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Cell Project

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Cell Project - Page Text Content

S: Pokemon Cell Adventures

FC: Pokemon Cell Adventures by Sneha, Huixi, Shannon, and Srija

1: This book is dedicated to our awesome biology teacher, Mrs. Parker. Thank you for working hard everyday! | SMILE!! :DD

2: Ishall Ketchum was wandering around in the Kanto Region when he saw a sick Mitochondria lying by the pavement. He immediately carried it to Professor Oak. | "Oh, that's a Cell Pokemon. It's a new type of Pokemon that four researchers have found. Can you help me do something?" Professor Oak asked Ishall while inspecting the sick Pokemon. | "Sure I'll help you!" Ishall replied, shocked but happy. "Well, I want you to collect data on the new Cell Pokemon for me on the Pokedex. Your mission is to travel around, catch Cell Pokemon, learn about them, and maybe even talk to the four researchers who found them" Professor Oak explained. "OK!!" Ishall said, trying to keep the excitement out of his voice. "Your brother, Ash, would be very proud of you if he wasn't exploring the Isshu, or you can call it the Unova, Region right now. Don't worry. I'll tell him" the professor beamed.

3: After a while, Professor Oak handed Mitochondria to him. "She seems to like you. She wants you to be her trainer. I guess I don't have to give you a starter now huh?" Professor Oak winked. Ishall received Mitochondria with a look of wonder. "Now here are some Cellballs for you to use, a Pokedex, a Basic Guide for Pokemon, and a map. Mitochondria can just go with you without a ball. She doesn't appear to like them much. It's time to begin your adventure!" The professor continued, grinning from ear to ear.

4: As Ishall and Mitochondria started to travel, Ishall suddenly remembered that he hadn't learned and collected data on Mitochondria yet, so he stopped and pointed the Pokedex at Mitochondria. "Mitochondria. Mitochondrion have 2 membranes (outer is smooth & inner is gently folded to form cristae- where sugar combines with oxygen to make ATP) and forms 2 compartments (one inside and one outside the inner membrane). It uses organic compounds to make energy (ATP) and it also makes some of its own proteins by using the free Ribosomes in its cytosol, which is like the power-house of the cell. Mitochondrion can be classified as either Plant or Animal Cell Pokemon."

5: Pocketing the Pokedex, Ishall tried to move forward, only to find his path blocked by a weird Pokemon. He concluded that since he has never seen it before, it must be another Cell Pokemon that he was supposed to collect data on and catch. Once again he took out the Pokedex and pointed it at the creature. "Ribosome. Ribosomes are cellular structures where proteins are made. They are composed of RNA and protein, the site of protein synthesis, and arrange the strands of amino acids for other parts of the cell and the body to use. They are found in cytoplasm, but can be attached to other organelles as well. Ribosomes are classified as either Plant or Animal Cell Pokemon." | Putting the Pokedex away, Ishall's hand came out with a Cellball. "Go Mitochondria! Mitochondria, use ATP Storm on that Ribosome!" Ishall yelled, cheering his Pokemon on. BOOM!!! The Ribosome collapsed! Seeing this, Ishall threw his first Cellball to catch his first Pokemon. Wiggle, wiggle, wiggle... Click. Widening his eyes, Ishall realized that he had finally caught his first ever Pokemon after ten long years of waiting. After seeing Ash battling with his Pikachu for 6 years.

6: Taking his newly caught Ribosome, he quickly started traveling again. On his way into the Veridian Forest, he spotted another Cell Pokemon hiding by the trees. Ishall took out his handy dandy Pokedex, and pointed it once more at the pokemon. "Chloroplast. Chloroplasts use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water during photosynthesis. Not only are they found in plants, but in eukaryotic algae as well. They supply much of the energy needed to power the activities of plant cells. Chloroplasts are surrounded by 2 membranes, which contain their own DNA. They also contain chlorophyll which give leaves their green color. They are classified as Plant Cell Pokemon." Without me telling Mitochondria, she immediately lunged at Chloroplast, and scratched it.

