himself comfortable, changing parts of Brazil for the better. He brought back forbidden luxuries such as schools, mills, gunpowder factories, and printing presses. Also, as soon as we arrived he allowed foreign trade from the ports of Brazil, making it a high status colony. Though this act of kindness was clearly not for the good of the colonists, but for him and us to enjoy. I guess that is fine by me, but will his actions like this help the growing tensions between us and the colonists? We definitely do not want them to start a war for independence, which has been brewing ever since we showed up. In my honest opinion, it is only natural that colonists would want to be free, but I certainty do not want this happening.

59: As a government official, I need to be sure that Portugal has its say, and that Brazil is remains inferior. Currently, we seem to have vast power, which is very good. Joao has placed many restrictions on Brazilians, despite the novelties added to please himself. If there is any law at all which the colonists disagree with, Joo will make sure it is only strengthened. The colonists are scared by attacks, just to show them their place. Also, the slave trade was enhanced. It may seem harsh, but King Joao knows his duties. I have complete trust in him to do what is right for Portugal, to gain us all the strength that we need. Whenever the eager colonists begin to step up, we are quick to bring them down. They are inspired by the Spanish colonies around them which they watch rebel, and are in an especially raging mindset. For a while, they have been trying to create independent republics in Río de la Plata. It wasn’t long until we came into the area with intention to prevent just that, to prevent anything of Brazilian independence. Joao made sure that Portugal expanded well into Río de la Plata, successfully preventing their goal of independence. If a spark of freedom for Brazil starts, we can extinguish it within no time. I know my people of Portugal better than any. I work with them daily, and I am aware of the power that Joao possesses. With these strong advantages, there is no doubt in my mind that Portugal will be able to win this war. Whether there are battles or not, we can come through as the winning team, and this I know. Sincerely, Alberto Dogaldo

60: Dear Diary, November 23, 1822 I write this now with sorrow, for our absolute strength and strive to win has failed. Around 1810, we cowardly decreased some of the colonists taxes. This only proved that we were weak pushovers, the opposite of our goal appearance. Then in 1815, just 10 years ago, Napoleon left Portugal. However, we stayed in Brazil, more determined than ever before to win power and lessen the colonies freedom. We wanted to prove that we were not weak, despite the decrease in taxes. Much to my chagrin, Portugal became equal to Brazil, which was then named a kingdom. Though Brazil did not gain full Independence, we didn't have power over them either. Unfortunately, things only got worse when King Joao was demanded to return back to Lisbon, Portugal. He was needed for the parliament, and did not want to lose his status in his own country. I cannot blame him. He is such a prestigious man, how could he not want to return to his homeland to rule? This is true that he was needed to return, but we needed so very desperately in Brazil too. With no one else to turn to, Joao put his son Pedro in charge of Brazil. Having Pedro as a leader was a whole new experience. Along with my fellow Portuguese officials, I tried hard to continue the ways that we had survived as the superior before. However, being equal with Brazil allowed close to no opportunities for us to place restrictions on them. Pedro understood the colonists, and declared them independent. This was the day we had all been dreading. For over twenty years we have been struggling to stop Brazil from becoming independent, but now it has happened.

61: It was September 7, 1822. We had been fighting for so long, but Pedro was too good. He stood by the Ispiranga River, proudly. I can still picture him there. I felt distraught and deceived. Had all that I’d done thus far been useless? All of Portugal’s effort had made no difference? This is how it seemed at least, watching Pedro stand by the river, declaring "By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free." He shouted, “Independence, or Death!”. Nothing could stop them now. It was too late. We had tried long and hard, and truthfully I am proud of our people. In the end it seems like all was a failure, but we worked so perfectly in the beginning it is wrong to think we’re weak. As Portuguese, we know that we are powerful, strong. Yes, we may have lost this one battle for independence, but there will be more troubles to worry about in the future. As for now, I would like to say thanks to Brazil, for giving us the experience and for toughening our bones. From now on, we will win, without a doubt. Sincerely, Alberto Dolgado

62: April 21,1792 Dear Diary, Riots and fights are breaking out more and more very single day. My ancestors had told me all about the bad things that have happened since Pedro Cabral came and declared this land Portuguese property. I am sick and tired of all the things that they have done to us and i am finally going to stick up for myself and what i believe in. I believe that we should not be a colony of Portugal, but rather our own seperate country. I was only a young boy when i had heard that Napoleon's armies had came into Portugal in 1808 and as a result the Portuguese king Dom Joao (Joao VI) moved him and his court to Brazil.

