FC: All About Cells!
1: Cell Theory: Cell Theory consists of three principles: 1. All living things are made up of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. 3. All cells arise from existing cells
2: Contributions of Scientists: The three scientists given credit for developing the cell theory are Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow. The fourth scientist that is usually not given credit is Robert Hooke. He discovered and named the cell in 1665. Schwann and Schleiden discovered the first two parts of the cell theory in 1839. In 1858, Virchow completed the cell theory.
3: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Prokaryotic: These cells don't have a membrane-bound nucleus and their DNA is in a plasmid.. Example- Bacteria Eukaryotic: They have a nucleus and their DNA is found in a nucleolus. Example- Pollen
4: Plant vs. Animal Cells: Plant cells: Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts. They usually have very large vacuoles. Example: Parenchyma Animal cells: Animal cells don't have a cell wall, but they have a cell membrane. They also don't consist of chloroplast. Aninal cells usually don't have vacuoles,but if they do, they are very small.. Example: Liver cell
5: The Ten Cell Structures: Chloroplast: It is found in plant cells and they contain the chlorophyll.
6: Ten Cell Structures Ribosome: The ribosome makes proteins that are exported or included in the cell's membranes. It is found in both plant and animal cells.
7: Ten Cell Structures Lysosome: A lysosome is found in animal cells and they break down waste materials and cellular debris.
8: Flagella A flagella helps with the movement of the cell. They are found in both plant and animal cells.
9: Mitochondria Mitochondria convert energy usable for the cell. They also take part in cell division, growth, and death. They are found in both plant and animal cells.
10: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is found in both plant and animal cells. It breaks down toxic substances and makes lipids for the cell.
11: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum stores materials and minerals for the body, provide internal storage to support cell's shape, and form internal network. It's found in both plant and animal cells.
12: Cell Wall The cell wall provides support to the cell. They are found in plant cells.
13: Central Vacuole The central vacuole is found in both plant and animal cells. It stores water and nutrients the cell might need.
14: Golgi Apparatus The golgi apparatus helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell. It is located in both plant and animal cells.
15: Cell Membrane The cell membrane separates the cell interior from its surroundings. It regulates what enters and leaves the cell. It consists of a double layer of phospholipids. It consists of many proteins that are vital to cells.
16: Homeostasis Homeostasis is the state of equilibrium in the body. The cells uses the cell membrane to maintain homeostasis through the diffusion and osmosis. Diffusion occurs when there is too much substance in the cell. The cell moves this extra substance to the outside of the cell through the cell membrane. The opposite occurs when there is too little substance in the cell. This is called the process of osmosis. The cell takes in water from the outside to fill the inside of the cell. The cell membrane can move water in and out.