S: What are CELLS? By: Brandon Sours and Spencer Schultz
BC: Cells are probably the greatest discovery ever made by mankind. If cells were not discovered many people today would be dying of all sorts of diseases and viruses that no one would have ever heard of.The discovery of cells have caused scientists to expand our knowledge of the past, and to help mankind to understand how so little organisms can do so much in our lives. | What about Cells?
FC: What are CELLS?
1: History | Beginning | bacteria cells showed up 2.7-2.9 billion years ago | Robert C. Hooke discovered the cell | Antoni Von Leeunwenhoek discovers the cell nucleus | Robert Brown names the nucleus | 1653 | 1682 | 1831
2: Animal | Bacteria | Types of Cells | Plant | First cells on Earth | Photosynthesis occurs inside the cell and the cell is stacked like a wall | NO cell wall, greater diversity of cell types, tissues, and organs.
3: Red Blood | White Blood | help fight against viruses | They deliver oxygen to the body
4: Chromosome | Cell Membrane | DNA | a very thin membrane, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell | A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of animal and plant cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information | the molecular basis of heredity and is constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds
5: Mitochondria | an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production | Nucleus | a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genetic characters
6: Endoplasmic Reticulum | Cilia | Flagella | network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, involved in the transport of materials | a long, lash like tail that helps move the cell | minute hair like organelles, identical in structure to flagella that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves
7: Chloroplast | Centrioles | Cell Wall | the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells | a small, cylindrical cell organelle that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis | a plastid containing chlorophyll
8: Vacuoles | Cytoskeleton | Cytoplasm | arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism | a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion, a minute cavity or vesicle in organic tissue | the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles
9: Lysosomes | Golgi Apparatus | Ribosomes | a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death | an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell | a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula
10: Both in living things Eukaryotes Both contain Chromosomes Both contain Cytoplasm Cells Membranes Goes through osmosis | Plant- cell wall made of cellulose allow high pressure to build up Animal- no cell wall too much pressure will cause it to explode | Differences | Similarities | Similarities and Differences of Plant and Animal cells
11: Eukaryotes Animal and Plant cells single and multicellular organisms nucleus chromosomes | Prokaryotes no nucleus they have one circular molecule of DNA that holds all of their genetic information DNA is not gathered into chromosomes | Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
12: Functions of Organelles in the Cells | Plant | Cell wall- Protects the inside of the plant cell Chloroplasts - can photosynthesize, or make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy Endoplasmic Reticulum- manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell/ connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Golgi Apparatus-the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products Microfilaments-solid rods made of actin/important component of the cytoskeleton Microtubules- transportation and structural support Mitochondria- break down carbohydrate and sugar molecules to provide energy when light isn't available to produce energy Nucleus- information processing and administrative center of the cell/two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction Peroxisomes-found in the cytoplasm/rough, spherical, and bound by a single membrane Plasmodesmata-small tubes that connect plant cells to each other Plasma Membrane- protects contents of the cells Ribosomes- tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein Vacuole- stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant
13: Functions of Organelles in the Cells | Animal | Centrioles - self-replicating organelles/found only in animal cells/help in organizing cell division Cilia and Flagella -cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms/cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells Endoplasmic Reticulum - network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell/connected to the double layered nuclear envelope providing a connection between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Golgi Apparatus - distributes and ships the cell's chemical products/modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell Lysosomes - main function is digestion/break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials Microfilaments - solid rods made of actin/important component of the cytoskeleton
14: Microtubules -straight, hollow cylinders composed of tubulin protein/found throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and transport and support the structure Mitochondria -found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell/they are the main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy Nucleus - the information and administrative center of the cell Peroxisomes -found in the cytoplasm, rough, spherical and bound by a single membrane. Plasma Membrane-only the membrane to contain and protect their contents,membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells Ribosomes - composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein/In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA | Animal | Functions of Organelles in the Cells
19: References | Dictionary.com | http://www.purchon.com/biology/cells.htm | Yahoo.com | http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html | http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/zoology/animalphysiology/anatomy/animalcellstructure/animalcellstructure.htm