7: Ishall threw another one of his Cellballs at the new Cell Pokemon. Click. Suddenly, there was a snapping sound behind him. Turning around, he found himself face-to-face with a freaky dude in a labcoat. "Who are you?" Ishall asked. "I am Robert Hooke. The mighty discoverer of cells! I want that Chloroplast that you just caught! I must research it. If i win a battle against you, you must give me the Chloroplast. If you defeat me, I will reward you with knowledge and my most prized Pokemon.Do you accept? Or are you too chicken?" Ishall accepted without a second thought.

9: Shooting Mitochondria a sorry look, he released Ribpsome from his Cellball. Dr. Hooke sent out a Cell Pokemon that Ishall had never seen before. Taking out his Pokedex, he scanned the new Pokemon. "Nucleolus. Nucleoli are round & spherical. They produce subunits which form ribosomes. 50% of the Nucleolus is involved in RNA synthesis and the other half takes care of proteins. Nucleoli are made up of granular and fibrilliar components. The size of the nucleolus can vary based on the number of ribosomes that the cell requires. They are classified as either Plant or Animal Cell Pokemon." Ishall shouted out, "Protein Fury Attack!", while Dr. Hooke yelled "RNA Confusion!" The two attacks met with a rumbling BOOM! After the cloud of dust dissipated, Nucleolus looked extremely tired. Ribosome immediately attacked Nucleolus with Amino Acid Surf, and with that, Nucleolus collapsed. "Unbelievable!" Dr Hooke exclaimed with shock. "This is the first time I've been beaten so easily! "Thank you..." Ishall said skeptically. "Now here are your rewards." Dr Hooke said, handing him the now-recovered Nucleolus. "Now, for the knowledge, I am an English scientist that first used the term 'cells' to describe the units in plant tissue. The word cell is from the Latin word cellula which means small compartment. " the scientist explained patiently. | "All cells have something called ht cell membrane. It acts as a thick layer of protection between the nucleus and outer layer of a cell. It’s main function is to maintain homeostasis, but it also keeps all parts of the cell in order and in function.I also published a book with all my findings in it. It's called Micrographia. You should read it in your spare time. Must dash!" Dr. Hooke ended, leaving with a little wave.

10: Staring after the weird scientist, Ishall reached for his newest addition and released him. Nucleolus appeared glowing intensely. With a sudden surge of power, Nucleolus started to transform. After he finished, Ishall took out his Pokedex again. "Nucleus. Nuclei are membrane-bound organelles which contain the cell’s DNA and have a roles in regulating growth, metabolism, and reproduction. They control most of the functions of a eukaryotic cell. They also are surrounded by a double-membrane called the nuclear envelope. DNA and chromosomes are also in the nucleus. Nucleus is the evolved form of Nucleolus. They are classified as either a Plant or Animal Cell Pokemon."

11: "Yes!" Ishall shouted, pumping his fist up and down, jumping in joy at his newly evolved Pokemon. Ishall continued on his journey for Professor Oak. The next few days were very boring for him, since nothing could be found, until one particular day when he arrived at the Orange Islands. Out of the palm tree, a Cell Pokemon jumped out at Ishall, scaring him half dead. Shakily taking out his Pokedex, he scanned the Pokemon and the electric voice started to speak. "Lysosome. Lysomes are small, spherical organelles located in the cytoplasm. They contain cell’s digestive enzymes. They digest and recycle the cell’s used materials and the cell’s waste. They break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates and attach to other substances that need to be broken down. They are classified as either Plant or Animal Cell Pokemon." | With his hopes brought back up, he ordered Nucleus to use DNA Infusion. The unsuspecting Lysosome collapsed upon one hit. Ishall then continued on his journey when he met another man, Dr. Schleiden. "Oh! Umm, who are you?"

12: "Hello, my name is Matthias Jakob Schleiden. I am a German botanist and co-founder of the Cell Theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolph Virchow. I concluded that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant arose from a single cell. I declared that the cell is the basic building block of all plant matter. This statement was the first generalizations concerning cells. I investigated plants microscopically and conceived that plants were made up of recognizable units, or cells. A year after I had published my cell theory on plants, my friend Schwann, who you will probably meet soon, extended it to animals, thereby bringing botany and zoology together under one unifying theory."

