S: Cell City
BC: DON'T PANIC AND VISIT US SOON | <<<<
FC: Jessica Cui Sam Price Tiffany Xu | Cells
1: 2011 | Cell Theory The way we live 1. All living things are made of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure & function in organisms. 3. All cells arise from existing cells.
2: He declared that all living things are composed of cells and cell products that are reproduced. Plus, he discovered Schwann cells, pepsin, organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism. | Four Founding Fathers | Theodor Schwann
3: He is the co-founder of the Cell Theory. Also, he sensed the importance of the nucleus as it had a connection with the activity of cell division. | Robert Hooke called the cell structure a cell because of the patterns that resembled a place a monk would be confined in. Also, he discovered plant cells because he noticed a cell wall that didn't exist in animal cells. | He updated the work of Schwann. Also, he was the first to demonstrate that the cell theory applied to disease tissue and healthy tissue. | Robert Hooke | Rudolf Virchow | Mathhias Schleiden | He quoted "all plant parts are made of cells."
4: Prokaryote | Prokaryotic cells are the simplest of all cell forms. A nucleus complex and many organelles are not a part of prokaryote organisms. This causes this type of cell to be smaller than a eukaryotic cell. While animal cells lack a cell wall, all prokaryotic cells have the benefit of it. Examples of single-celled organisms are protozoans and bacteria. Prokaryotes do not contain the most of the organelles that an eukaryote cell has. The cell division is binary fission. | PROKARY TOWNS
5: Eukaryote | Eukaryotic cells make up multi-cellular organisms such as creatures in the kingdoms: animal, fungi, plant, fungi, and some protists. With more organelles than prokaryote cells, this enlarges the size of an eukaryote cell. The cell division and/or reproduction of the cell is called mitosis. | Cell City is a eukaryotic city, meaning it contains a variety of attractions and crucial parts that allow us to live properly and in control. | EUKARY CITIES | PROKARY TOWNS | ORGANELLES INCLUDED -nucleus complex -lysosomes -golgi complex -endoplasmic reticulums -mitochondrion -chloroplasts (in plant cells) -cell wall (in plant cells) -carbohydrates -cytoskeleton
6: ANIMAL CELL | Although plant and animal cells contain some of the same organelles, a variety of organelles in each cell differ from each other to make the distinct difference between animal and plant cells. | Animal cells are irregularly round in shape, does NOT have a cell wall, or contain chloroplasts. Unlike plant cells, animal cells always have cilia, centrioles, and lysosomes.
7: PLANT CELL | Plant cells have the support of a cell wall, chloroplasts to make their own food, and larger vacuoles that those from animal cells. Lysosomes are not present but there are instances of cilia, centrioles, and plastids.
8: Nucleus | DESCRIPTION The nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Within it, it includes chromatin (form of chromosomes) and the nucleolus. All genetic information of an organism is stored in the nucleus. FUNCTION Since the nucleus is the control center of the cell, it regulates the process of DNA replication and all the functions of the cell. | Here in Cell City, the town hall regulates all rules and controls the organization of the common people.
9: Cell Wall | DESCRIPTION ONLY FOUND IN PLANT CELLS. The rigid, tough layer outside the cell membrane is called the cell wall. Because of the fixed shape, plant cells are usually rectangular. The cell wall is formed during cell division. FUNCTION Unlike animal cells, a cell wall provides the plant cell with extra strong structure and protection. Cell walls can control the "swelling up" of a plant cell (water pressure). TYPES Primary Cell Wall: stretchable Secondary Cell Wall: grows around the primary cell wall. | Cell Wall | This city will never go bare without the super powerful defense that we provide.
10: A Picture is Worth 1,000 Words | DESCRIPTION Lysosomes are small, spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes. When confronted with old, used-up organelles, food particles, or viruses/bacteria, an enzyme called Hydrolase will break them down. | Lysosomes | Cell City never fails to uphold a clean environment that everyone will feel comfortable living in. LYSOS Waste Management provides number one service in getting rid of debris, garbage, and waste. | FUNCTION Lysosomes break down unwanted waste products and cell debris so that the rest of the cell won't be disturbed or destroyed by these specimens. Without lysosomes, a cell could easily die because of an overflow of unwanted or harmful materials.