63: At the beginning, we did not mind them and thought that it could ultimately benefit us, but as time went on more and more people were becoming disgusted with the movement and insisted that this was not the right decision. | We have started to realize that Joao VI regime is corrupt and hopefully we can get him out of this colony. Ever since i heard of the revolutions against Britain by their own colonies, i knew we could do the same thing. I look up to a man named Tiradentes who just yesterday, April 21, 1792, was executed because he had produced the first protest against Portugal.

64: I know that i can be killed and jailed and executed, but i believe, if i have enough people, that i will be able to do just what Tiradentes did and be even more successful. I hope to write in this journal soon and when i do i hope that i will bring good news. Sincerely, Jorge

65: September 8, 1822 Dear Diary, I am exhilalerated that Brazil has finally gained its independence! September 7, 1822 will be a day that i will never forget! My disgust in the government was getting worse and worse everyday. My belief that something could change started right when Joao VI came all the way over to this colony with his court due to the Napoleonic Wars taking place in Europe.Finally Joao VI has returned to Europe and we do not have his corrupt regime in place any longer. Although he produced schools and established new reforms he was still indeed, corrupt.

66: I started to gain supporters and people were beginning to believe in me. I have gained the respect of the people and i honestly think that i might have played a part in this government change. Luckily i didn’t have to witness bloodshed and start a war, but i firmly believe that if a war started and bloodshed was happening all over, i would right in the middle of it because that is how much i believed that we have to change our government.I thought that this colony that we reside on is the most important thing that Portugal had and they would do whatever it takes to keep it, but Portugal did not put up a big fight.Brazil is now a monarch and we are being led by Pedro I, who is Joao VI son. Whenever i have a conversation with someone i am speechless. I am so happy for what we have done and for what all of my supports have done that i am at a loss for words. Sincerely, Jorge

67: June 23, 1862 Dear Diary, As i look back on the 15 years that formed Portugal and Brazil to what they are today, i see all the rough and anxious times. Revolutions are being known for the huge amounts of bloodshed and war. For Brazil though, it is an exception.

68: Most revolutions have huge battles and are similar to that of the United States War of Independence, but for us, there was nearly no bloodshed. It was exactly 40 years ago when my life and my country's life would change forever. I am extremely proud of myself how i put my life on the line multiple times for my country. I hope that i have become a role model to those who need guidance in their life. I think that i have contributed to our country's success by my effort to voice my opinion and to get followers to believe in me.

69: I always looked up to my role model Tiradentes, and to think that he was the motivation for all of my supports is astonishing. Things are going great in Brazil right now, we are now a republic and there are no more riots and fights in the streets anymore. I hope that i have changed people's lives and i will never, ever, ever forget my supporters. This is the last time i will be writing in this diary. This diary has shown my opinion on issues all throughout my life. Goodbye. Sincerely, Jorge

70: September 21, 1820 Dear Diary, This past month has been very difficult for me because of the tension that exists between my country, Brazil, and Portugal. Brazil has been ruled by Portugal since the early 1500’s, and my people have had to live under their rule for too many years. Recently, the people of Brazil have had enough of the restrictions and the rules of this government. I have felt anger toward the government because they have taken my land and made me pay higher taxes. Because of these reasons, I am rebelling against the rule of Portugal and have joined with others for the cause of finding a way for Brazil to form our own government. When King Pedro, left Brazil to rule Portugal, I thought he would find a way to help Brazil but he has only created more problems. Under his rule my sugar cane plantation has been reduced in size because many people from a higher class in Portugal have been granted parts of my property. Now my plantation is so small that it is difficult for me to support my family. This land has been in my family for generations, and I was planning on my children living off this land for many generations. How much more land can they take from me? Not only have they taken my land but also taxes continue to rise and I don't know how I will be able to support my family. Just recently I have had to sell some of my possessions to put food on the table for my children.

