BC: Made by Adrian & Jose
FC: Cell project!
1: Cell theory | The original two parts of the cell theory was thought out by two german scientists, Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, in 1839. Those two parts were: 1: Every living thing consists of cells, meaning that the cell is basically what makes up life. 2: A cell is a unit in our body, that performs functions necessary for life. Then in 1858, Rolf Virchow, after doing observations, stated that every new cell comes from an already existing cell, essentially writing the third part of the cell theory: 3: Every new cell come from preexisting cells
2: Robert Hooke: -English natural philosopher -He was the first person to observe cells (dead cork cells) -He saw them through a (simple) microscope -He saw a “compartment-like” structure in the cork, and thus, those compartments were called cells.
3: Matthias Schleiden: -Was a German botanist. Also, he was one of the founders of the Cell theory -One of the first scientist to accept the theory of Evolution -Studied plant structure under microscope -Wrote Contributions to Phytogenesis (1838), in which he stated that all the parts of a plant organism is made of cells.
4: Rudolph Ludwig Karl Virchow -Was a German Doctor. -He invented the third part of the cell theory, which states: All new cells come from preexisting cells. -Published the work Cellular Pathology, in which he stated that diseases, just like life, occurs deep down at a cellular level. -Named leukemia -Proved as an anthropologist, by studying craniometry, that racial purity in Europe had been long lost, and thus the theory that the Aryan race was superior was rendered invalid.
5: Theodor Schwann -Was a German physiologist -Had observed animal cells in the notochord -During a dinner with Schleiden, he realized that he had found similar structures in the notochord, to those Schleiden found in cork. -And so, they concluded that everything living, both plants and animals, had cells in it. -And the Cell theory was born!
6: Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes -Prokaryotes are typically 0.2-2.0 micrometers in diameter, while Eukaryotes typically are 10-100 micrometers in diameter. -Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus, while Eukaryotic cells does. -Prokaryotic cells are very primitive, they have no membrane bound organelles, and no nucleus. Also, they are typically unicellar. -Eukaryotic cells have, on the contrary, got membrane bound organelles, like mitochondria, chloroplast, golgi apparatus, Smooth and Rough ER, and others. -The structure of the flagella and cilla of prokaryotes and eukaryotes vary greatly.
7: Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells - Plant cells are shaped like a rectangle, while animal cells are more round and irregular in their shape. - Plant cells have chloroplasts (they make their own "food"), animal cells do not. - Animal cells do not have a cell wall, plant cells do. -In plant cells, vacuoles store water and maintain turgidity in the cell. In Animal cells, they are used to store water, ions and waste. -Also, in animal cells, there are one or more small vacuoles (smaller than plant cells). In contrast, plant cells have one big vacuole, taking up nearly 9/10 of the volume of the actual cell. -Both Animal and Plant cells are eukaryotic
8: Homeostasis - Homeostasis is, essentially, when an internal environment (same pH, temperature etc.) is constant (not changing). -The cell membrane helps maintain Homeostasis by using diffusion and osmosis. -When there is too much water inside of the cell, the cell uses osmosis to move some of that water out of the cell. When the cell has to little water inside of it, the opposite happens (osmosis is used to move water into the cell). - Diffusion is used, when there is too much, or too little, of a substance in a cell. When there is too much, the substances diffuse out through the cell membrane, and into the extracellular environment. When there is too little of the substance in the cell, the opposite happens.
9: Different Organelles - What do they do? Golgi Apparatus: Packages and sorts proteins, and ships them off. It is found in most Eukaryotic Cells. Mitochondria: It produces energy for the cell. Found in Eukaryotic cells. Chloroplast: Basically, it turns sunlight into food for plants. Found in plant cells. Lysosome: breaks down waste. Found in Animal Cells. Vacuole: used for storage, digestion and water removal. Usually, its big in plant cells, but smaller in animal cells.
10: Different Organelles - What do they do? Ribosomes: They make proteins. They are found in all types of cells. Nucleolus: The nucleolus is where ribosomes are made. It is found in Eukaryotic cells. Centriole: The Centriole is designed to help during cell division. It is found in Animal Cells. Nuclear Envelope: Helps keep the DNA inside the nucleus. Found in Eukaryotic cells. Cytoskeleton: Gives the cell its shape, holds organelles in place. Found in all cell types.
12: The Cell Membrane - What does it do for the cell? - It separates the inside of the cell from the outside of the cell. - It makes for a semi-permeable membrane, thus letting osmosis and diffusion occur. - Without it, the cell would not be able to mantain homeostasis, and thus, the cell would not be able to survive.