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Cells - Page Text Content

S: Cells Mixbook! By: Kayleigh Berendt and Marina Honkala

FC: Cells Mixbook! | By: Kayleigh Berendt and Marina Honkala

1: Robert Hooke discovered cells while looking at a sample of cork through a microscope in 1665. He thought they looked like the rooms monks stayed in and thats how they got their name.

3: Animal Cell Description | Animal Cells are all built with a similar setup. The nucleus contain the genetic material of the cell. The nuclear membrane is surrounded by pores that are important in controlling the exchange of substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains many organelles, the most important being the mitochondria because they are responsible for energy production. Scattered in the cytoplasm are several multi-layered membrane systems: the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus.

4: The plant cell has 3 basic parts: the cell wall, plastids, and the central vacuole.

5: The Cell Wall Rigid layer, lies outside cells plasma membrane Pores allow, water, ions, certain molecules to enter/exit cell Secondary wall in some plants, secreted between primary and membrane | Central Vacuole Large, fluid filled organelle, stores water, enzymes, metabolic wastes, and other materials Forms from smaller vacuoles fusing together Makes up 90% of volume Pushes other organelles to the side | Plastids Surrounded by double membrane, contain own DNA Chloroplasts – use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide & water, contains thylakoids containing chlorophyll Chromoplasts – contain colorful pigments that may or may not take part in photosynthesis Amyloplasts – store starch Chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts arise from common precursor, called proplastid

6: Bacterial Cells | Bacteria Cells are prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells have a simpler setup then Eukaryotic cells because they don't have a nucleus. Bacterial cells have two major parts, the cytoplasm and cell envelope. They may also have exterior appendages, such as flagella. Bacterial cells grow by a process called binary fission: One cell doubles in size and splits in half to produce two identical daughter cells.These daughter cells can then double in size again to produce four sibling cells and these to produce eight, and so on.

8: The organelles in a cell work together much like a body system does. The organelles are like the organs, they are the basic structures of the system. Each organelle has a function. Examples include the membrane protects the cell and the nucleus holds all the genetic material of the cell and is also like the control system.

9: Comparing and Contrasting Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells | Prokaryotic cells have been around longer, lack a nucleus, their genetic material is open in the cytoplasm and reproduce by binary fission. Eukaryotic cells have nucleus' which contains their genetic material (DNA) and can reproduce by either meiosis or binary fission. | Comparing and Contrasting Animal and Plant Cells | Animals Cells have nucleus' and are Eukaryotic and only has cell membrane. Some animal cells can contain flagella and there are lymosomes in the cytoplasm. It has one or more small vacuoles. Plant Cells also have a nucleus and has one large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume. Unlike the animal cell it has a cell wall.

10: Key Terms | Mitochondria- an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production Nucleus- the control center of a cell. It holds all the genetic material of a cell that allows it to progress and grow. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that is the main constituent of the chromosomes of all organisms chromosome- any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order cell membrane- the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell. cell wall- the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells, as a plant cell. flagella- a long, lash-like appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa, sperm cells cilia- minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals. chloroplast- a plastid containing chlorophyll. centrioles- a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell divides: identical in internal structure to a basal body. endoplasmic reticulum- a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface

11: vacuoles- a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion. cytoskeleton- a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism. cytoplasm- the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles. lysosomes- a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death. golgi apparatus- an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell. ribosomes- a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture. REFERANCE-

12: Blood Cells Platelets stop the loss of blood from wounds by clotting. Red Blood Cells provides oxygen to tissues and Plasma works with platelets to form scabs so don't bleed to death.

13: Reference Page |

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  • By: Kayleigh B.
  • Joined: over 7 years ago
  • Published Mixbooks: 0
  • Default User
    • By: Marina H.
    • Contributions: 5 photos , 11 pages

About This Mixbook

  • Title: Cells
  • All about cells (:
  • Tags: None
  • Started: over 7 years ago
  • Updated: over 7 years ago