11: Cherish The Ones You Love | Cytoskeleton | DESCRIPTION The cytoskeleton is literally the "skeleton" of the cell. It is composed of three types of filaments (slender fibers) : microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. If not for the cytoskelton, the cell would not have a definite shape or anything to keep the organelles in place. | FUNCTION The cytoskeleton is responsible for giving structure and support to the cell and for allowing it to move. | The infrastructure and city grid keeps the town organized and structured.
12: Ribosomes | DESCRIPTION Ribosomes are miniature "protein factories." Each cell contains thousands of ribosomes to provide the cell with energy. In order for ribosomes to produce proteins, it follows a sequence to assemble a set of amino acids. | TYPES Stationary type: stuck onto the rough endoplasmic reticulum Mobile type: Releases proteins directly into cytoplasm | FUNCTION When in demand of proteins, DNA use RNA to tell ribosomes to conduct protein synthesis. With proteins, the cell can use these forms of enzymes to convert energy into useful energy for the cell to survive and function properly. | Need energy? Visit our reliable and trusted meat factory to gain all the necessary nutrients to survive.
13: Mitochondria | DESCRIPTION The mitochondria is the second largest organelle in a cell. It's structure consists of a double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae. Chemical reactions occur on the cristae when enzymes from the matrix are present. FUNCTION -Converts chemical energy into usable energy like ATP's. - Controls level of water and other materials in cell - Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, | POWER PLANTS OF CELL CITY | Power Plants of CC Cell City has efficient power plants that generate all sorts of energy from waterfalls, the sun, and the wind. | Mitochondria Diagram
14: Golgi Apparatus | DESCRIPTION 'Packaging plant' that stores, modifies, and secretes proteins. - -A membrane-bound structure found near nucleus. - -Composed of numerous flat layers forming a sac. FUNCTION -When proteins and lipids from the ER's are sent to the Golgi complex, the macromolecules are further inspected and packed ready to be sent out to other cells that may need the energy. | Golgi Apparatus Diagram | GOG Packs Enterprise triple- checks it's labels and addresses so that the delivery of your items/messages are in the best hands.
15: CHLOROPLAST | DESCRIPTION ONLY IN PLANT CELLS. Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis in plant cells to produce energy useful to the cell. This organelle has two membranes as "gates" to keep intruders out and reactants in. They reproduce by the division process of cells. FUNCTION With water, CO2 and the energy from sunlight, chloroplasts convert these products into sugars. | In need of fresh food that is made organically and naturally? Farm fresh of Cell City has the best foods that create themselves from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide.
16: Endoplasmic Reitculum | DESCRIPTION - Tubular network connected to nuclear membrane - Goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane FUNCTION -Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system. TYPES - Smooth type: lacks ribosomes. Main function is to provide surface area for the enzymes to work on and synthesize lipids. - Rough type: ribosomes on the surface create proteins that can be given to the RER for further processing. | Cell City's delivery system and high ways provide room, space, and quick service for transporting goods.
17: DESCRIPTION - Usually in the form of chromatin -Organized structure containing DNA and protein. -Inside, there is a single piece of coiled DNA that includes genes, regulatory sequences, and nucleotide sequences for reproduction or protein synthesis. -Each species has their own set of chromosomes. FUNCTION Chromosomes are responsible for carrying out genetic information for reproduction of cells. Also, sequences in DNA are given to RNA to tell ribosomes how to make proteins. | Chromosomes | Visit the archives of Cell City for information on anything you need to fulfill a duty or learn something new.!
18: Cell Membrane | Under the rigid cell wall lies a flexible, lipid layer called the cell membrane. The cell membrane protects the gooey and very vulnerable insides. Its like the police of our cell city, it protects its citizens from harmful things. It helps keep the town safe and perfect in homeostasis. Animal However, animal cells do not have the extra protection from a cell wall. The cell membrane is the only part separating the cell from the outside world. This cell membrane is made of lipids and proteins and is selective about the molecules it lets in. | Plant
19: Homeostasis | Homeostasis is a state in which everything within the cell is in equilibrium and functioning properly. For the cell to stay alive, homeostasis is the key. The cell membrane is the main organelle that maintains homeostasis by keeping unwanted specimens out of the cell and taking in nutrients that would benefit the cell. This barrier proves to be one stage that allows the cell to function properly without disturbance. | Cell city is in harmony when all components are working efficiently without major problems. As everything works, communicates, and helps each other, Cell City is in homeostasis.