13: Ishall, confused, asked, "So what exactly is the Cell Theory?" Schleiden said, " The Cell Theory is: 1.All living things are made of cells. 2.Cells are the basic units of life. 3.Cells come only from other cells. And I must leave you now, so I shall leave you with a gift. Use her wisely..." Schleiden handed Ishall a Cellball, winked, and started back on his own journey. Excited, Ishall released his gift and scanned her with his Pokedex. "Cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletons are the interior frameworks of an animal cell. They are networks of fiber held down by a plasma membrane. Cytoskeletons contract and expand to help a cell's organelles move as well as the cell itself. They are made up of microtubules, filaments, and intermediate fibers. They are classified as an Animal Cell Pokemon.

14: Ishall reluctantly put his gift away and continued on his mission. While stopping in a freezing, mountainous place, he spotted an old man near a fire. Hurrying over to catch a hint of heat, he asked the old man if he and his Pokemon could share the warmth. Nodding, Ishall released all his Pokemon from their Cellballs. The old man exclaimed "Cell Pokemon! I helped discover them! I'm Theodor Schwann. I had the same conclusion as Schleiden about animal tissue being composed of cells, ending speculations that plants and animals were fundamentally different in structure. I described cellular strucures in animal cartilage and pulled existing observations known as the Cell Theory today and concluded that the cell was the most basic unit of life." "Brrrrrr... It's freezing out here in the mountains at night.." Ishall stammered. "My mom once told me something about homeostasis. She didn't really explain, so I was wondering if you could tell me."

15: "Ahh.... Homeostasis is the way the body functions to maintain a stable internal environment. For cells, it is a necessity in order for cells to reproduce. The way homeostasis in a cell works is that waste is carried out of the cell while nutrients are brought in.The cell membrane is the main part of a cell that works to maintain homeostasis. The cell membrane protects the main working parts of a cell from things that might disturb the process of a cell’s homeostasis by only allowing things that might not harm a cell’s homeostasis into the cell. Also. if there is too much of a certain substance in a cell, the cell membrane lets go of some of it to permeate and leave the cell to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is permeated through 3 processes: diffusion, osmosis, and filtration. Diffusion reduces the concentration in a cell if the level of concentration is too high. Osmosis allows water into the cell membrane to maintain an equilibrium with a cell and its environment while filtration is the movement of water through the cell membrane because of pressure from the circulatory system. You are a very knowledgeable young man with very good Pokemon. I shall present you with two more Cell Pokemon that you can add to your team," Dr. Schwann said, handing him two Cellballs.

16: Ishall, impatient as he was, released both Pokemon and pointed his Pokedex at the first one. "Endoplasmic Reticulum. Endoplasmic Reticulum, also known as the ER has both a smooth rough ER (without ribosomes) & a rough ER (with ribosomes). It is an extensive system of membranes. Their job is to transport proteins around the cell with membranes made of a lipid bilayer filled with proteins. They synthesize and package the proteins to be used in the cell or outside the cell. They are classified as either a Plant or Animal Cell Pokemon." Swiveling around, Ishall turned toward the second one and scanned her with the Pokedex. "Golgi Apparatus. A Golgi Apparatus is a set of flattened, membrane-bound structure with a single membrane. It is a 'membrane-bound vesicle'. It packages macromolecules for use in other parts of the cell. It is classified as either a Plant or Animal Cell."

17: Turning around to thank Dr. Schwann, Ishall saw another man standing behind Dr. Schwann. They were communicating with their eyes, when Ishall turned around. Seeing that Ishall had noticed them, the man introduced himself. "I am Rudolph Virchow, a German pathologist, archaeologist, anthropologist, and the founder of cellularpathology. I took Brown's original description of nuclei and the observations by Karl Ngeli on cell division. This helped me add a third tenet to the cell theory: 'Omnis cellula e cellula', or that all cells develop only from existing cells. I was the first to demonstrate that the cell theory applies to diseased tissue as well as healthy tissue, and that diseased cells derive from the healthy cells of normal tissue."

18: "I remember that once when I was young, I was at Professor Oak's and he was talking about Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. I didn't get much at the time, so would you explain to me their differences and similarities?" Ishall asked the new scientist. "Prokaryotes are typically 0.2-2.0 micrometers in diameter, and have no nuclear membrane or nucleoli (nucleoid). Its organelles are not membrane-enclosed. The flagella( the tail-like thing that helps the cell move) consists of two protein building blocks. The glycocalyx is present as a capsule or slime-layer. The Cell Wall is usually present and is chemically complex (typical bacterial cell wall, the plasma membrane includes peptidoglycan). The plasma membrane has no carbohydrates and lacks sterol. The cytoplasm has no cytosketeton or cytoplasmic streaming. The ribosomes are a smaller size (70S), has a single circular chromosome.

