S: Cells created by Mindy Rolince and Aafia Akther
BC: The End | Merry Christmas and Happy New Years!!!
FC: Cells | Created By: Aafia Akther and Mindy Rolince
1: An Introduction to Cells | Robert Hooke discovered cells in 1655. The cell theory was developed in the mid 17th century by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It states that cells are the basic unit of life of all living things and that all cells come from preexisting cells. A cell is a microscopic structure that contains nuclear and cytoplasmic material. The two types of cells are prokaryotic and eukaryotic. | (Robert Hooke) A prokaryotic cell is a cell that doesn't have any organelles other than ribosomes and whose genetic material is found in a single continuous strand forming loops. A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains organelles in its cytoplasm, a nucleus that contains genetic material which is organized into chromosomes, and a system of division called mitosis and meiosis.
2: The Inside of a Cell | Nucleus: a mass of protoplasm found in most eukaryotic cells, directing growth, metabolism, and reproduction Cell Membrane: layer of fat and protein that surrounds cell; is semi-permeable Cilia: short hairlike projections from the plasma membrane that line the surfaces of cells Flagella: projections of plasma membrane that are longer than cilia and are one or two per cell | Cytoskeleton: a network of thin fibrous elements that contains microtibules (thin hollow cylinders of protein) and microfilaments (solid protein fibers) Golgi apparatus: series of stacked membranes that is formed from the ER Centrioles: a small cylindrical cell organelle located near the nucleus in most eukaryotic cells made up of microtibules | Cells contain organelles in order to function properly. Organelles are specialized parts of a cell having some specific function. -The nucleus is a mass of protoplasm found in most eukaryotic cells, directing growth, metabolism, reproduction and transfers genetic characteristics to all forms of life. -Nucleolus is round body inside the nucleus of a cell. -Cytoplasm is the substance between the cell membrane and nucleus, containing cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and other various particles. -Cytoskeleton is a shifting arrangement of structural components that functions as a support and transport system.
3: Animal Cells An animal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell. Some of its organelles are a nucleus, cell membrane, cilia, cytoskeleton, golgi apparatus and centrioles.
4: Plant Cells Plant cells are another type of eukaryotic cell. Some of their organelles are lysosomes, vacuoles, chloroplasts, mitochondria, chromosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum.
5: Lysosomes: is a type of vesicle; also called suicidal bags because they can kill the cell; contains digestive enzymes Vacuoles: a structure within a plant cell which is filled with fluid. Most plant cells have one vacuole that takes up most of the space Chloroplasts: a double-membraned (inner membrane is stacked into membranes called thylakoid) disk-shaped organelle that contains chlorophyll | Inside of a Cell cont. | Mitochondria: double-membraned organelle also called the powerhouse of the cell Chromosomes: made up of DNA and protein located in the nucleus of the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum: smooth and rough ER; network of interconnected compartments inside the cell Cell Wall: made up of multiple layers of cellulose and pectin
6: Bacteria Cell A prokaryotic cell that contains a cell wall, ribosomes, cytoplasm, flagellum, and DNA. There are no organelles or nucleus. Bacteria need a moist environment to survive.
7: Cell wall: made up of peptidoglycan also called murein Ribosomes: spherical structures freely floating in cytoplasm Cytoplasm: the fluid part of the cell that contains the structures in a cell Flagellum: large extensions of a plasma membrane that help a cell move DNA: coiled circular structure that is a single strand | Inside of a Cell Cont.
8: Nucleus: transfers genetic characteristics from one cell to the daughter cell Cell Membrane: controls what goes in and out of the cell Cilia: helps the cell with locomotion (movement) Flagella: also helps with locomotion Cytoskeleton: maintains cell shape and gives support to organelles Golgi apparatus: packs the vesicles with protein to send to various destinations | Centrioles: form spindle fibers that help in separation of chromosomes in mitosis Lysosomes: digest excess/worn out cell parts, food particles, and invading virus/bacteria Vacuoles: store food, enzymes and other materials; some also store waste products Chloroplasts: transform light energy into chemical energy; where photosynthesis takes place | Functions of Cell Organelles
9: Mitochondria: produces energy-storing molecules like ATP which is used cell respiration Chromosomes: carries genetic information for cell growth ER: provides surface area on which chemical reactions can take place, helps in lipid synthesis, and is the cell's delivery system Cell Wall: protects cell, gives shape and structure | Ribosomes: helps in protein synthesis Cytoplasm: where important biochemical reactions and protein assembly takes place DNA: stores genetic information | Functions of Cell Organelles Cont.
10: How Organelles Work Together | Every cell is capable of functioning like an individual organism. They can digest and excrete, multiply, move around, store excess food, transport proteins, have structure, respiration, and provide energy. DNA makes RNA in the nucleus, which goes into the cytoplasm, which ribosomes use to make proteins, which are transported by the ER and Golgi apparatus, to the rest of the cell organelles.
11: How Organelles Work Together Cont. | The energy for this is provided by the mitochondria. The cell membrane selectively allows nutrients to enter the cell which are digested by lysosomes and the excess food is stored in the vacuoles. Cells also need to reproduce, which is done by chromosomes. Chromosomes duplicate and are helped out by centrioles in animal cells. In plant cells, chloroplasts make chemical energy from light energy.
12: PLANT CELL - has cell wall - has chloroplasts - is an autotroph - has large vacuole - has chlorophyll - rectangular shape - nuclear is located in corner - larger than animal cell - are in plants - gets food from sunlight and water | ANIMAL CELL - is a heterotroph - has small vacuole - has centrioles - nucleus is located in center - spherical or disk shape - are in animals - depend on other organisms for food
13: SIMILARITIES - have cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane, ER lysosomes, golgi body, nucleus, mitochondria, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, eukaryotic, flagella, cilia - eukaryotes | Animal Cell
14: PROKARYOTIC CELL - primitive cells with no membrane bound organelles - bacteria - do not have true nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, Golgi body, nucleolus, chromosomes, or lysosomes - mostly unicellular - only asexual reproduction | EUKARYOTIC CELL - well organized membrane bound organelles - have true nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, Golgi body, nucleolus, chromosomes and lysosomes - mostly multicellular - asexual and sexual reproduction
15: SIMILARITIES - both can have cell wall - functions are similar - photosynthesis - respiration - cell division - protein synthesis | eukaryote | prokaryote
16: References 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_cell#Animal_cell 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_cells 3.http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/ 4. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/ 5. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/bacterium/ 6. http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_chromosome.html 7. Biology: The Dynamics of Life textbook by Glencoe
17: Mychonny who inspired us to live our lives the fullest, and Aafia's mother for being awesome and helping us out. -Mindy Rolince and Aafia Akther | We would like to give a special thanks to Mr. Blatnica for giving us a 100% A+