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Canadian Internment Camps

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Canadian Internment Camps - Page Text Content

FC: Internment Camps in Canada

1: Table of Contents Early Immigration into Canada ----------------------------------------page 2 World War I ---------------------------------------------------------------page 5 Enemy Aliens - Internment World War I ------------------------------page 8 World War II -------------------------------------------------------------page 13 Enemy Aliens - Internment World War II ---------------------------page 16 References --------------------------------------------------------------page 23

2: Early Immigration into Canada

3: Since colonial times, Canada has been a nation of immigrants. Immigration has had an impact on our national identity, and our immigration policies have at times reflected changing perspectives on our national identity.

4: The decades prior to the First World War saw mass immigration of people to Canada. The immigrants that were eagerly welcomed to Canada came not only from Britain, but also from eastern European countries such as the Ukraine.

5: World War I

6: The first World War was set in motion when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, killedArchduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, on 28 June 1914. The assassination produced a domino effect. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia, seeking to gain influence in the Balkan region, rushed to defend Serbia. | Germany declared its intention to stand by its ally, Austria-Hungary and on August 1, 1914 declared war against Russia. On August 4, 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany. Canada, a dominion of Great Britain was automatically entered into the war.

7: When the first World War began, Canada was home to many people from the countries with which it was now at war. By 1914, as many as 100,000 people from German, Austro-Hungarian, Ukrainian, and Turkish origin were living and working in Canada.

8: Enemy Aliens - Internment World War I

9: Wartime rumours of invasion and supposed acts of sabotage raised the level of public hostility toward the "enemies within" and forced the government to take action. Robert Borden's (pictured above) government created the War Measures Act which gave the government the power to arrest and detain anybody suspected of being an enemy in the name of defence, security, and order. Enemy Aliens - people of German, Austrian, Hungarian, Ukrainian, and Turkish descent - in urban areas were forced to register with police, had to carry identification cards, and could not own a gun.

10: The unemployed were sent to 24 internment camps across Canada, where they worked in farms, mines, lumber camps, and steel mills, and in developing national parks. By the time the camps closed in 1920, two years after the end of the war, 6 enemy aliens had been shot and over 100 had died of various diseases while interned.

11: In all, more than 8500 people were interned during World War One, including approximately 5000 Ukrainians. Internment was not equal for all, with class and culture playing an important role in determining treatment. Wealthy internees lived in relative luxury, with families and servants, while others struggled, earning 25 cents per day.

12: Public opinion played a significant role in justifying internment. Before the war there was resentment of the new immigrants, who were seen as taking jobs of Canadians. The media created hysteria by portraying any accident as an act of sabotage. The hysteria resulted in government orders banning any publication in "enemy languages." As well, businesses were able to make up for labour shortages by using enemy aliens as low-cost workers.

13: World War II

14: On September 1, 1939, Hitler's armies invaded Poland. Thousands of tanks and 1.5 million soldiers attacked by land while German airplanes bombed Polish cities. After the invasion, Britain and France finally realized that appeasement was not working. On September, the two countries declared war on Germany. World War II had begun.

15: After World War I, the Canadian government had taken steps to make Canada more independent. | By 1939, Canada's foreign policy was no longer tied to that of Great Britain, as it had in 1914. This meant that Canada was not automatically included n Britain's declaration of war on Germany. Parliament met in a special session and, on September 10, 1939 declared war on Germany. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King announced this decision in a radio address to Canadians

16: Enemy Aliens - Internment World War II

18: During World War II, propaganda depicted Germans, Italians, and Japanese people as the enemy. Even before the, Canadians of Japanese decent had been subjected to discrimination, especially in British Columbia, where many had settled.

19: Internment camps were like prisons. The government seized Japanese-owned homes, property, and businesses and sold them at bargain prices - then used the money from the sales to pay the costs of keeping people in the camps | In 1942, Japanese Canadians who lived within 160 kilometres off Canada's Pacific coast were rounded up and transported to internment camps in the British Columbia interior or to farms on the Prairies.

20: More than 22,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of them born in Canada or naturalized Canadians, were forcibly moved "for their own safety."

21: Only about700 suspicious people who protested too loudly were ever identified as a potential threat, but the civil liberties of all were suspended until four years after the war ended.

23: References: Books Harding, C., Smith, T., Meston, J. & Yoshida, D. ( 2009). Perspectives on Nationalism. Don Mills, ON. Oxford University Press. Munro, E. & O’Neill, M. (Eds.). (2008). Understanding Nationalism. Whitby, ON. McGraw-Hill Ryerson. Websites http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca Scrase, Ernest / Library and Archives Canada / PA-203268 Tak Toyota / Library and Archives Canada / C-046350 Scrase, Ernest / Library and Archives Canada / PA-203271 http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/ http://archives.queensu.ca/Exhibits/archres/wwi-intro/canada.html http://www.aquilabooks.com/ephem/ephem.htm http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Castle_mountain_internment_camp.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Castle_mountain_camp_1915.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Japanese_internment_camp_in_British_Columbia.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arrivals.gif http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JapaneseCanadian-Confiscating-Boat.jpg http://www.najc.ca/thenandnow/experience1b.php

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Graeme Thain
  • By: Graeme T.
  • Joined: about 9 years ago
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About This Mixbook

  • Title: Canadian Internment Camps
  • Description of Internment camps in Canada during World War I and World War II.
  • Tags: canada, internment, world war
  • Published: about 9 years ago