71: My neighbors and I are angered by what is happening to our homeland and want our voice to be heard. We have held many town meetings about this situation and want Prince Dom Pedro to listen to our concerns. I believe he hears our cry for help, but we are not sure he will be able to do anything about it. Because we are planning to rebel against the government, I am concerned for myself, for my family and for my neighbors. We must think of ways to rebel without it hurting our families. My hope is that Prince Dom Pedro will sense our frustration and help us.

72: January 10, 1822 Dear Diary, Since September we have seen the tensions increase because the Cortes decided to abolish the Kingdom of Brazil and make all the provinces subordinate directly to Lisbon. We are getting discouraged, but we continue to plead with Prince Pedro to help us. His father, King Joao VI, wants Prince Pedro to return to Spain, but Pedro refused the Cortes’s order to return to Lisbon. This news is encouraging to us and we continue trying to find ways to rebel against the government. Part of the problem is that the Portuguese are taking away our rights, which divides us into classes of people. There was a time I felt I belonged to the middle-class, but because of the high taxes and much of my land taken away I have little money and see myself in a lower class of working people.After King Joao VI left for Lisbon many of us realized we had to do something to stop the disrespect and ways the government was taking advantage of us.

73: The people that had come from Portugal came with money and prestige and started to take advantage of anyone in our country. They took away much of my property and profited from my crops. This was happening to many people yet we found that we were not able to stop it. We were hard working middle-class citizens but found ourselves struggling to support our families.They also believe because of their wealth and position that we are not capable of governing ourselves. This is madness! I can stand it no longer and must find a way to rebel with my fellowmen.The liberal Portuguese come into our towns with their money and elite and superior attitude and make us feel inferior. They take our land and exploit our resources and we struggle to survive.

74: September 16, 1822 Dear Diary, So many things have happened in the last few months and finally we are seeing the results of our efforts! After seeing so many of our rights taken away, our land taken from us, and trying to survive on little money, I decided to join the revolution to make changes in our country before we completely lost our independence. Many of our townsmen joined the efforts of others in the city of Porto, culminating with the revolt of Lisbon. We demanded the immediate return of the royal court to continental Portugal in order to restore our dignity. We forced the return of the king and demanded a constitutional monarchy to be set up in Brazil. The Cortes wanted Prince Pedro to return to Lisbon, and he had to choose whether he was going to stay in Brazil or go to Portugal with his father. He had lived in Brazil for most of his life and wanted to stay with his people. Tensions were getting for high in Porto and in many of the areas throughout the country. Pedro didn’t know what to do. He even sent his family out of the city to make sure they would be safe. I did not want to cause any bloodshed but tensions were growing between the Portuguese troops and the Luso-Brazilians. We begged Pedro to refuse the Cortes’s order to return to Lisbon. He vowed to stay.

75: He swore with this oath, “By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free.” I had such respect for him because knew of our problems and he heard our cries for independence. A week ago, on September 7, 1822 Brazil declared it’s independence from Portugal and the new government was formed with Prince Pedro in a constitutional monarchy. He was called “King of Brazil” and Emperor of Brazil.” I knew being a rebel was putting my family and myself in danger, but I also knew I had to do something to fight for my rights. I appreciate Prince Pedro and his honorable act of helping his country, not only now but in the future.