19: Eukaryotes are typically 10-100 micrometers in diameter. It has a true nucleus, consisting of nuclear membrane & nucleoli. Membrane-enclosed organelles are present. The flagella is complex and consists of multiple microtubules. The glycocalyx is present in some cells that lacks a Cell Wall. When the Cell Wall is present, it is chemically simple. Sterols and carbohydrates that serve as receptors are present in the plasma membrane. It has a cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic streaming. The ribosomes are a larger size (80S). The chromosome (DNA) arrangement has multiple linear chromosomes with histones," Dr. Virchow rambled. Ishall yawned...

20: "Now on to similarities. Both have DNA as their genetic material (it’s DNA that tells cells what kind of cells they should be). Both are covered by a cell membrane. Both contain RNA. Both are made from the same basic chemicals: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, minerals, fats and vitamins. Both have ribosomes (the structures on which proteins are made). Both regulate the flow of the nutrients and wastes that enter and leave them. Both have similar basic metabolism (life processes) like photosynthesis and reproduction. Both require a supply of energy. Both are highly regulated by elaborate sensing systems ("chemical noses”) that make them aware of the reactions within them and the environment around them," Dr. Virchow continued, oblivious to the sleepy person beside him.

21: Suddenly, another Cell Pokemon appeared. "Oooh... That is the Cell Pokemon called Flagella. Ishall, scan her with your Pokedex," Dr. Virchow said. Fully awake at the mention of a new Pokemon, Ishall scanned it. "Flagella. Flagellum are tail-like projections from cell body. They are attached to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They help the cell move. They have specialized arrangement microtubules which help them function. Flagellum are anchored in the cell body." " I shall catch her and add her to my collection," said Dr. Virchow. "Not if I catch her first" said Ishall determinedly. " Go Pikachu!" said Dr. Virchow "Go Nucleus!" said Ishall. "Pikachu, use thunderbolt!" "Nucleus, use RNA Infusion!" The Thunderbolt hit Nucleus, and Nucleus fainted. "Go Chloroplast! Use Dig!" said Ishall. The Dig hit Pikachu and Pikachu flinched. "Finish him off, Chloroplast. Use Sugar Rush." The Pikachu was hit square in the chest and fainted instantly. | "Oh no, I don't have anymore Pokemon." Dr. Virchow cried. " I guess you can have the Flagella". Ishall threw the Cellball at the Flagella. Wiggle...wiggle...wiggle...CLICK....The Flagella was caught!

22: "YAY!!! I caught all the Cell Pokemon! Thank you for losing to me! I love you! You're AWESOME!!! It's time for me to go and tell Professor Oak," Ishall said, turning around, spotting an old man. "Not ANOTHER freakin' scientist! Why do they stalk me??" Ishall exclaimed, exasperatedly. "No, no my dear child. It is I, Professor Oak," the old man said, with his hands raised. "Thank goodness that it's you and not someone else..." Ishall said, looking around to see the scientists glaring at him. "I came here to tell you about plant and animal cells, but i see you found all the Cell Pokemon. Oh well, I'll tell you anyway!" Professor Oak said excitedly.

23: "Sure.." Ishall yawned. "Plant cells and animal cells share parts such as the Nucleus, Nucleolus, Rough ER, and Smooth ER, Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, and Lysosomes. A few things a plant cell has that a animal cell doesn’t have is Chromatin (DNA strands, also known as Chromosomes), Chloroplast, Central Vacuole, a Cell Wall, and a Nuclear Envelope," Professor Oak listed, as he counted on his fingers. Ishall fainted. He couldn't take more of this logical stuff that boggled his ten-year-old mind...

24: Epilogue... | KABOOM!! | * An asteroid hit the Earth and marked the end of the Pokemon Cell Adventures...

25: R.I.P. Ishall Ketchum and his wonderful Cell Pokemon (and Professor Oak and the scientists...)

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