FC: Anatomy of Eukaryotic Cells
1: TABLE OF CONTENTS: | 24-25. The Chloroplasts 26-27. The Cell Wall 28-29. The Cilia 30-31. The Flagella 32-33. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth) 34-35.The Cell Membrane 36-41. Relationships Between the Organelles 42. References | 2-3. The Cytoplasm 4-5. The Cytoskeleton 6-7. The Nucleus 8-9. The Ribosomes 10-11. The Nucleolus 12-13. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough 14-15. The Golgi Apparatus 16-17. The Vacuoles 18-19. The Lysosomes 20-21. The Centrio 22-23. The Mitochondria
2: The Cytoplasm | The cytoplasm is a clear liquid, found throughout the cell. It has the ability to move nutrients to organelles and throughout the cell. The cytoplasm obtains these nutrients by using enzymes to break down larger molecules. An analogy of the
3: cytoplasm is that it acts very much like an oceans, with land masses(like organelles) floating on it.
4: The Cytoskeleton | The cytoskeleton appears to be like rods, pipes, or ropes found throughout the cytoplasm. These rod structures give the cell its shape, strength, and the ability to move. In many ways the cytoskeleton acts like support beams found in a building, giving the building its strength and
6: The Nucleus | The nucleus is a simply a very large circle within the cell. It can be generally found in the middle of the cell. The nucleus main function is to control the DNA and contain it as well. It very much acts like the
7: brain of the cell.
8: The Ribosomes | The ribosomes are tiny dots that can be found throughout the cell.The best place to found these structures is on the Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough). The ribosomes synthesizes (creates) proteins to be used in cell or the body. Ribosomes acts like an assembly line by they assemble proteins.
10: The Nucleolus | The nucleolus look like squiggly lines, that are found within the nucleus. The job of the nucleolus is to synthesis ribosomal components, or in other words help create parts of ribosomes. Much like the ribosomes, the nucleolus is like assembly stations, where parts of the ribosomes are created.
12: The Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough | The Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough looks like loose strings with ribosomese(dots) on them, most commonly found next to the nucleas or close to it. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough preforms many jobs, such as to transport proteins in or out of the nucleus or outside of the
13: cell. It is also used as storage for proteins and is able to create proteins as well. As a result the endoplasmic reticulum is very much like a ship yard, where goods(proteins) are stored and transported.
14: The Golgi Apparatus | The golgu apparatus looks like flatten sacks, stacked on top of each other. These can be located closely to the the endoplasmic reticulum. The golgi apparatus functions is to sort, package, and transport proteins or lipids throughout the cell or out of the cell. These functions act like the a post office, where
15: mail is sorted and package and then transported to the correct person.
16: The Vacuoles | The vacuole looks like mis-shapen circles and are commonly the largest structure in the cell. As a result of being so large it is very simple to locate the vacuole, just look for the largest structure within the cell. The vacuole has
17: many functions, such as maintaining the shape and structure of the cell, stores nutrients that cell needs to survive and waste. So in many ways the vacuoles acts like support beams and a refrigerator.
18: The Lysosomes | Lyspsomes look like half spheres that has dots on them, located near the mitochondrion. Lysosomes are used to digest and destroy large molecules (giving it energy to function) or foreign substances. It is also able to recycles old or
19: damage organelles. An anaogly for this organelle would be a recycling plant and stomach acid.
20: Centrioles | The centrioles have a rod like structure, found in the nucleus. These rod like structures are used in cell division; they move to opposite sides of the cell causing it to divide. The centrioles are much like scissors, used to cut paper in half.
22: The Mitochondria | The mitochondria has a oval like shape and can be found throughout the cell. It acts very much like a power plants; giving energy to the whole cell and it also helps in cell death.
24: The Chloroplast | Choroplast has a circular shape, and within it there are 2 pairs of discs stacked on top of each other.These can gernally be found next to the the mitochondrion and the golgi apparatus. As a result of being only in plant cells, their job is to convert the energy of the sun into sugars and oxygen. Chlorplast act
25: very much like a generator, giving the cell and plant food to survive.
26: The Cell Wall | The cell wall is only found in plant cells, it is a clears wall that surrounds the whole cell. It can be found on the cells' surface. The cell wall is used to protect the internal components of the cell from the outside world and it also plays a role in maintaining the cells' shape as well. It has been said that the cell wall
27: acts like a sheild, protecting the cell from harmsul substances or organisms.
28: The Cilia | Cilia are shaped like circles with hairs coming out from sides, which are located on the surface of the cell. Cilia are used to transport substances around within the cell. This organelle acts like
29: a taxi; moving 1 substance to another location within the cell.
30: The Flagella | The flagella looks like human sperm, it is found on the outside of the cell. As a result of being located on the outside of the cell, it is used to move the cell within the body. The flagella acts like a moving truck; moving the cell to new locations.
32: The Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth | The endoplasmic reticulum smooth looks like loose strings with no ribosomes on it. This organelle can be found next to the endoplasmic reticulum rough. The endoplasmic reticulum smooth is used as a storage area for proteins that will most likely leave the cell.
33: It also hold the ability to create small molecules and break them down as well. Much like the endoplasmic reticulum rough, it acts like a highway and a another storage unit for the cell.
34: The Cell Membrane | The cell membrane is like wall with gates built in so ian, molecules, and water can pass in and out of the cell. This can be found on the outer most part of the cell. The cell membrance is used to protect the internal cell and
35: to allow specific molecules to enter and leave the cell. This organelle acts like a sheild; protecting the niterior of the cell and a gate; allowing molecules to enter and the cell.
36: Oranelle Relationships | Cytoplasm- Used to keep most of the organelles in one spot Cytoskeleton- it will keep organelles in their places and keep the cell membrane or wall from collapsing in on itself Nucleus- The DNA in the cell will transform into RNA then to amino acids; to be made into proteins by the ribosomes
37: and stored in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough and Smooth. Ribosomes- make proteins from mRNA which comes from the DNA which is found in the nucleus Nucleolus-helps to create the Ribosomes, which will later create proteins used in the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough-Delivers proteins throughout the cell that will be used to
38: build structures inside the cell. Golgi apparatus-it will sort and transport proteins created by the endoplasmic reticulum rough throughout the cell Vacuoles-Keeps the rest of the cell from being contaminated, helps the cell wall or membrane in keeping the cell shape Lysosomes-After digestion
39: of the organelles they are returned to the cytoplasm to be reused Centrioles- It causes meiosis, allowing the cell to produce a copy of itself Mitochondria- It will react with the lysosomes to convert chemical energy to ATP, so the cell can use it for energy Chloroplasts- Gives the cell food(sugars) to be made into
40: energy so the cell can function Cell Wall-Allows certain ions, glucose, and water to give the rest of the cell energy and its electric charge Cilia- Moves substances such as chemicals around the cell that are necessary for chemical reactions within the cell Flagella-To move the cell around the body to transport
41: products produced by the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth-Gives energy to the cell, and store proteins that will help build the structure of the cell and other structures outside of the cell Cell Membrane- Allows certain ions, glucose, and water to give the rest of the cell energy and its elelctric charge
42: References | http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_vid_nucleus/ http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_vid_organelles/ http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_vid_organelles/ http://www.nsf.gov/news/overviews/biology/interactive.jsp http://www.hippocampus.org/course_locator?course=AP Biology I&lesson=8&topic=2&width=600&height=454&topicTitle=Cellular%20Organelles&skinPath=http://www.hippocampus.org/hippocampus.skins/default http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_vacuole.html http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_cytoplasm.html http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_centriole.html http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_chloroplast.html http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookcell2.html#Ribosomes