76: August 25, 1821 Dear Diary, King Joao VI was ordered to return to Portugal this week. Its sad because he was giving us the hope of breaking free from Portugal’s rule. And now that he’s gone, we’re left with his son Pedro I. I’m sure he can follow in his father’s footsteps but its just sad to see a great ruler just get up and leave. But, that hope that King Joao VI instilled in both myself and all of Brazil will probably never leave. Because the community is still stirring with excitement and eagerness because of that new found hope. For a while now, we have been looking for hope like this. Because, for a while now, Portugal has been installing high taxes that some of us can not afford. Plus, if northern english colony could break away from England, England! then we can break away from Portugal. They were just a bunch of militia groups that were pulled together by a some leader. I’m sure if we find ourselves a great leader then we will be able to revolt and we will be able to have our own government, and our own economy, and our own country. But we not be able to find that leader, only time will tell. - “Independence of Brazil.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. ABC clio Brazil independence article

78: September 7, 1822 Dear Diary, Brazil has found its leader! Pedro I has proven time and time again that he has the ability to free Brazil. His words continue to course through my veins. All I can feel, hear, smell, and taste are his words, “Independence or death!” There will never be a greater day in Brazilian history than this one today. The day that Brazil rose up and took back our original territory from Portugal. The day that Brazil gains all of its pride. The day that Brazil becomes independent. This will be a day that stands out in all of history. Brazil has been united by one man, Pedro I. And for myself, I could not be more proud for my family, friends, and all of those who live in Brazil. I was always present in the crowds of people listening to motivational speeches. I was always there when Pedro was calling out the Brazilian people to stand up, which I did. And I was always there when a mob of people were making a march. I was there, rebelling against the Portuguese, I was there. But so were the rest of the Brazilian rebels. Either male or female, it didn’t matter. We were upset by Portugal, and we were not going to take it anymore. Many were united by one, this man was Pedro I. - “Independence of Brazil.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. ABC clio Brazil independence article - Dean, Warren. "1808–1889." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 699-705. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.

79: September 7, 1889 Dear Diary, This day, 67 years ago, was one of the greatest moments in Brazilian history. Now today, Brazil is wrecked with disagreement, small rebellions, and craziness. It started with Dom Pedro’s son, Pedro II. From the beginning of his rule Brazil began to go down hill. And now Brazil is on the edge of a revolution. And I have no choice but to fight against Brazil if the time comes. And its because of the fact that there are too many people fighting for power, No politician can agree with the constitution, and the government is just a wreck. Brazil is in a political strife and all the people of Brazil want, and have wanted, is to have a strong, stable, united nation. But so far, after Pedro I, nothing has gone well. And the only thing that Brazil can do now is either revolt or sit back and watch Brazil go into a time of chaos. Which nobody wants. I’m sorry, but I have to do it. Its something that’s got to happen to change the future of Brazil. - "independence of Brazil: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 1 Nov. 2010.

80: Page 6; Prologue, and Pages 56-61; Diary Entries Source Courtesies “Brazil.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Nov 2010. Print. Dean, Warren. “1808-1889.” Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 699-705. Gale World History in Context. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. Print. “Independence of Brazil.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/. Print. “Pedro I Declares Brazilian Independence.” Image. National Library of Brazil/Library of Congress. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. Print.

82: Epilogue After Joao VI of Portugal went back to Portugal in 1821, his son Dom Pedro (Pedro I) pushed for Brazil's independence until he gained it in 1822 and became Brazil's first emperor. Pedro I soon lost the support of the people and in 1831 gave power to his son, Pedro II. Pedro was one of the most popular monarchs of the time and ruled for 58 years, until 1889. During his rule, the economy did very well and slavery was abolished. However, a growing number of people wanted a republic and so because of a revolution in 1889, Pedro II was removed from the throne. A new constitution was written in 1890 and turned Brazil into a federal republic. Soon after the new government was started, there was a wave of dictators until a governor Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles began civilian rule in 1898. Then in 1900, there was a big demand for rubber and Brazil brought in a lot of money. Unfortunately, at the same time the price of coffee went down very much, which was not good for Brazil. Luckily, with the start of WWI in 1914, Brazil began exporting more and the economy picked up again. During the war, Brazil broke their connection with Germany and became and Allie, along with the United States. France, Britain, and the Soviet Union.

