S: All about Cells: The story of what a cell is made of.
BC: Summary: Cells are very intricate, and have many peculiar features about them. In this selection you will learn what makes up a cell.
FC: All about Cells: The story of what a cell is made of.
1: Cell membrane: Thin, double layer consisting of fatty lipids and protein that separates the cell interior from it's surroundings. Outer most layer of animal cells. Controls what goes in and out of cells. The cell membrane is like the police, it controls what takes place in the cell. | Cell Wall: Prokaryotic cells and plant cells both have a rigid cell wall made up of polysaccharides. The cell wall provides and maintains the shape of these cells and serves as a protective barrier. The cell wall is like human skin because it protects the cell and doesn't let any pathogens in. | Cytoskeleton: A collection of fibers that gives a cell shape and support and allows movement within the cell and, in some cases, by the cell as a whole. The three main types of cytoskeletal fibers are microtubules, act in filaments and intermediate filaments. The cytoskeleton is like a house frame, it creates the support and structure of the cell.
2: Nucleus: Stores DNA, serves as the cells control center. A nucleus is found in all cells. The nucleus of a cell is like the president, they both are the control center and run what happens. | Nucleolus: Prominent structure in the nucleus, produces ribosomes which move out of the nucleus to positions onto the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleolus is found in all types of cells. The nucleolus is like workers in a factory, they produce the ribosomes and always repeat the process. | Ribosomes: Builds proteins according to RNA instructions. Links the corresponding amino acids together into a protein chain. Typically made of 50 proteins. Ribosomes are like a factory, because it creates what the cell needs.
3: Cytoplasm: The material found between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. It includes the cytosol and all organelles. It is found in both animal and plant cells. The cytoplasm is like the atmosphere because the atmosphere contains everything inside of it like cytoplasm contains all the organelles. | Mitochondria: Small compartments partitioned by membranes and found exclusively in complex cells. Power plants of the cell, because their main job is to create energy. They are highly unusual, they have their own genetic material. Mitochondria is found in animal and plant cells. | Vacuoles: Membrane bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular release products. Small in animal cells, big in plant cells. Cells use these to store stuff, usually water. Cells are like water towers because they collect water.
4: Endoplasmic Reticulum: Found in complex cells, parts of the ER are studded with ribosomes. Proteins that require special conditions or are destined to become part of the cell membrane, are processed in the ER and then handed off to the Golgi apparatus. The endoplasmic reticulum is found in both animal and plant cells. The endoplasmic reticulum is like highways because it transports things everywhere. | Golgi Apparatus: Functions as a cellular post office, protein that arrive there are sorted, packaged and transported to various locations in the cell. The golgi apparatus and ER work together to transport proteins.
5: Chloroplasts: Found only in plant cells, contain chlorophyll that provide the green color. They have a double outer membrane. Chloroplasts create the energy for the plant cell. Chloroplasts are like solar panels because they take in sunlight and create energy for the cell. | Cilia: A hairlike projection from a cell surface. The rhythmic beating of cilia can move fluid or mucus over a cell or can propel single celled organisms. Cilia are shorter than flagella. Cilia is like a taxi because it transports stuff around the cell. Cilia and flagella work together. | Flagella: A long, tail like structure extending from a cell. Sperm and many microorganisms move using flagella. Flagella is like a bus, they both transport organisms around and a bus is large like flagella is.
6: Centriole: Only found in animal cells, pair of small organelles, each made up of a ring of nine groups of microtubules. They are 3 fused microtubules in each group. The two centriole's are arranged so that one is perpendicular to the other. Centrioles are like straws because they let one thing in one end and let it out the other end. | Lysosome: Common in animal cells, contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion. Lysosomes are like garbage disposals, they get rid of all the waste and debris inside of the cell.
7: Reference page: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter1.html http://www.nsf.gov/news/overviews/biology/interactive.jsp