FC: Visual Representation
1: "In 1863, Star Chief Connor had surrounded a camp of Paiutes on Bear River and butchered 278 of them " pg 104 This quote is an introduction to what is going to occur soon to the Indians who live on the land by Bear River. The army's goal is to conquer that land, and in the process of that they must kill the occupiers of that land.
2: "Our village crier, a man named Bull Bear mounted and rode to our camp and informed us that the soldiers were coming." Bull Bear was a Cheyenne Indian chief. He warned the Plain Indians to anticipate an attack by the Soldiers. There were many columns of soldiers that were coming to try to invade the Powder River Indian's land.
6: In-Summary The Cheyenne's of the Plain Indians started off their Summer medicine ceremonies by praying to their medicine arrows. The tribe was shocked when they heard rumors that soldiers were coming to attack them from multiple directions. Star Chief Connor had sent out 3 separate columns of soldiers to invade the land which the Sioux, Cheyenne and Waite Indians had lived on. Their sole purpose for fleeing their original homes to the Powder River was because of its absence of White settlers. Star Chief Connor's goal was to conquer this land by the Powder RIver and build a fort on it. James A. Sawyer traveled to Powder River to inform Cheyenne Indians that General Conner was planning to build a fort on their land. He had brought over 80 wagons of goods with him on this expedition. After Sawyers had reached the Powder River, he had sat down for a meeting with chiefs Red Cloud and Dull Knife . He discussed with them what his orders were, and when he realized that the Chiefs were angry with what he had told them, he offered them the goods from the wagons. No amount of tobacco, coffee, flour, sugar or gunpowder could persuade these chiefs to easily give up their land to the white men. The Plain Indians refused the offer and were also infuriated with this attempt to invade and conquer their land.
7: Don't think: Look! -Ludwig Wittgenstein | "You will not receive overtures of peace or submission from Indians, but will attack and kill every male Indian over twelve years of age." -Star Chief Connor Connor gave these orders to his commanders, then sent them out with soldiers for the Indians of the North | An officer said, "For many of the female portion of this band, did as brave fighting as their savage lords. Unfortunately, for the women and children, our men had no time to direct their aim. Squaws and children, as well as warriors, fell among the dead and wounded." These soldiers were not commanded to kill anybody over the age of twelve. Here, a soldier states that they had killed Native American children.
8: Continuous In-Summary These chiefs later accepted the goods given to them by the white men. They demanded more goods from them, but the white men refused. Their refusal persuaded the Indians to retaliate by firing on their corral. A Cheyenne Indian named Little Horse was traveling with his family across country and stopped by Tongue River to meet with Arapaho Indians. Little Horse had seen soldiers before reaching Tongue River. He warned these Indians, who were from his wife's original tribe, and they did not believe that soldiers were coming to attack. The next day the soldiers had came to attack the Arapahos and only some had time to escape before they were massacred. While the Arapahos who had gotten away in-time hid in the hills by the Tongue river, they watched the soldiers burn their homes and belongings. The soldiers had captured their pony herd and left the town with them. Connor's cavalrymen had then headed to the Powder River to meet with Sawyer. The Cheyennes were angry with more intruders coming onto their land. The Cheyennes ambushed the soldiers that were heading their way. The Soldiers camped on the Powder River in late August. Sioux men gathered a truce party within themselves to talk to the Soldiers in hopes of getting more goods from them. Their chief, Sitting Bull did not trust the soldiers and did not want his men to go, but he let them. The Sioux were fired upon by the soldiers when they got close to them. Sitting Bull wasn't shocked by their attack against peaceful Indians. Sitting Bull and the Sioux had revisited their camp, but this time it was to attack, not to make amends. This attack involved slowing down their transportation by killing their horses; this put many soldiers on foot. Red Cloud, Sitting Bull and other Indian leaders had traveled with guns to Fort Connor. Their goal was to hold the soldiers prisoner at this fort for the duration of the Winter. Holding them hostage here would cut off their supplies incoming from Fort Laramie. Most of the soldiers died of malnutrition and sickness. The Chiefs reminded their tribes of the harsh times they had suffered due to the white settler invasion so that they would not forget in-case that another invasion occurred in the future.
11: Literary Devices: Setting: "After returning to the Powder River County following the Platte Bridge fight, the Placino Indians began preparing for their usual medicine ceremonies." This shows that the setting is after the Platte Bridge fight during the summer at Powder River County.
12: Indirect Characterization: "In July, 1865, Connor announced that the Indians north of the Platte 'must be hunted like wolves' and he began organizing three columns of soldiers for an invasion of the Powder River Country." This shows that Connor is a harsh character. He shows great hate towards the Indians and wants them to be destroyed. | Literary Devices (cont.)
14: OH! What a Character! | Patrick E. Connor: A general. Surrounded a camp of Paiutes on Bear River and killed 278 of them. He also organized an invasion of the Powder River Country. He ordered his men to "attack and kill every male Indian over twelve years of age."
16: Red Cloud: Indian Chief, also called "Mahipiua-luta, of the Oglala Dakotas" | Oh! What a Character!
18: Historical Relevance
19: The Civil War ends of April 2, 1865. President Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14th, and Andrew Jackson becomes president. On December 18th of that year, slavery is officially abolished. On September 1st, Hunkpepa Indians tracking General Connors soldiers find the soldiers, starving and weak. They try to approach the soldiers under a truce flag, but the white soldiers shoot at them. After the run-in with the Honkpapa tribe, the soldiers flee southwest along the Powder.
21: In 1863 Star Chief Connor kills 273 Indians on Bear River. In 1865 he sets out with an army of white men, ordering them to, “Attack and kill every male Indian over 12 years of age”. A group of white gold seekers are found trespassing on Indian land in Montana. Yellow Woman, mother of William Bent is killed by rival Pawnee Indians who are assisting Chief Connor. Connor’s soldiers attack the Arapaho Camp, killing hundreds of Indians.
22: More Conflict!
23: The Pawnee tribe finds one of Connor’s columns full of sick and starving soldiers. Honkpapa Indians tred to approach white soldiers under a truce flag, and were shot at; they attack back. The soldiers had to kill their starving horses on their journey along the Powder, because they were too weak to walk. Many soldiers left Indian land, and half of those who stayed died during the cold winter
24: The End Thanks for reading! | Made by James Bucchieri, Aly Stoffo, and Sara Fischman
27: Go and walk with Nature; thou wilt find Full many a gem in her enchanted cup. -Isaac McLellan
32: As long as I live, I'll hear waterfalls and birds and winds sing. I'll interpret the rocks, learn the language of flood, storm, and the avalanche. I'll acquaint myself with the glaciers and wild gardens, and get as near the heart of the world as I can. -John Muir