83: In 1922, there was another economy downfall, which triggered many labor strikes. Labor strikes were then banned 5 years later in 1927. There was a small break in revolt in 1934. This is because in 1934, women were given the right to vote and employees also got social-security benefits. Soon though, communists were starting revolts that were pro-Nazi. So in 1937, the President Getúlio Vargas got rid of the Congress, became a dictator, got rid of the political parties, and he also began to censor the newspapers and the mail. President Vargas had a good relationship with the United States and in WWII was part of the Allies. In 1945, a bunch of publishers went to Vargas and they persuaded him to calm down on the censorship and not to censor so much, to announce the results of the elections, and to overlook any past offenses of the political prisoners. In 1945, Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected the president and broke Brazil's connection with the Soviet Union. He also got rid of all communists for elected positions. Vargas was relected in 1951 and made a coalition government. He had to deal with inflation from WWII and an increase in underground communism. After an attempt to assasinate a newspaper editor that was Anti-Vargas, Vargas stepped down from his authority in 1954 and he committed suicide later that year.

84: During the 1950's. inflation rose again, causing the price of coffee to fall once again. Because of this, there was an increased amount of riots and strikes from the civilians. Economic reforms put in place by the government were not helping Brazil's inflation and son in 1964 there was military coup. IN 1968, the economy was doing better . However, many rights of the citizens were still being repressed. Then, in 1985, José Sarney was chosen by Brazil's Congress to be the president. In 1988, Sarney made a new currency for Brazil and a new constitution. But, fours years later, when Fernando Collor de Mello was elected president in 1989, Collor de Mello created such a strict economy plan, that Brazil went through it's worst recession in ten years. In 1992, Collor de Mello was impeached because of his corruptness. IN this same year, Brazil held the Earth Summit Conference, which was attended by representatives from 178 countries. The Vice President Itamar Franco took over the position of President when Collor de Mello was impeached. By 1994, just two years, Franco brought Brazil to an almost full economic recovery.

85: In 1994, Brazil declared to be free of nuclear weapons when they signed the Treaty of Tlateloco. Fernando Henrique Cardoso was also elected President that year and he aided in creating the Southern Cone Common Market Union with Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Cardoso was then relected in 1998, during hard economic times. The International Monetary Fund then gave Brazil $41.5 billion dollars as a bailout. | In 2003, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was elected President. Da Silve won the elction by alot bnut had many problems to face. He had to stabilize Brazil's economy while keeping foreign interests happy and without out ignoring his promises of social reforms. Da Slve did improve Brazil's economy but his administration began moving from the left side more towards the middle, making many of the promised social reform not as high priority.

86: Political Indicators | Since Brazil gained independence, there has been six different forms of government up to present day, while for the United States there has been one form of government for the whole time. The amount of changes in the Brazilian government reflect the revolution, because even at that time there was much debate on how to handle the country. The fact that the United States’ government has remained constant for this amount of time shows that it is much more stable and efficient then the many revisions that the Brazilian government has had to make.

87: This graph shows the corruption in government on a scale of 1-10, 10 being the cleanliest and fairest, while 0 being overrun with corruption. There is another wide berth between the corruptions in both countries, with the United States having a fairly clean record and Brazil having a lot of corruption issues. With such an unstable line of government in it’s history, it’s not a surprise that Brazil is still very corrupt.

88: This graph, although it looks different than the other three, shows the years where in both countries, women got the right to vote. While some may not think that this is an important detail, it seems significant that the two countries both granted the right within fourteen years of each other. One may have assumed that based on the way things were when Brazil first got independence that it would take much longer for woman’s rights to come into the picture.

89: While the two numbers for overall legal voters in each country have a wide berth in between their numbers, nevertheless both numbers show good signs for the countries. While the United States shows a larger amount of legal voters, Brazil also shows a fair amount. This detail is new since the revolution, and it shows hope that more people in Brazil got their equality and rights.

90: Social Indicators (Epilogue) | As a result of the Revolution of Brazil in 1889, Brazil has prospered and grown tremendously. Socially, women in Brazil enjoy the same legal rights and duties as men as stated in the constitution. Although the law prohibits discrimination based on gender in employment and wages, there were significant wage disparities between men and women. However, many women have been elected mayors and many women have been federal judges. The first female assumed office in the Senate in 1979. Women became candidates for vice president for the first time in 1994. The table below on literacy also provides subsequent information in supporting how the rights of women, ever since the revolution in 1889, have been increasing. statistics show that 88.4% of men and 88.8% of women can read. Pre-revolution, women were not educated and were considered unequal to men. This data, however, shows a distinct change in society. Besides women and society, its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic. Initially independent as the Brazilian Empire, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. This shows consistency in the government ever since the revolution, which has done its economy good, considering Brazil it ranks world’s 8th largest economy. Clearly, the revolution has had a major impact on what Brazil is like today.

91: Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Total population: 88.6% Male: 88.4% Female: 88.8% (2004 est.) | https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html

92: Photo Credits | -Page 6 ~http://www.edwud.com/2010/06/page/4/ ~http://www.nintendolife.com/forums/general_discussion/2010_fifa_world_cup_hype_thread?start=60 -Page 10 -Unkown. Portugal's Flag. 2002. Maps , Portugal. History of the World . By Unkown. New York: Mcgraw Hill, 2002. 345, 367. Print. -Page 12. "SeaScapes, Page 2." Welcome to Don Huntimer Art Gallery. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. . -Page 14 Unkown. Plantation. N.d. Times, America. time 8 July 1995: n. pag. Print. -Page 16 "Joao VI." Image. National Library of Brazil/Library of Congress. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. -Page 17 "Rio de Janeiro Bay in 1864." Image. Heade, Martin Johnson, Rio de Janeiro Bay, 1864. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.

93: -Page 19 "SeaScapes, Page 2." Welcome to Don Huntimer Art Gallery. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. . -Page 21 "flag of Portugal." Flag. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. -Page 23 "Pedro I." Image. Ridpath, John Clark, Ridpath's History of the World, 1901. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. -Page 25 "File:Empire of Brazil Map 1822.png." Wikimedia Commons. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. . -Page 25 "File:Domingos Sequeira - D. Joo VI.jpg." Wikimedia Commons. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. . Page 56 http://www.nintendolife.com/forums/general_discussion/2010_fifa_world_cup_hype_thread?start=60 Page 58 http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/p/m/176fd3/

94: Photo Citations Continued Page 59 “Pedro I Declares Brazilian Independence.” Image. National Library of Brazil/Library of Congress. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. Print. -Page 34 http://www.33ff.com/flags/XL_flags/Brazil_flag.gif -Page 36 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Francisco_de_Souza_Lobo_-_Retrato_de_Dom_Pedro_II.jpg -Page 38 http://www.royalark.net/Brazil/brazil-Dom%20Pedro%20I.jpg -Page 40 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Gran_Colombia_1820,_guerras_de_independencia_1821-23.jpg/300px-Gran_Colombia_1820,_guerras_de_independencia_1821-23.jpg

96: Bibliography | "Earth Summit Conference." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2010. "CultureGrams Online Database: Subscriber Area Only." CultureGrams Online Database: Subscriber Area Only. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. "Brazil." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

97: Lobo, Eulalia Maria Lahmeyer, and Zachary R. Morgan. "Since 1889." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 705-718. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. Dean, Warren. "1808–1889." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 699-705. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. "Revolutions in Latin America (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. Maxwell, Kenneth. "Brazil, Independence Movements." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 733-734. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.

98: "Independence of Brazil." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. Dean, Warren. "1808–1889." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 699-705. Gale World History In Context. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. "Brazil." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. "Pedro I." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. "Pedro II." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. "José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=782516142&sid=1&Fmt=1&clientId=29023&RQT=309&VName=HNP

99: Silva, Maria Beatriz Nizza da. "Joo VI of Portugal (1767–1826)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 36-37. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. "Joo VI." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. "Brazil." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 07 Nov. 2010 "Hausa Uprising." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. "Brazilian Antislavery Society." World History: The Modern Era.ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. Documents in World History, Volume 2 by Peter N. Stearns, Stephen S. Gosch and Erwin P. Grieshaber. Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Lecture 19 reading. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? 2004, The teaching company Limited partnership. Lecture 19 CD. Brazil: A Royalist Revolution? Tracks 1-6

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